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Published on February 25, 2008

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Bayesian Networks for the Analysis of Evidence :  Bayesian Networks for the Analysis of Evidence Graphic and Visual Representations of Evidence and Inference in Legal Settings Cardozo School of Law 29 January 2007 A. Philip Dawid Amanda B. Hepler University College London Outline:  Wigmore Charts and Bayesian Networks Object Oriented Bayesian Networks Sacco and Vanzetti case Outline Slide3:  U Harold S. unlawfully and intentionally assaulted and injured a security guard Willard R. during a break-in at the Blackbread Brewery premises, 27 Orchardson St., London NW8 in the early morning hours of 1 May 2003 Robbery Case Slide4:  Wigmorean Analysis Slide5:  P1 In the early morning hours of 1 May, 2003, four men unlawfully broke into the premises of the Blackbread Brewery, located at 27 Orchardson St., London NW8 P2 Harold S. was one of the four men who broke into the premises of the Blackbread Brewery in the early morning hours of 1 May 2003 P3 A security guard at the Blackbread Brewery, Willard R., was assaulted and injured during the break-in P4 It was Harold S. who intentionally assaulted and injured Willard R. during the break-in Wigmorean Analysis Mixed Masses of Evidence:  An unknown number of offenders entered commercial premises late at night through a hole which they cut in a metal grille. Inside, they were confronted by a security guard who was able to set off an alarm before one of the intruders punched him in the face, causing his nose to bleed. The security guard said that there were four men but the light was too poor for him to describe them and he was confused because of the blow he had received. About 10 minutes later the police found the suspect trying to “hot wire” a car in an alley about a quarter of a mile from the incident. The suspect denied having anything to do with it. Mixed Masses of Evidence EYE WITNESS EVIDENCE Slide7:  A tuft of red acrylic fibres was found on the jagged end of one of the cut edges of the grille. The suspect’s jumper was red acrylic. The tuft was indistinguishable from the fibres of the jumper by eye, microspectrofluorimetry and thin layer chromatography. FIBRE EVIDENCE BLOOD EVIDENCE A spray pattern of blood was found on the front and right sleeve of the suspect’s jumper. The blood on the jumper was of a different type from that of the suspect, but the same as that of the security guard. Slide8:    29) The intruders' car left immediately at the first sound of the alarm leaving the intruders stranded. 30) Willard R. testimony to 29). 31) The intruders dispersed from the Blackbread Brewery premises on foot. 32) Willard R. testimony to 31). 33) The four intruders went their separate ways. 34) In a search of the area surrounding the Blackbread Brewery premises, police apprehended Harold S. trying to "hot wire" a car in an alley about 1/4 mile from the Blackbread Brewery premises. 35) DI Leary testimony to 34). 36) A photo of Harold S. taken shortly after his apprehension to be shown at trial. 37) The photo shown at trial is the same one police took of Harold R. shortly after his arrest. 38) The car Harold S. was trying to "hot wire" did not belong to him. 39) Harold S. was one of the four intruders fleeing the Blackbread Brewery premises. 40) During the police investigation a short time after the intrusion, the police found a tuft of red fibres on a jagged end of one of the cut edges of the metal grille on the Blackbread premises. 41) DI Leary testimony to 40). 42) The tuft of fibres to be shown at trial. 43). The tuft of fibres shown at trial is the same one that police found on a jagged end of one of the cut edges of the metal grille on the Blackbread premises. 44) The tuft of the fibres found on the metal grille on the Blackbread Brewery premises is red acrylic. 45) DI Leary testimony to 44). 46) The tuft of red acrylic fibres found on the metal grille came from an article of clothing. 47) The article of clothing the fibres came from was being worn at the time of the break-in at the Blackbread Brewery. 48) Harold S. was wearing a jumper and jeans at the time of his apprehension. 49) DI Leary testimony to 48). 50) The jumper and jeans to be shown at trial. 51) The jumper and jeans to be shown at trial are the same ones the police took from Harold S. after his apprehension. P2: Harold S. was one of the four men who broke into the premises of the Blackbread Brewery in the early morning hours of 1 May, 2003 Slide9:  52) Harold S's jumper is made of red acrylic. 53) DI Leary testimony to 52). 54) Harold S. was wearing this red acrylic jumper at the time of the break-in at Blackbread Brewery. 55) The tuft of red fibres found on the metal grille on the Blackbread Brewery premises is visually indistinguishable from the fibres on Harold S's jumper. 56) DI Leary testimony to 55) 57) The tuft of fibres and the jumper to be shown together at trial. 58) The tuft of fibres and the jumper are the same ones police obtained during their investigation of the break-in at the Blackbread Brewery. 59) The tuft of red fibres found on the metal grille on the Blackbread Brewery premises is indistinguishable from the fibres on Harold S's jumper as shown by a microspectroflourimetry analysis. 60) DI Leary testimony. 61) Microspectroflourimetry analysis result to be shown at trial. 62) The microspectroflourimetry results shown at trial are the same ones police obtained from the forensic scientist ["boffin"] who performed the analysis. 63) The tuft of red fibres found on the metal grille on the Blackbread Brewery premises is indistinguishable from the fibres on Harold S's jumper as shown by a thin layer chromatography analysis. 64) DI Leary testimony to 63). 65) The results of the thin layer chromatography analysis.to be shown at trial. 66) The thin layer chromatography results shown at trial are the same ones police obtained from the forensic scientist who performed the analysis. 67) The jumper belonging to Harold S. is well worn and has several holes in it. 68) DI Leary testimony to 67. 69) None of holes in Harold S's jumper can be clearly identified as a possible source of the tuft found on the metal grille on the Blackbread Premises. 70) DI Leary testimony to 69). 71) Matches of tufts to holes in fabrics is very difficult. 72) The jumper worn by Harold S. on 1 May, 2003 was torn on a hole in the metal grille at the Blackbread premises. 73) Harold S. was wearing the article of clothing that produced the tuft of red acrylic found on a jagged end of the hole cut into the metal grille at the Blackbread Brewery premises on 1 May, 2003. 74) Testimonial denial by Harold S. of P2, that he was one of four men who broke into the premises of the Blackbread Brewery in the early morning hours of 1 May, 2003. Slide10:  P2: Harold S. was one of the four men who broke into the premises of the Blackbread Brewery in the early morning hours of 1 May, 2003 Wigmore Chart Bayesian Network:  Bayesian Network Slide12:  Graphical inference networks used to model many items of evidence and their relationships Represent individual standpoint rather than “objective truth” Support coherent narrative and argumentation (?) Commonalities of Wigmore Charts and Bayesian Networks Slide13:  Tree-structured Created for evidence in hand Nodes are events or propositions Arrows indicate inferential flow Qualitative analysis and synthesis Symbolic distinctions of type/effect of evidence Differences Wigmore Chart Bayesian Network Directed Acyclic Graph Created any time Nodes are variables (any number of states) Arrows indicate “causal” dependence Qualitative reasoning about relevance Structural distinctions of type/effect of evidence Sacco and Vanzetti Case:  Sacco and Vanzetti Case Sacco and Vanzetti Case:  U Sacco and Vanzetti were guilty of 1st degree murder in the slaying of Berardelli during the robbery that took place in South Braintree, MA on April 15, 1920 Sacco and Vanzetti Case Sacco and Vanzetti Case:  P1 Berardelli died of gunshot wounds he received on April 15, 1920. P2 At the time he was shot, Berardelli, along with Parmenter, was in possession of a payroll. P3 It was Sacco who, with the assistance of Vanzetti, intentionally fired shots that took the life of Berardelli during a robbery of the payroll he and Parmenter were carrying. Sacco and Vanzetti Case Slide17:  Bayesian Network (Hugin 5) P1 P2 P3 U Slide18:  Large and messy Complex modelling process All evidence treated at same level Hard to interpret Some undesirable features Slide19:  Hierarchical structure Simplifies modelling process Can zoom to relevant level of detail Can construct generic modules for recurrent patterns of evidence Object Oriented Bayesian Network (Hugin 6) Slide20:  Sacco is the murderer? 1st Degree Murder? Berardelli Murdered? Felony Committed? Medical evidence Level 1: 1st Degree Murder? P1 P2 P3 Slide21:  Sacco is the Murderer? Consciousness of Guilt? Firearms? Motive? Level 2: Sacco is the Murderer? P3 Slide22:  Sacco at Scene? Sacco’s Cap at Scene? Alibi? Murder Car? Level 3: Opportunity Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony:  Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony Similar to Sacco? Pelser’s Credibility Pelser’s Testimony Wade’s Credibility Wade’s Testimony Sacco at Scene? HUGIN 6 Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony:  Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitnesses HUGIN 6 Level 5: Generic Credibility:  Level 5: Generic Credibility Eyewitnesses Generic Credibility Testimony Competent? Veracity? Objectivity? Sensation? Event HUGIN 6 Level 6: Attributes of Credibility:  Level 6: Attributes of Credibility Eyewitnesses Generic Credibility Testimony Competent? Veracity? Objectivity? Sensation? Event Sensation HUGIN 6 Level 6: Attributes of Credibility:  Level 6: Attributes of Credibility Eyewitnesses Generic Credibility Testimony Competent? Veracity? Objectivity? Sensation? Event Sensation Noisy Channel HUGIN 6 Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony:  Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony Similar to Sacco? Pelser’s Credibility Pelser’s Testimony Wade’s Credibility Wade’s Testimony Sacco at Scene? HUGIN 6 Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony:  Level 4: Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitnesses HUGIN 6 Level 5: Specific Credibility:  Level 5: Specific Credibility Eyewitnesses Testimony Event Generic Credibility Competent? HUGIN 6 Slide31:  X Parent-Child Y Boolean Case Other Generic Modules Slide32:  Item 1 = Item 2? Attribute 1 ... Attribute N Identification “linked” evidence Slide33:  2 or more sources giving corroborative/ contradictory statements about same event Event Credibility Credibility Source 1 Source 2 Slide34:  Testimony on 2 or more compatible/ incompatible events Hypothesis Credibility Credibility Source 1 Source 2 Event 1 Event 2 Convergence/Conflict Slide35:  Knowledge of Cause 1 lowers probability of Cause 2 Event Cause 1 Cause 2 Explaining Away Slide36:  Top-level display as Wigmore chart Variable depth of display Tailor generic class properties to specific instance Represent “causal” strength Determine impact of evidence Wish List Slide37:  Thank you!

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