DBillington

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Education

Published on January 11, 2008

Author: Siro

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Sex Equality in Employment Equality of opportunity or Equality of representation? Slide2:  Fortune Five Hundred Companies with the highest proportion of women in senior management significantly outperform those with the lowest proportion, both on return on equity and on total return to shareholders Source: Catalyst, quoted by FT 10 November 2006 Agenda:  Agenda Progress to date Barriers to equality Vertical - The glass ceiling Horizontal – sectoral under representation Choice Actions Conclusions Progress to date:  Progress to date One useful measure of representation is the Gender Pay Gap If equality of representation in jobs by sector and level is achieved, then no Gender Pay Gap exists. If equality of opportunity in jobs by sector and level exists, then a Gender Pay Gap May exist, but in itself will not be an indicator of market failure. GB NI 1970 2006 2006 Gender pay gap 37% 12.6% 0.2% Progress to date:  Progress to date Split of components of pay gap Differences in part time/full time work 38% Woman’s caring responsibilities 15% Sectoral (horizontal) segregation 13% Education 6% Unexplained 29% ( could be partially attributed to discrimination, although successive studies have failed to find firm evidence of this [Gender pay gap fact sheet Women and equality Unit 2004 p1]) Discrimination:  Discrimination Overt Discrimination Between 2002 and 2004, equal pay claims dropped by 50% to 4,412. only 58 (3%) were successful. Sectoral under representation (Horizontal segregation):  Sectoral under representation (Horizontal segregation) Different sectors command different wage rates. Over/under - representation in sectors will therefore generate different average wages. Drivers of over/under representation: Gender stereotyping at age 14 with girls choosing an education/career path with lower pay Lower levels of educational attainment among older women, limits career options. Sectoral under representation (Horizontal segregation):  Sectoral under representation (Horizontal segregation) Gender stereotyping girls now consistently perform better than boys GB Boys Girls 2003/4 5 or more GCSE’s A* - C 49% 59% 2002/3 University qualifications 136,720 183,945 V 1970 HE/FE qualifications 416,000 205,000 Sectoral under representation starts at School:  Sectoral under representation starts at School GB Boys Girls GCSE’s: Single science 59% 41% ICT 58% 42% Economics 71% 29% Art 42% 58% Home Econ. 6% 94% Career choices at age 14 starts the career path towards jobs in lower paid sectors NI Boys Girls GCSE’s: Single science 51% 49% ICT 60% 40% Economics # 57% 43% Art 44% 56% Home Econ. 11% 89% Sectoral under representation starts at School:  Sectoral under representation starts at School GB Boys Girls A Levels: Biology 40% 60% Physics 78% 22% English 30% 70% Maths 61% 39% Career choices continue at 16 to lead to jobs in lower paid sectors NI Boys Girls A Levels: Biology 39% 61% Physics 70% 30% English 27% 73% Maths 56% 44% Sectoral under representation continues at University (GB):  Sectoral under representation continues at University (GB) Men Women University degrees (57% women) English 27% 73% Languages 31% 69% Social Studies 37% 63% Physical sciences 60% 40% Mathematical sciences 61% 39% Computer Science 75% 25% Engineering & Technology 86% 14% Sectoral segregation - Conclusions:  Sectoral segregation - Conclusions Historic under performance in Education has left mature women of today with fewer skills and therefore more restricted job opportunities We must look to stereotyping in homes and at schools to address the bias in career choices. Business perspective – we have a skills shortage, need more with the right skills regardless of sex. Sectoral Skills Councils, Business and Education Department must work to correct this bias. LIFE STYLE CHOICES:  LIFE STYLE CHOICES Lifestyle choices:  Lifestyle choices Caring responsibilities are a big factor: Time taken out of the labour market reduces the level of skills and experiences. Shortage of affordable childcare delays return to work and encourages part time working, usually in the low wage sectors (25% of part time work is in hotel and catering) Poverty trap, benefits can exceed net earned income when there are children involved Consequently reduces the pool of women making career progression into the “senior executive pool” The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation):  The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation) 1990 Women Managers 8% Directors 2% FTSE 100 Executive directors Executive committees 2003 30% 11% 3% 12% THE GLASS CEILING:  THE GLASS CEILING The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation):  The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation) Drivers: Time delays in corrections working through the system Lack of experience FTSE 250 reduces chances of being proposed to FTSE 100 companies Life style choices/ caring responsibilities The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation):  The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation) Time delays in corrections working through the system In US parity at CEO level estimated to take 40 years: Assuming moving up one rank every 5 years Assuming average CEO tenure 5 years Search consultancies reluctant to put forward anyone for a FTSE 100 vacancy who does not have FTSE 250 experience The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation):  The Glass Ceiling ( Vertical segregation) Research into Life style choices of high fliers provide some insights into key factors driving career progression: Men Women Personal fulfilment 9% 78% Salary 80% 13% Interestingly leads to a greater desire for women to be their own bosses with 85% of Entrepreneurial women executives thinking of or had set up their own businesses verses 32% for men. Actions :  Actions At School and at home need to challenge the careers advice given Sectoral skills councils and business have a key role to pay in “selling” job opportunities in a way that overcomes gender pre conceptions. More cost effective childcare provision to accelerate return to work. DEL adult education must help women in updating skills and for mature women to provide them with the opportunities to improve their skills. Senior posts – mentoring and fast track development Conclusions::  Conclusions: Substantial improvement has been made in some areas but a lot of work still to do on addressing the senior executive catch 22 of Experience to get top jobs, but need top jobs to get experience. Business is trying to compensate for failures elsewhere in the system. There needs to be a recognition of where the cause of the failure comes from and not where it presents itself. The right to work life balance and choice will continue to result in under representation by choice rather than by market failure.

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