DeBolt and Shaw SRM presentation

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Published on December 11, 2007

Author: Haralda

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Biscuitroot, Beardtongue, Buckwheat and Beyond:  Biscuitroot, Beardtongue, Buckwheat and Beyond Ann DeBolt and Nancy L. Shaw USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, Boise, ID Greg H. Lowry Idaho Crop Improvement Association USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project :  USDA-FS Rocky Mountain Research Station Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project Supported by: USDI BLM Great Basin Restoration and Native Plant Initiatives Objective: Increase seed supplies of native plant species, particularly forbs, for the Great Basin The Great Basin:  (Cronquist et al. 1972) The Great Basin BLM 75 million acres FS 20 million acres Slide4:  RMRS - Boise Penstemon - BEARDTONGUE P. acuminatus – sand P. deustus – scabland P. speciosus – sagebrush Lomatium - BISCUITROOT L. dissectum - fernleaf L. grayi - Gray’s L. triternatum – nineleaf Eriogonum – BUCKWHEAT E. umbellatum – sulfur Slide5:  Penstemon - BEARDTONGUE 3rd largest genus in Intermountain region (Scrophulariaceae) Approx. 250 species Showy tubular flowers 4 fertile stamens & 1 bearded stamen (“beardtongue”) Common forb in rangelands Insect pollinated, particularly bees Wildlife forage Slide6:  Cultivated for many years Generally easy to grow, harvest, and manage Seed production by 2nd year, earlier than some forbs Seed dormancy; sow in fall for cold stratification Seed easily cleaned to a purity of 90+ percent 225,000 – 500,000+ seeds/lb Can be seeded in mixtures with most other herbs Will hybridize Cultural Practices Slide7:  Penstemon acuminatus Sand penstemon Sandy soils at low elevations (650-1400 m) Short-lived perennial (2-6 dm) Flowers pale blue (April, May) Capsules open soon after ripening (550,000/lb) Slide8:  Penstemon speciosus (Sagebrush penstemon) Distribution, Habitat, and Collection Sites Loamy soils from 1200-3300 m Short-lived perennial (4 dm) Wide-ranging species Blue-violet flowers (May-June) Capsules retain seed longer than previous sp. (508,000/lb) Slide9:  Penstemon deustus Scabland or hot-rock penstemon Variable sites and habitats, often rocky (800-2,550 m) Perennial with woody base (4 dm) Small white flowers (May, June) Wide ecological amplitude; 2 vars. in Intermountain Region Capsules remain closed at maturity (2,900,000/lb) Slide10:  RESULTS Common gardens in ID, OR, NV - 2003-2006 Well drained soils essential due to damping off Developed TZ testing, cleaning protocols Slide11:  Long stratification required: deustus 10% acuminatus 14% with 12 week treatment speciosus 33% Dormancy related to environmental conditions GA3 reduces dormancy P. deustus more responsive to GA3 than P. acuminatus Pollinators not limited Slide12:  Lomatium spp. L. dissectum Fernleaf biscuitroot L. grayi Gray’s biscuitroot L. triternatum Nineleaf biscuitroot Slide13:  70 species in west/central N. America (Apiaceae) Perennial herb, taproot often highly thickened Individual flowers small, united in umbel Flowers yellow (white); early spring growth Pollinators - solitary bees Common forb in rangelands High forage value Lomatium - BISCUITROOT Slide14:  Cultural Practices Still learning how to grow & manage for seed production Large seed, easily harvested, easily cleaned w/uniform ripening* 30,000-50,000 seeds/lb Early phenology - short irrigation season Seed dormancy; sow in fall for cold stratification Hybridization uncommon Slide15:  Lomatium dissectum Fernleaf biscuitroot Large perennial (1.5 m) with large, thickened woody taproot Widespread on variable soils, medium to coarse 700-2600 m Leaves dissected Yellow (purple) flowers; early phenology (April-May) Slide16:  Lomatium grayi Gray’s biscuitroot Rocky sites to moderately heavy soils 700-2800 m Strong, parsley-like odor; fly pollinated Highly dissected leaves (100s-1000s segments) Yellow flowers (April, early May) Harvest seed May/June Slide17:  Lomatium triternatum Nineleaf biscuitroot Highly variable soils (600-2700 m) Perennial w/elongate, slightly thickened taproot Leaves with minimal dissection Yellow flowers (April) Harvest seed (May/June) Slide18:  RESULTS Common garden seeded – fall 2004 Developed TZ testing, cleaning protocols – easily cleaned Seed ripening - L. grayi < L. triternatum < L. dissectum Early dormancy – no water after dormant Susceptible to aphids in greenhouse Long stratification required – immature embryos responsible Good seed production by 2nd year Slide19:  Eriogonum - BUCKWHEAT 150 species, chiefly in the W. U.S. (Polygonaceae) > 50 species in UT; many endemics Annual, perennial forb, or subshrub Flowers small, simple to compoundly umbellate (white, cream, yellow, or pink) Common rangeland plant Important nectar source for bees Slide20:  Moderate to well-drained soil Seed is a 3-angled achene (120,000 – 145,000 seeds/lb) Easy to collect and clean to 90% purity Seed matures August/September At least 2 species have been grown for landscaping Pollinated by bees, wasps, flies Ripening uniformity Seed predators Cultural Practices Eriogonum umbellatum Sulfur buckwheat:  Eriogonum umbellatum Sulfur buckwheat Common, widespread species with numerous varieties 500-3100 m on variable soil types Yellow flowers – July/August; Harvest – August/Sept. Pollinators various - bees, wasps, flies, others Erigonum umbellatum collection sites:  Erigonum umbellatum collection sites Still in the seed collection phase Common gardens – 2005/2006 Germination studies A prolific spreader from seed Seed quality and insect predators are problematic BEYOND? :  BEYOND? Cooperative Native Seed Increase Program To accelerate development of native forb seed supplies, RMRS is collaborating with AOSCA & State Foundation Seed agencies in the GB to facilitate seed distribution to private growers. Slide24:  Multi-state, multi-agency effort - facilitates collaboration across state lines with a greater number of species Coordinate w/BLM to identify forb species & populations Coordinate w/State Foundation Seed Agencies to distribute seeds to interested growers Slide25:  SEED INCREASE PROGRAMS Cooperative Native Seed Increase Program (RMRS coordinates with BLM on identification of plant materials for increase and w/AOSCA for program admin) Buy-back Program (RMRS coordinates w/UCIA in Logan, UT for seed increase of plant materials generated by the Great Basin Native Plant Project) Slide26:  Ann DeBolt adebolt@fs.fed.us Nancy Shaw nshaw@fs.fed.us Greg H. Lowry ghlowry@aol.com

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