DavisAtHIIT

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Published on March 21, 2008

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Slide1:  Prof. Marc Davis University of California at Berkeley School of Information Management and Systems Garage Cinema Research http://garage.sims.berkeley.edu Mobile Media Metadata: The Future of Mobile Imaging Four Questions:  Four Questions How many of you read text every day? How many of you write text every day? How many of you watch video (movies, TV, DVD, Internet video, etc.), listen to recorded audio (music, speech, etc.), or look at photographs everyday? How many of you make video (movies, TV, DVD, Internet video, etc.), record audio (music, speech, etc.), or take photographs everyday? Garage Cinema Research:  Garage Cinema Research Research and develop technology and applications that will enable daily media consumers to become daily media producers Theory, design, and development of digital media systems that Create descriptions of media content and structure (metadata) Use metadata to automate media production and reuse What is the Problem?:  What is the Problem? Today people cannot easily find, edit, share, and reuse media Computers don’t understand media content Media is opaque and data rich We lack structured representations Without metadata (descriptions of media content and structure), manipulating digital media will remain like word-processing with bitmaps Signal-to-Symbol Problems:  Signal-to-Symbol Problems Semantic Gap Gap between low-level signal analysis and high-level semantic descriptions “Vertical off-white rectangular blob on blue background” does not equal “Campanile at UC Berkeley” Signal-to-Symbol Problems:  Signal-to-Symbol Problems Sensory Gap Gap between how an object appears and what it is Different images of same object can appear dissimilar Images of different objects can appear similar Computer Vision and Context:  Computer Vision and Context You go out drinking with your friends You get drunk Really drunk You get hit over the head and pass out You are flown to a city in a country you’ve never been to with a language you don’t understand and an alphabet you can’t read You wake up face down in a gutter with a terrible hangover You have no idea where you are or how you got there This is what it’s like to be most computer vision systems—they have no context Context is what enables us to understand what we see Traditional Media Production Chain:  METADATA Traditional Media Production Chain PRE-PRODUCTION POST-PRODUCTION PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION Metadata-Centric Production Chain Research Projects:  Research Projects Media Streams A framework for creating metadata throughout the media production cycle to enable media reuse Active Capture Automates direction and cinematography using real-time audio-video analysis in an interactive control loop to create reusable media assets Adaptive Media Uses adaptive media templates and automatic editing functions to mass customize and personalize media Mobile Media Metadata Leverages the spatio-temporal context and social community of media capture to automate metadata creation for mobile media Social Uses of Personal Media Analysis of social uses of media to predict future uses and shape the design of next-generation personal media devices and applications Automated Media Production Process :  Automated Media Production Process The Coming Media Revolution:  The Coming Media Revolution Media capture devices become programmable and networked Metadata creation and use become integrated throughout media production and reuse Media production changes from being a mechanical process to a computational process Media becomes programmable and networked Daily media consumers become daily media producers Research Projects:  Research Projects Media Streams A framework for creating metadata throughout the media production cycle to enable media reuse Active Capture Automates direction and cinematography using real-time audio-video analysis in an interactive control loop to create reusable media assets Adaptive Media Uses adaptive media templates and automatic editing functions to mass customize and personalize media Mobile Media Metadata Leverages the spatio-temporal context and social community of media capture to automate metadata creation for mobile media Social Uses of Personal Media Analysis of social uses of media to predict future uses and shape the design of next-generation personal media devices and applications Moore’s Law for Cameras:  Moore’s Law for Cameras 2000 Kodak DC40 Nintendo GameBoy Camera $400 $ 40 2002 Kodak DX4900 SiPix StyleCam Blink Capture+Processing+Interaction+Network:  Capture+Processing+Interaction+Network Camera Phones as Platform:  Camera Phones as Platform Media capture (images, video, audio) Programmable processing using open standard operating systems, programming languages, and APIs Wireless networking Personal information management functions Rich user interaction modalities Time, location, and user contextual metadata Camera Phones as Platform:  Camera Phones as Platform In the first half of 2003, more camera phones were sold worldwide than digital cameras By 2008, the average camera phone is predicted to have 5 megapixel resolution Last month Casio and Samsung introduced 3.2 megapixel camera phones with optical zoom and photo flash There are more cell phone users in China than people in the United States (300 million) For 90% of the world their “computer” is their cell phone Campanile Inspiration:  Campanile Inspiration Mobile Media Metadata Idea:  Mobile Media Metadata Idea Leverage the spatio-temporal context and social community of media capture in mobile devices Gather all automatically available information at the point of capture (time, spatial location, phone user, etc.) Use metadata similarity and media analysis algorithms to find similar media that has been annotated before Take advantage of this previously annotated media to make educated guesses about the content of the newly captured media Interact in a simple and intuitive way with the phone user to confirm and augment system-supplied metadata for captured media MMM Demo Video:  MMM Demo Video From Context to Content:  From Context to Content Context When Date and time Where CellID refined to semantic place Who Cellphone user What Activity as product of when, where, and who Content When was the photo taken? Where is the subject of the photo? Who is in the photo? What are the people doing? What objects are in the photo? Space – Time – Social Space:  Space – Time – Social Space What is “Location”?:  What is “Location”? Camera Location vs. Subject Location:  Camera Location vs. Subject Location Camera Location = Golden Gate Bridge Subject Location = Golden Gate Bridge Camera Location = Albany Marina Subject Location = Golden Gate Bridge Kodak Picture Spot:  Kodak Picture Spot Themed Kodak Picture Spot:  Themed Kodak Picture Spot Location Guesser Concept:  Location Guesser Concept Calculate weighted sum of features Most recently “visited” location Most “visited” location by me in this CellID around this time Most “visited” location by me in this CellID Most “visited” location by “others” in this CellID around this time Most “visited” location by “others” in this CellID Mobile Media Metadata Project (MMM):  Mobile Media Metadata Project (MMM) Develop and test our technology for mobile media metadata creation, sharing, and reuse Develop application scenarios that use this technology Study the usage patterns of applications for mobile media metadata creation, sharing, and reuse MMM Fall 2003 Project:  MMM Fall 2003 Project Numerous application ideas for mobile media capture and sharing (at least seven documented in detail with persona and scenario descriptions and annotated storyboards) A metadata framework for describing and sharing mobile media A database of annotated captured media A prototype of one of the student application scenarios A write-up of the project including student feedback, assessment of application ideas, and recommendations for further research and development MMM Research Issues:  MMM Research Issues Metadata and media creation, sharing, and reuse Ontology design Vocabulary control Leveraging spatial, temporal, and social context to infer media content Determining similarity Application ideas and use scenarios User interfaces MMM Research Issues:  MMM Research Issues Ontology of photography Who owns/accesses/changes pictures of me? Who owns/accesses/changes my pictures? Who owns/accesses/changes my metadata? Who owns/accesses/changes metadata about me and/or my media? Mobile media application design methods HCI methodology for mobile media design Social science methodology for design of future applications MMM Initial Application Ideas:  MMM Initial Application Ideas Metadata creation sharing, and reuse of media and metadata from various users connected in space, time, and affinity Content-based access to mobile media assets enabling Networked photo albums Personalized media messages Personalized media CallerID Matchmaking services Ecommerce Location-based and travel applications for using networked media assets and metadata Networked travel albums Networked travel guidebooks Over 150 MMM Application Ideas:  Over 150 MMM Application Ideas Real time party ratings with pictures Forgotten historical site cataloguing Mapping wireless access on campus for public Picture/video comparison to map location Tagging people "Audio graffiti" audio tour of the world Game: Spot the terrorist Amateur photo contest. Mobile American Idol Affair detection Do I sue or not? Online car estimates Family tree builder/viewer Human Clock: Pictures of people showing the time Human Weather: What are people wearing in San Francisco? Reality show that is following someone around for a night going out and party that people could watch online Family tree builder/viewer Human Clock: Pictures of people showing the time Human Weather: What are people wearing in San Francisco? Reality show that is following someone around for a night going out and party that people could watch online Translation. Take a picture of something, and get the word for it in the local language. Or enter a word in your own language to get a picture which you can show to a native Directions/locations. Illustrated travel guides, an interactive visual Lonely Planet Indie reporting. News coverage via amateur reporters. The blackout provided some interesting examples Some "leveling game" like taking photos of people wearing gap jeans on the street, if you get enough, you win a pair, and go onto the next level MonkeyBotster:  MonkeyBotster Monkeybotster aims to allow you to access interesting events that have occurred in someone's past as well as contribute things from the present through two degrees of social separation (your friend's friends can see your events but not your friend's friend's friends, etc.) LunchMeister:  LunchMeister LunchMeister enables users to share information, opinions, and photos of local restaurants in real time, allowing them to maximize the use of an often limited lunch hour DARE:  DARE DARE will leverage the camera phones as tools that allow users to play games with and against each other The main objective of DARE is to bring different social networks together informally, or as ice breakers and team builders for corporations, school groups and other such groups Recipe Box:  Recipe Box Recipe Box will facilitate cooking for people who wish to spend less money and time making presentable meals Users will be able to select from various recipes in an annotated media database on their mobile phones Users can add recipes illustrated with annotated media to the database from their mobile phones HouseBuddies:  HouseBuddies HouseBuddies transforms the mobile phone into a collaborative apartment-hunting device that enables real-time information sharing It facilitates a group of friends in their search for a place to live by allowing them to assemble a list of house ads from various sources and collaborate on investigating their housing options Recreation Evaluation Interface:  Recreation Evaluation Interface Recreation Evaluation Interface enables camera phone users to see what's happening where they are not, and let others in their community know what's happening where they are Using real-time data and a reference database, this community can connect with other people with similar interests to maximize their local knowledge, enabling better decision-making about how and where to spend one's time Wishter:  Wishter Wishter would manage Lists of potential gifts for friends and family A “wishlist” of items for oneself It would allow the user to annotate a potential gift with a physical description, the event for which the gift is being considered, and the location where the item was seen Wishter Rapid Development:  Wishter Rapid Development MMM User Studies:  MMM User Studies Deployed MMM prototype with 40 graduate students and 15 researchers for 4 months Weekly surveys administered to MMM users Current usage patterns gathered 5 subjects for usability testing with MMM users User interaction and user motivation addressed 8 subjects for first focus group of MMM users Current annotation habits discussed User motivation addressed 7 subjects for second focus group Current use of photos (capture, annotation, sharing) User Interaction Findings:  User Interaction Findings Network unpredictability Slow and intermittent connectivity Frequently dropped service with little feedback User work to that point was often lost Proposed Solution: Limit continual network interaction by creating a full-client application that can use network in background User Interaction Findings:  User Interaction Findings Mobile UI usability Hardware buttons were not remapped to support MMM UI functions Desktop-based prototyping tools and methods don’t predict usability issues with mobile devices Proposed Solution: Use a prototyping methodology that better simulates the specifics of mobile interaction to design user experiences and test usability User Interaction Findings:  User Interaction Findings Presentation of faceted hierarchical structure Lists of 12-15 items should not be exceeded as selection devices Proposed Solution: Create smaller application specific hierarchies to present to the user, (which correlate into a broader general structure on the backend) Use Patterns and Motivation Findings:  Use Patterns and Motivation Findings Power-of-Now Camera phones are always available Take pictures of ad-hoc subjects Phototaking happens in daily lived context Currently Not Search-Centric For our users, sharing and browsing are more important than search and retrieval Role of the Desktop A desktop component adds great value to the mobile application by easing browsing Challenges in Offloading Media Non-MMM users find it difficult and frustrating to try to get their photos off their cameraphone Use Patterns and Motivation Findings:  Use Patterns and Motivation Findings Funnel Effect: Selective metadata annotation Two types of annotations: Content: 1-2 facets describing the photograph (e.g., Person, Location) Comment: a personal remark about the photograph, why they took it, a witty comment, something personal to share Use Patterns and Motivation Findings:  Use Patterns and Motivation Findings Integrate or motivate annotation Tie annotation to some other activity the user already does in a seamless way Sharing Storytelling Motivate users to annotate Demonstrate clear benefit of later reuse Make annotation intrinsically fun (e.g., image annotation games) Application Design Findings:  Application Design Findings Input-output application design Combination of simple small applications into more powerful applications Network effects Power of many users sharing media and metadata Media and coordination/collaboration Using media to coordinate and collaborate among groups Mobile media and games Using media to document games Using games to make media and metadata Nokia Platform Issues:  Nokia Platform Issues Hardware Keypad layout Camera Development environment Access to files Access to camera Access to contextual metadata (time, CellID, username) Access to contacts Browser Nokia web browser (caching) Prototyping tools Emulator Wizard of Oz Research Projects:  Research Projects Media Streams A framework for creating metadata throughout the media production cycle to enable media reuse Active Capture Automates direction and cinematography using real-time audio-video analysis in an interactive control loop to create reusable media assets Adaptive Media Uses adaptive media templates and automatic editing functions to mass customize and personalize media Mobile Media Metadata Leverages the spatio-temporal context and social community of media capture to automate metadata creation for mobile media Social Uses of Personal Media Analysis of social uses of media to predict future uses and shape the design of next-generation personal media devices and applications Social Uses of Personal Photos:  Social Uses of Personal Photos Looking not just at what people do with digital imaging technology, but why they do it Goals Identify social uses of photography to predict resistances and affordances of next generation mobile media devices and applications Methods Situated video interviews Review of online photo sites Sociotechnological prototyping (magic thing, technology probes) Preliminary Findings:  Preliminary Findings Social uses of personal photos Memory Creating and maintaining relationships Self-expression Media and resistance Materiality Orality Storytelling From MMM-1 To MMM-2:  From MMM-1 To MMM-2 MMM-1 asked “What did I just take a picture of?” MMM-2 adds “Who do I want to share this picture with?” Community Context Content Community MMM-2 Goals:  MMM-2 Goals Integrated photo sharing and mobile media metadata application Metadata as by product of sharing Metadata enables new types of sharing Advanced spatio-temporal-social inferencing Integrated media analysis functions RDF backend for ontology and metadata sharing and reuse Connected handset and web applications Sharing  Metadata:  Sharing  Metadata From sharing to metadata A birdwatcher takes a photo in a bird sanctuary and sends it to her birdwatching group What is the photo of? From metadata to sharing A parent takes a photo of his child on the child’s birthday Who does he share it with? MMM-2 Use Scenarios:  MMM-2 Use Scenarios Share photo Rank share lists Add/delete members of share list Create new share list Annotate photo Annotate photo on handset Annotate photo on web Annotate photo while sharing on handset Annotate photo while sharing on web Scaling Up Photo Sharing:  100M Scaling Up Photo Sharing 100K MMM-2 Prototype:  MMM-2 Prototype Phase 1: MMM-2 Prototype Design In Process: Spring 2004 Phase 2: MMM-2 Prototype Development Summer 2004 Phase 3: MMM-2 Prototype Deployment Fall 2004 Phase 4: MMM-2 Prototype Evaluation Fall 2004 – Spring 2005 MMM Publications:  MMM Publications CHI 2004 Anita Wilhelm, Yuri Takhteyev, Risto Sarvas, Nancy Van House, Marc Davis. "Photo Annotation on a Camera Phone." In: Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2004) in Vienna, Austria. ACM Press, 2004. MobiSys 2004 Risto Sarvas, Erick Herrarte, Anita Wilhelm, and Marc Davis. “Metadata Creation System for Mobile Images.” In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys2004) in Boston, Massachusetts. ACM Press, 2004. Marc Davis, Nathan Good, and Risto Sarvas. "From Context to Content: Leveraging Context for Mobile Media Metadata (Workshop Paper)." Presented At: MobiSys 2004 Workshop on Context Awareness at the Second International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services in Boston, Massachusetts, 2004. Marc Davis. "Mobile Media Metadata (Video)." Presented At: Second International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys 2004) in Boston, Massachusetts, 2004. MMM Publications:  MMM Publications ICME 2004 Marc Davis and Risto Sarvas. “Mobile Media Metadata for Mobile Imaging.” In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME 2004) Special Session on Mobile Imaging in Taipei, Taiwan, IEEE Computer Society Press, 2004. ACM Multimedia 2004 Marc Davis, Simon King, Nathan Good, and Risto Sarvas. "From Context to Content: Leveraging Context to Infer Media Metadata." In: Proceedings of 12th Annual ACM International Conference on Multimedia (MM 2004) Brave New Topics Session on "From Context to Content: Leveraging Contextual Metadata to Infer Multimedia Content" in New York, New York, ACM Press, Forthcoming 2004. Marc Davis. "Mobile Media Metadata: Metadata Creation System for Mobile Images (Video)." In: Video Proceedings of 12th Annual ACM International Conference on Multimedia in New York, New York, ACM Press, Forthcoming 2004. Marc Davis. "Mobile Media Metadata: Metadata Creation System for Mobile Images (Video Description)." In: Video Proceedings of 12th Annual ACM International Conference on Multimedia in New York, New York, ACM Press, Forthcoming 2004. http://garage.sims.berkeley.edu:  http://garage.sims.berkeley.edu

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