# Data Statistics

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Published on March 13, 2014

Author: abdulwasay789

Source: slideshare.net

By Dr Aijaz Ahmed Sohag Prep by: Abdul Wasay Baloch Amna Inayat Medical College Data

Data collecting classifying Summarizing analyzing Interpreting numerical data Variables Qualitative Quantitative Discrete Continuous Ordinal Nominal

Continuous: Blood pressure , height weight Discontinuous : No of children No of attacks of asthma per week Qualitative

Categorical Ordinal  Ordered categories  Grade of breast cancer  Better, same or worst  Disagree, neutral, agree Nominal  Sex  Alive or dead  Blood group O, A, AB

Qualitative  Countable facts  Discrete  Only frequency changes  Can be expressed in rate ratio  Use Bar, Pie, Picto and spot maps  Test used – chi square, Standard error of proportion Quantitative  Measureable facts  Continuous  Both frequency and variable changes  Expressed as mean, median and mode  Rest all diagrams, such as histo scatter and other  Test used – ANOVA,Z test and T Tesst

Data Defines as  ‘’ collection of observation in scientific way’’

Types  It has two types  Qualitative  Quantitative

Qualitative Data  Qualitative data is categorized as data expressed not in terms of number, e.g. favorite color, height is tall  TYPES:  Normal : when there is not a natural ordringof the categories, e.g. gender, race, religion  Ordinal or Ordered/ Ranked Data: when the categories: when the categories may be ordered, these are called ordinal variable e.g. small, medium, large  NOTE that the distance between these categories is not measured  Used for both qualitative and quantitative

Quantitative Data

Quantitative Data  It is a numerical measurement expressed in terms of numbers  However, not all the numbers are continuous and measureable  E.g. favourite color = 450 nm, height = 1.8m

Discrete  When you just count the numbers e.g 10 pencils  Can not be expressed in decimal  Thought countable, take only whole number values e.g. No of children

Continuous  This is measured on some scale  It has no ends  E.g. counting the pulse rate of class  Measuring BP  Can be measured in decimal  May be measure as fractional values e.g. 17.4C, 162.5 cm etc)

Variables  Characteristic :  Any characteristic whose value is different from one individual to another e.g. height of school boy  A variable is any characteristic which is measured or observed  It is denoted by X  Variables are characteristics associated with the subjects of study e.g. height weight, gender  Variables so called because they tend to vary between subjects  Broadly variables are grouped into quantitative and qualitative variables

Quantitative Variables  Data can be further classified beig qualitative or quantitative  The STATISTICAL ANALYSIS that is appropriate depends on whether the data for variable is qualitative or quantitative  In general, there are more alternatives for statistical analysis when the data are Quantitative

Quantitative Data  Indicate either how many or how much  Always numeric  Ordinary arithmetic operation (e.g. +,- etc) are meaningful only with QULITATIVE DATA

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