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Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learners

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Information about Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learners

Published on April 29, 2008

Author: bdodge

Source: slideshare.net

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Decision-Making: A Necessary and Neglected Skill for 21st Century LearningDescription: The world is filled with problems to be solved and decisions to be made. The curriculum, typically, is not. Too often schools present the world as a mass of facts and concepts to be remembered rather than as an arena in which to apply what's being learned. Thanks to the internet, schools now have access to current dilemmas and choices facing humanity in every discipline.  How can you create a more active learning environment by finding opportunities for students to practice decision making in math, social studies, even English?  Some decision-making techniques scaled down from the corporate world will be presented as ways to engage your learners more deeply.
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Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learning Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University

 

 

 

 

Summarize Design Decide Create Predict

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Adult life is full of decisions

Max Planck Society – April 14, 2008

Decisions we allow kids to make Which book would you like to do your report on? Do you want to be the record-keeper, the spokesperson or the artist? Color the sky with whatever crayon you like

Which book would you like to do your report on?

Do you want to be the record-keeper, the spokesperson or the artist?

Color the sky with whatever crayon you like

A decision I have to make…

 

First…. Ask yourself, when do adults need to apply this content?

Ask yourself, when do adults need to apply this content?

Second… Look for (or create) disequilibrium

Look for (or create) disequilibrium

Strategy 1: Create an Opportunity Identify (or make up) an opportunity for action that requires choosing from among alternatives .

Identify (or make up) an opportunity for action that requires choosing from among alternatives .

Strategy 2: Recommend a Solution Identify a real problem over which there is strong disagreement and decide on what to recommend .

Identify a real problem over which there is strong disagreement and decide on what to recommend .

Strategy 3: Change the Situation Change the situation to create new problems that someone needs to decide how to respond to .

Change the situation to create new problems that someone needs to decide how to respond to .

Create an Opportunity

Create an Opportunity

Create an Opportunity

Recommend a Solution

Change the Situation

To summarize, look for one of these: Opportunity for improvement Responding to an existing problem Responding to a new situation … and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn.

Opportunity for improvement

Responding to an existing problem

Responding to a new situation

… and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn.

 

 

Teaching decision-making skills Should occur in context, not isolation Should provide reusable techniques Ultimately should be internalized by repeated practice

Should occur in context, not isolation

Should provide reusable techniques

Ultimately should be internalized by repeated practice

PMI Technique Make a list of aspects of the choice to be made. Mark each one as Plus, Minus or Interesting Optionally, put a number from 1 to 10 to indicate how important each aspect is Total up the number of items in each column http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_05.htm

Make a list of aspects of the choice to be made.

Mark each one as Plus, Minus or Interesting

Optionally, put a number from 1 to 10 to indicate how important each aspect is

Total up the number of items in each column

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately

Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one (+5) Won’t be ready for Spring Break (-3) Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper (+7) It may break again in 18 months or less (-4) We could get a new one immediately (-4) 12 -11

Another technique: Decision Trees Useful for decisions more complicated than yes/no. Breaks down big decisions into a series of smaller ones. Allows you to evaluate the end points to see which path is best.

Useful for decisions more complicated than yes/no.

Breaks down big decisions into a series of smaller ones.

Allows you to evaluate the end points to see which path is best.

Bernie’s Plasma Decision Tree $1800 $2400 $800 7/10 10/10 10/10

Other Techniques to Try Pareto Analysis Grid Analysis Force Field Analysis

Pareto Analysis

Grid Analysis

Force Field Analysis

A Great Resource http:// www.mindtools.com

A practice problem…

A practice problem…

 

What shall we do? First, count off by 6’s.

First, count off by 6’s.

6 Thinking Hats

1. Blue Hat Hat worn by people chairing meetings. Pays attention to the process and directs the other hats to pitch in

Hat worn by people chairing meetings.

Pays attention to the process and directs the other hats to pitch in

2. White Hat focus on the data available. look at the information you have, and see look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them.

focus on the data available.

look at the information you have, and see

look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them.

3. Green Hat stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem. freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas.

stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem.

freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas.

4. Red Hat looks at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. tries to think how other people will react emotionally. tries to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning.

looks at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion.

tries to think how other people will react emotionally.

tries to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning.

5. Yellow Hat the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult.

the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it.

helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult.

6. Black Hat looks at all the bad points of the decision. tries to see why it might not work. highlights the weak points in a plan.

looks at all the bad points of the decision.

tries to see why it might not work.

highlights the weak points in a plan.

You have 7 minutes to decide on what we should do

You have 7 minutes to decide on what we should do

Time’s up!

Time’s up!

In conclusion… Look for decisions your kids can make as part of learning what they need to learn Create an opportunity Recommend a solution to an existing problem Change the situation Scaffold that decision-making experience by providing techniques that they can use outside of class PMI Decision trees Six Thinking Hats

Look for decisions your kids can make as part of learning what they need to learn

Create an opportunity

Recommend a solution to an existing problem

Change the situation

Scaffold that decision-making experience by providing techniques that they can use outside of class

PMI

Decision trees

Six Thinking Hats

Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learning Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University

 

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