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Davis_Lecture1

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Published on December 18, 2008

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Plant Anatomy : Plant Anatomy MUPGRET Workshop March 27, 2004 Definitions : Definitions Anatomy Study of form and basic organization. Morphology Study of tissue organization. Physiology Study of normal organism function. Life Cycle : Life Cycle Juvenile Adult Reproductive Vegetative Plant Structure : Plant Structure Two main organ systems: shoot and root Shoot Above ground Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits Root Below ground roots, tubers, rhizomes Plant Cells : Plant Cells Formed at meristems. Mitosis in meristem produces new cells. Two types of meristems. Apical – produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot. Lateral – produces secondary growth, ex. cambium. Apical Meristem : Apical Meristem Lateral Meristem : Lateral Meristem Cells are grouped into tissues. : Cells are grouped into tissues. Dermal Ground Vascular Cell Types : Cell Types Epidermal Ground Vascular Zea mays L. leaf cross section Dermal Tissue : Dermal Tissue Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants. Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle. Waxy cuticle protects against water loss. Ground Tissue : Ground Tissue Bulk of the primary plant body. Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. Parenchyma : Parenchyma Parenchyma : Parenchyma pineapple Collenchyma : Collenchyma Celery Schlerenchyma : Schlerenchyma hau – used to make rope Vascular Tissue : Vascular Tissue Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals. Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium. Vascular tissue : Vascular tissue Xylem : Xylem Dutchmens pipe Dicot stem Vegetative Structures : Vegetative Structures Roots Stem Leaf Roots : Roots Tap root Fibrous root Adventitious root Tuberous root Aerial root Roots : Roots Taproot Taproots Tuberous Fiberous Stem Anatomy : Stem Anatomy Bud – undeveloped shoot. Node – Location of leaf or bud on stem. Internode – Space between nodes. Pith – Spongy tissue in the center of the stem. Lenticel – Pore in the outer layer of the stem. Stem : Stem Stem Modifications : Stem Modifications Tuber – underground stem with nodes Rhizome – underground stem with buds Stolon – aboveground stem with shoot buds Bulb – underground stem with fleshy leaves Corm – underground stem with papery leaves Modified Stem : Modified Stem Thorn Tendril Onion set Rhizome Modified Stem II : Modified Stem II Asparagus Stolon Corm Growth Form : Growth Form Herb Shrub Tree Vine Growth Cycle : Growth Cycle Annual – single season Biennial – two seasons Perennial – multiple seasons Evergreen – leaves persist > 2 seasons Decidious – leaves die in cold or dry Leaf Parts : Leaf Parts Petiole Blade Stipule Axillary bud Leaf Structure : Leaf Structure Blade Petiole Axillary Bud Stipule Leaf Arrangement : Leaf Arrangement Alternate Opposite Whorled Leaf form : Leaf form Simple Compound Pinnate Palmate Vein Arrangement : Vein Arrangement Pinnate Palmate Parallel Dichotomous Dichotomous Leaf Shape : Leaf Shape Ovate Elliptic Oblong Lanceolate Linear Orbicular Cordate Hastate Sagittate Peltate Perfoliate Terete Leaf Margins : Leaf Margins Entire Serrate Doubly serrate Dentate Crenate Undulate Revolute Crisped Lobed Misc. Vegetative Structures : Misc. Vegetative Structures Thorns modified stems (Honey Locust) Spines modified leaves (Cactus) Prickles epidermal outgrowth (Rose) Reproductive Structures : Reproductive Structures Flowers Fruits Floral Parts : Floral Parts Pedicel Sepal Petal Perianth Stamen Carpel Pistil Flower : Flower Floral Symmetry : Floral Symmetry Actinomorphic Many axes of symmetry, ie. the same wherever you cut it. Zygomorphic One axis of summetry, ie. can only cut one way. Inflorescence Types : Inflorescence Types Solitary Spike Spadix Spikelet Raceme Umbel Whorl Compound Umbel Panicle Fruit Types : Fruit Types Dry, indehiscent fruit Dry, dehiscent fruit Fleshy fruit Other Dry, indehiscent fruits : Dry, indehiscent fruits Achene (lettuce) Samara (maple) Caryposis (wheat) Nut (almond) Dry, Dehiscent Fruit : Dry, Dehiscent Fruit Legume (soybean) Capsule (tobacco) Silique (Arabidopsis) Schizocarp (maple) Fleshy Fruits : Fleshy Fruits Drupe (peach, nectarine) Berry (tomato) Pepo (cucumber) Hesperidium (citrus) Hip (rose) Pome (apple, pear) Other Fruit Types : Other Fruit Types Aggregate mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry) Multiple mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple) Accessory fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes) Placentation : Placentation Marginal Axile Parietal Free central Apical Basal Ovary Position : Ovary Position Hypogynous (above calyx) Perigynous (within the floral cup) Epigynous (below calyx) Monocots vs. Dicots : Monocots vs. Dicots One cotyledon Parallel leaf veins Flower parts often in multiples of three Vascular bundles scattered in stem Two cotyledons Netlike leaf veins Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem

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