De castro mekelle university 2014

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Information about De castro mekelle university 2014
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Published on March 6, 2014

Author: paodecas

Source: slideshare.net

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Scientific communication. Easy when you know how.
Mekelle University.
CASA project. Proposal for a training course within the CASA project (Cohort of African people starting antiretroviral therapy)

SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION C . A . S. A . Easy when you know how Paola De Castro Head of the Publishing Unit Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy) Council Member European Association of Science Editors Mekelle University, January 25, 2014 1 CASA project scientific communication

Initial inspirational quote from Nelson Mandela FOCUS ON EDUCATION “ Mr Mandela had a leadership role in making HIV/AIDS in sub Saharan Africa an issue that the world could no longer ignore. His speech at the International AIDS Conference in Durban in 2000 changed the course of the epidemic … 2 CASA project ” scientific communication

PREMISE TEACHING & LEARNING are strictly connected My experience Publishing Unit National Institute of Health Istituto Superiore di Sanità Your experience different backgrounds Mekelle University, Tigray Health Bureau, hospitals, health facilities C . A . S. A . new knowledge to improve public health 3 CASA project scientific communication

Basic topics and training program FOCUS ON the strategic role of scientific communication as added value to the CASA project TWO PARTS A B 4 Provide basic information on scientific communication  create awareness on the topics to be included in a training program Present a modular training program on scientific communication  describe modules, explain methodology, schedule future activities CASA project scientific communication

Part A Basic information on scientific communication 3 Assumptions • Relevance • Target and types • Rules and best practices 5 CASA project scientific communication

COMMUNICATION PROCESS Basic elements CHANNEL Code Sender MESSAGE Receiver Feedback noise Communication is sharing, not just providing information! Keep it in mind to understand possible barriers 6 CASA project scientific communication

ASSUMPTION 1 Relevance Communication is an important part of RESEARCH ACTIVITY WHY? Look for possible answers in the following slides 7 CASA project scientific communication

WHY is scientific communication RELEVANT FOR YOU? Suggestions  Progress is always based on previous work  Scientists have a responsibility for communicating research results  Patients need to be informed  All stakeholders (policy makers, general public) should be aware of the value of scientific research  Health is a common good  We live in a “global” world 8 CASA project scientific communication

Responsibility of science communication For all people working in Research and Development Information transfer is an ESSENTIAL part of their work It is a responsibility that must be recognised and undertaken with the same commitment and professionality as all the other science-related activities. 9 CASA project scientific communication

It is important to share information at different levels, to different stakeholders, in a global health perspective. Health knowledge can often mean the difference between life and death Each year, around 9 million children die from preventable and treatable illnesses The handbook produced by UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO provides vital messages and information for mothers, fathers, other family members, caregivers and communities 10 CASA project scientific communication

Internet provides tools We are aware of the “digital divide” BUT even when Internet is available it is important to know • where to find such tools • how to recognize quality information • how to use it A cultural change is still required and it is associated with the capacity to use resources provided by information technologies and to produce new and useful online resources 11 CASA project scientific communication

New trends: BE OPEN! WHAT DOES IT MEAN?         Open sharing of research activity Open online information Open Access journals Open peer-review Open data sharing Open to patients/society Open in disclosure conflicts of interest Open online courses (MOOCs) A NEW STATE OF MIND 12 CASA project scientific communication

OA is a philosophy and not an archive OA routes 10,000 OA OA journals (gold) Digital archives (green) CREATE AWARENESS among all stakeholders 13 CASA project 2200 listings scientific communication

Role of scientific journals Despite the changes introduced by the Internet in communication, scientific journals still represent the most widely recognized means for communicating research results of among peers. Scientific journals: 14 CASA project • represent the dynamic memory of science (started in 1660) • rely on a consolidated know-how and editorial structure • guarantee quality control, dissemination, indexing and impact evaluation of published articles. scientific communication

BACKGROUND INFORMATION on scientifc knowledge dissemination through centuries Rise & development of scientific journals If you are not interested , skip to slide 31 15 CASA project scientific communication

How does knowledge transmission change through the centuries? The big revolutions Orality Oral memory within a community Writing First graffiti Hieroglyphs Alphabeth 35,000 years ago 3,200 BC 1,000 BC Symbols = concepts syllables Printing Internet 16 China 1050, Gutenberg 1450 Internet 1974 – 1990 Web – Google 1995 CASA project scientific communication

The Bible, 1456 The Comedy, 1491 First book printed in Magonza by Gutenberg by Dante Alighieri 180 copies 36 x 29 cm 180 copies 36 x 29 cm Texts have already a defined structure Print diffusion Millions of copies printed in few years (commentaries by Cristoforo Landino) Page numbering and italic were introduced by Aldo Manunzio in 1501 17 CASA project scientific communication

SCIENTIFIC JOURNALS rise in the 17th century in the academies Before, philosophers communicated through philosophical dissertations & letters Journal des Scavans Philosophical Transactions First journal, published in Paris 1665 Royal Society of London, 1666 OBJECTIVE Present the most relevant European scientific papers 18 CASA project OBJECTIVES Inform the Royal Society members and other readers about scientific discoveries Establish principles scientific priority and peer review scientific communication

Scientific journals develop since the 18th century WHO is the publisher? still today they represent the preferred channel to disseminate scientific research results In the centuries, science becomes more specialized  Scientific societies  Universities  Governmental agencies  Scientific institutions  Profesional associations the publishing enterprise develops Journal “shape” keeps unchanged until the Internet revolution 19 CASA project The book shape has an influence on the way of thinking  Sequential reading  Texts and illustrations  Text structure  Paratextual elements scientific communication

The article of the future 5 minute video by Elsevier It shows the advantages of enriched articles including supplementary information interactive content. It provides true immersion in the contest of the subject matter. Data are linked to databases providing the most updated information It proves a positive correlation among data sharing, citations and impact. 20 CASA project scientific communication

TODAY INTERNET allows new ways of communication Journals (and books) change their shape New ways are developed • Blogs • Discussion lists • Wikis • Online answers • Social networks • Collective conversations All this deeply affects scientific communication 21 CASA project scientific communication

Internet changes economic models & allows new metrics Publishers are looking for new opportunities Journal PRICES grow exponentially Authors become aware of the new opportunities provided by ICT & start NEGOTIATE THEIR RIGHTS (self archiving is now recognised by most publishers) Online free full text is generally required & also the availability of RESEARCH DATA is desired New EVALUATION METRICS are introduced as alternative to IF, e.g. H index (individual research output) OA journals utilizing FREE SOFTWARE are developed There is CONFUSION on the roles of the actors of the editorial process and some contraddictions 22 CASA project scientific communication

Publications in the world (2008=986.099) United States European Union China Japan Russia Latin America Africa 28% 37% 10% 8% 7% 4.9% 2.2% USA & EU are still the world leaders as for the absolute number of scientific publications. Yet, their percentage share of publications decreased much more then any other country in the last 6 years. On the other hand, China doubled its publications (10%). Considering the size of Asian population it is envisaged that it will become the leader continent as for publication output in the coming years. due primarily to Brasil with 25% increase in the last 6 years UNESCO, Science report 2010 – Based on ISI data Data refer to 2008, now the situation is rapidly changing 23 CASA project scientific communication

Citation increase in OA journals Open access citation average. A. Swan http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/18516/2/Citation_advantage_paper.pdf 24 CASA project scientific communication

OPEN ACCESS a new paradigm of communication Basic concepts from the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities (2003)  Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the information is not made widely and readily available to society.  New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported.  We define open access as a comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that has been approved by the scientific community.  In order to realize the vision of a global and accessible representation of knowledge, the future Web has to be sustainable, interactive, and transparent. Content and software tools must be openly accessible and compatible. 25 P. De Castro • Scientific Communication • CASA project - Ethiopia, January 2014 CASA project scientific communication

… it requires the active commitment of each and every individual producer of scientific knowledge and holder of cultural heritage. Open access contributions include original scientific research results, raw data and metadata, source materials, digital representations of pictorial and graphical materials and scholarly multimedia material. 26 P. De Castro • Scientific Communication • CASA project - Ethiopia, January 2014 CASA project scientific communication

Open Journal Systems Free software for online journal management Over 11,500 journals 27 P. De Castro • Scientific Communication • CASA project - Ethiopia, January 2014 CASA project scientific communication

Development of OA policies In 2007, ISS signed an OA policy (the first health research institute in Italy with an OA policy) In 2013, ISS signed a Position paper supporting Open Access to research data 28 CASA project scientific communication

OA, a moral imperative National and international institutions and funding organizations support OA to research information and data Issue policies and recommendations with varying embargo periods • • • • • • 29 NIH European Commission Wellcome trust Telethon Italian research institutes ….. P. De Castro • Scientific Communication • CASA project - Ethiopia, January 2014 CASA project scientific communication

December 2013 European Commission Open up publicly funded research data 30 CASA project scientific communication

ASSUMPTION 2 Target & types It is important to select the most appropriate communication tool according to target and context WHY? Look for possible answers in the following slides 31 CASA project scientific communication

Different targets, objectives & types of scientific communication target PEERS LAY PEOPLE researchers, medical & technical staff objective type 32 share research results, progress in research, contribute to debate  journal articles  technical reports  oral communications or posters in conferences or workshops  abstracts and proceedings  social media  etc. CASA project patients, families, policy makers, community health workers, vendors, etc. change behaviour, improve life style, access to therapy, increase retention        oral communications leaflets, bookmarks, posters audiovisuals workshops, informal meetings e-health communication social media etc. scientific communication

GENERAL ADVICE for researchers TIPS FROM EXPERIENCE    Plan your work in advance Select the best type of communication (target, objective, context) Consider time and resources available     Define authorship & responsibilities (collaborators) Consider previous work (bibliographic search) Follow instructions to authors (if available) Produce a first draft    Revise the draft, seek advice, share, test the product Submit for publication (peer review process) Approve final draft  33 CASA project Disseminate (online, print, share, talk, link, etc.) scientific communication

Value of scientific journals Considering readers’ requirements QUESTIONS WRITE A USEFUL ARTICLE to contribute to the progress of science Which information needs shall I meet? Are there other publications on the same topic? Are they up-dated? Are they useful? Are they easily available? Are they free on the Internet? • • • • • WHY write an article? WHERE to publish it? WITH whom? HOW much time? WHICH budget? In some cases, national journals or books may be more appropriate 34 CASA project scientific communication

Value of scientific journals Considering authors’ requirements PUBLISH IN QUALITY JOURNALS (IF) to obtain the highest evaluation QUESTIONS (grants, career advancement) 35 HOW TO SELECT THE JOURNAL? • Indexed journals (IF) • Journals where important authors publish • High rejection rate journals • Journals which I read for updating CASA project WHAT TO CONSIDER? • Where is the journal indexed • Editorial committee • Editorial organization (policy) (peer review, time) • Online availability • Copyright issues… scientific communication

AUTHORSHIP & INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY 1953 Watson e Crick published an article on DNA which is very famous and well known all over the world … and what about Rosalind Franklin? Watson J D, Crick FHC. Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleid acid. Nature 1953; 171: 737-738.c 36 CASA project scientific communication

ASSUMPTION 3 Rules & best practices It is important to know standards, guidelines and tradition WHY? Look for possible answers in the following slides 37 CASA project scientific communication

Actors of the EDITORIAL PROCESS authors editors publishers readers • Referees • Technical editors • Translators • Graphic designers • Photographers • Printers • Web masters • Librarians • Information specialists Be aware of the role of each actor in the process to be able to understand it and comply with their requirements 38 CASA project scientific communication

RESPONSIBILITIES To be pointed out in CASA training program AUTHORS • • • • • • Develop useful contents Select the appropriate document type Read instructions to authors Provide all information required by editors Do not cheat etc. EDITORS • • • • • • 39 Organize and validate information Garantee publication integrity Create useful journals Write instructions for authors Specify steps of the editorial process etc. CASA project REFEREES • • • • • Guarantee quality of published papers Declare conflicts of interest Comply with schedules Respect privacy and confidentiality etc. scientific communication

SCIENTIFIC EDITING inside an editorial office Receiving manuscripts First evaluation by editor in chief Peer review (reviewers/authors, reviewers, editor) Editor in chief (acceptance/modification/ rejection) Scientific editing – graphics (correction of drafts) Receiving proofs Article final copy Complete issue (including all articles) Blueprint Online dissemination Print 40 CASA project scientific communication

WRITING A JOURNAL ARTICLE a challenge between tradition and innovation WARNING! BE AWARE OF EDITORIAL RULES AND BEST PRACTICES 1. 2. 3. evaluate scientific content and target be familiar with technical requirements be familiar with the publication ethics FORMATS OF SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES 41 CASA project scientific communication

Instructions to authors for over 6,000 journals in the health and life sciences INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS First and last step for article writing. Submit to the right journal! Follow instructions! 42 CASA project scientific communication

IMRAD structure Introduction Background information State specific purpose of the study Limit references Do not include data or conclusions Material and methods Describe (patients, animals, etc.) Define material and equipment Illustrate procedures Compare with other methods 43 CASA project Results Show results in logical order Point out only relevant data And Discussion and conclusions Stress only new aspects Do not repeat what was written in the methods Avoid conclusions which are not associated to reliable data scientific communication

REVISION: different levels of responsibility 1. AUTHORS’ REVISION before submission • read instructions to authors • read again after some time (one-two days) • use check lists 2. INITIAL EDITORIAL REVIEW 3. PEER REVIEW after submission Minor revisions Major revisions Authors! Take it seriously! Be prepared to answer all points raised by reviewers after submission (before peer review) A paper may be rejected by the editor, IF… • it is not compliant with journal scope & formats • it has poor English 4. TECHNICAL EDITING after acceptance Journal editorial staff Revision improves quality & provides a learning opportunity 44 CASA project scientific communication

Middle inspirational quote from Nelson Mandela ACCEPT THE CHALLENGE 45 CASA project “ ” scientific communication

To sum up … SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION 3 Assumptions Relevance Target & types Rules & best practices 46 CASA project  Communication is part of research activity  It is important to select the most appropriate communicaton tool according to objective, target and context  It is important to know rules and best practices TRAINING scientific communication

Part B Modular training program on scientific communication APPLY NEW KNOWLEDGE from CASA main objectives  Write an article to be submitted to a peer reviewed journal  Write an abstract to be submitted as oral presentation or poster in a national or international Conference  Write a technical report  Prepare a power point presentation 47 CASA project scientific communication

Create the document best fitting your objective TRAINING will directly involve you in: Writing a journal article How to select the right journal Instructions to authors, your first guide to write an article Writing a technical report, a book or a chapter Why write a report Which part are you going to play How to organize a sound structure 48 CASA project Submitting a conference abstract, writing a conference paper Select the appropriate theme & collaborators Be prepared to produce a power point presentation or a poster Producing leaflets & other tools Some hints for autonomous creations of printed tools and WEB 2.0 communication scientific communication

Be aware of & expoit existing infomation TRAINING will help you to know: How to search in online databases Select databases Select appropriate topics Filter available information How to access online journals Search available sources Take advantage from HINARI 49 CASA project scientific communication

Be aware of & utilise editorial guidelines TRAINING will provide you a selection of basic guidelines: “Vancouver style” Recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scholarly work in medical journals EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to be Published in English 50 CASA project scientific communication

Be aware of rules & follow best practices TRAINING will help you in: Using illustrations When using a table or a figure? Some technical details Citing the work of others: how & why Elements to be included in a reference Reference styles Managing revision Levels of technical editing Respond to referees Handle proofs 51 CASA project scientific communication

The “Conference world” an opportunity to grow and develop collaboration Training will help you to know: How to submit an abstract Select topic, authors Follow guidelines How to produce effective posters Before getting to work Balancing content, structure and graphics How to organize a conference or workshop at local, national or international level Define roles and objectives Scientific committees and their responsibilities Defining a conference programme issuing a call for papers How to produce effective presentations Before getting to work Suggested structure and schemes 52 CASA project scientific communication

Other useful topics Training will help you to know: How to involve community health workers Select objectives, targets & tools Consider human and financial resources & time Define a shared communication strategy How to communicate through social networks Know about web 2.0 Participate in networks discussions Create awareness on specific health issues How to use publication metrics Know about traditional metrics (IF) Know about altmetrics 53 CASA project scientific communication

Expected results from training Short term (January 2014) Medium term (2014-2015) Prepare an abstract to be submitted to Standardize CASA reports Address WHO to utilize CASA data Start e-learning modules 54 Prepare a poster/ power point presentation for Prepare a manuscript to be submitted to a peer reviewed journal CASA project scientific communication

Questions Tick the correct answers Publication of scientific output is part of the research process and plays a basic role for science development Online information is always reliable Scientific journal articles are primarily used to inform families & citizens & sometimes may be used to inform researchers When submitting a journal article for publication, it is NOT important to follow instructions for authors Referees do not directly address the authors of submitted articles 55 CASA project scientific communication

Correct answers  Publication of scientific output is part of the research process and plays a basic role for science development Online information is always reliable Scientific journal articles are primarily used to inform families & citizens & sometimes may be used to inform researchers  56 When submitting a journal article for publication, it is NOT important to follow instructions for authors Referees do not directly address the authors of submitted articles CASA project scientific communication

Certificate of accomplishment C . A . S. A . At the end of the training course all those who will have successfully completed assignments & achieved expected results will receive a certificate of accomplishment 57 CASA project scientific communication

Final considerations 1 A training program on scientific communication is an ADDED VALUE to the CASA project. C . A . S. A . It contributes to:  provide visibility to the project activity  maximize results achieved  develop new collaborations  facilitate funding This program in scientific communication may become a training model to be utilized in a wider geographical area 58 CASA project scientific communication

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS Final considerations 2 Collaboration is essential for the success of this initiative C . A . S. A . Progress is reached step by step, through a mix of REALISM and IDEALISM Sharing the same objectives, we will permit to: • • • • Integrate the training program with existing practices Overcome possible obstacles Test and improve the new models Find appropriate solutions QUESTIONS? 59 CASA project scientific communication

Final inspirational quote from Nelson Mandela PASSION AND HARD WORK 60 60 “ P. De Castro • Scientific Communication • CASA project - Ethiopia, January 2014 CASA project ” scientific communication

thank you! C . A . S. A . paola.decastro@iss.it 61 CASA project scientific communication

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