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dc ship design hf

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Published on November 5, 2007

Author: Elliott

Source: authorstream.com

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Human-Systems Integration & Shipboard Damage Control:  Human-Systems Integration & Shipboard Damage Control Ship Design & Human Factors Meeting Eric Runnerstrom erunnerstrom@mpr.com 703-519-0200 March 19, 2002 Outline:  Examples of Shipboard DC Performance HSI in Ships Today The Need for Improving HSI in Future Ships An Example of Effective HSI in DC Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships Recommendations Outline 3/19/02 2 Examples of Shipboard DC Performance:  Examples of Shipboard DC Performance Firemain recoverability today 20 minutes or more to isolate a rupture Fire can spread in less than 10 minutes Confusion finding functioning fire plugs Initial attack team, with 20-30 minute endurance, is mostly ineffective Causes Lack of information needed to locate rupture Poor communications and coordination between DC Central and the scene 3/19/02 3 Consequences: Fire & damage spreads and personnel efforts wasted. Examples of Shipboard DC Performance:  Examples of Shipboard DC Performance Chilled water system recoverability similar to firemain Consequence - shutdown of intact combat systems equipment Numerous DC systems and equipment tested aboard Shadwell Doctrine and HSI not considered effectively in system design Combat systems “our combat suite is fragile, manpower intensive, difficult to use, and marginally effective” Recoverability of other systems today 3/19/02 4 Firemain is representative of the state of HSI aboard ships today. HSI in Ships Today:  HSI in Ships Today Conclusions: Ship systems designs have not effectively considered the role of people in operating the systems Particularly under stressing casualty or combat operations The lack of effective HSI hampers ship operation, particularly recovery from damage Ineffective HSI aboard today’s ships reduces: safety, fight through capability, and survivability. DC provides a stressing test of HSI in ships 3/19/02 5 The Need for Improving HSI in Future Ships:  The Need for Improving HSI in Future Ships With automation, lack of effective HSI and relevant doctrine may further degrade human effectiveness and efficiency New, relevant doctrine needed to achieve performance with remote control & automation. Current doctrine evolved from actual incidents: Mostly manual recovery actions Manual information management With remote control, current doctrine results in confusion, slower response, & inefficient use of manpower 3/19/02 6 The Need for Improving HSI in Future Ships:  The Need for Improving HSI in Future Ships Fire spread caused damage to combat systems in Stark incident Loss of cooling caused intact combat systems equipment shut down during Princeton incident The only personnel injuries during Conyngham fire were due to spread of smoke 50% of ships lost in the Falklands were lost due to the spread of damage Improved DC performance would reduce: damage spread, loss of fight through, injuries, and ship losses. Examples of current performance 3/19/02 7 The Need for Improving HSI in Future Ships:  The Need for Improving HSI in Future Ships More dependence upon ship systems for DC Ship systems with more remote control and automation The actions of ship systems and the actions of people must complement one another to control damage Without effective HSI expect more damage spread, more injuries, & reduced survivability. Extrapolate current HSI and DC performance to future ships: 3/19/02 8 An Example of Effective HSI in DC:  An Example of Effective HSI in DC DC-ARM HSI demonstrated aboard Ex-USS Shadwell in Sep. ‘01 Water mist for fire suppression and containment Instrumentation for fire detection and characterization Firemain distributed controls for robust, survivable rupture isolation Smoke ejection system Access closure monitoring Video for compartment monitoring Supervisory control system DC-ARM systems selected to improve situation awareness and enable reduced manning. 3/19/02 9 An Example of Effective HSI in DC:  An Example of Effective HSI in DC Enables DCA situation awareness Decision aids for the actions of systems and the actions of people to complement one another Development started with in-depth functional analysis Human factors guidance from variety of industries tailored to shipboard DC and applied to displays Human-centered design applied to DC-ARM supervisory control system. DC-ARM Supervisory Control System 3/19/02 10 An Example of Effective HSI in DC:  An Example of Effective HSI in DC Performance Post weapon hit situation Sensor & systems damage Structural & access damage Fire & smoke Flooding DC conducted by Fleet personnel Firemain damage isolated in less than one minute Fire spread prevented All fires and flooding under control in less than 30 minutes DCA directed a managed, efficient response Effective situation awareness Effective HSI a key factor: achieved superior DC performance with 60% fewer DC personnel. 3/19/02 11 An Example of Effective HSI in DC:  An Example of Effective HSI in DC Computer applications developed in minimum time Computer applications had no significant deficiencies Worked as expected the first time with only minor debugging Survivability requirements imposed after baseline system installed Significant changes in system architecture accomplished without major problems The year spent in human-centered design analysis paid off! Human-centered design contributed to on time and within budget project execution . 3/19/02 12 Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships:  Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships Ship designers: Have had little or no formal education in HSI Have little experience with rigorous application of human-centered design methods Little information in the literature about effective application of HSI in ship design Ship designers generally do not know how to do human-centered design, and there is no precedent to follow. 3/19/02 13 Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships:  Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships HSI required for DC is beyond the current state-of-the-art (1 of 2) Current HSI development emphasizes human-computer interface, but DC is more complex: DC also involves manual interaction with systems at several levels to characterize damage, operate systems, and control damage DC involves the coordinated efforts of several distributed teams 3/19/02 14 Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships:  Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships HSI required for DC is beyond the current state-of-the-art (2 of 2) Little experience with functional analysis (or similar approaches) as a design methodology HSI guidance tends to be generic and not specific to ship systems and ship operations Merely establishing a requirement for HSI will not produce effective HSI because the infrastructure does not exist to implement the requirement. 3/19/02 15 Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships:  Obstacles to Improving HSI in Future Ships HSI advocates must prepare convincing arguments that cost avoidance and performance achieved is worth the cost of human-centered design. Program managers reluctant to increase design costs to achieve effective HSI 3/19/02 16 Recommendations:  Recommendations Start small - address HSI rigorously in ship alterations and R&D Educate ship designers - incorporate HSI in key ship design curriculums Work with systems designers and help them address HSI 3/19/02 17 GET PROGRAM MANAGERS ON BOARD!

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