Published on March 13, 2014
By Dr Aijaz Ahmed Sohag Prep by: Abdul Wasay Baloch Amna Inayat Medical College Data
Data collecting classifying Summarizing analyzing Interpreting numerical data Variables Qualitative Quantitative Discrete Continuous Ordinal Nominal
Continuous: Blood pressure , height weight Discontinuous : No of children No of attacks of asthma per week Qualitative
Categorical Ordinal Ordered categories Grade of breast cancer Better, same or worst Disagree, neutral, agree Nominal Sex Alive or dead Blood group O, A, AB
Qualitative Countable facts Discrete Only frequency changes Can be expressed in rate ratio Use Bar, Pie, Picto and spot maps Test used – chi square, Standard error of proportion Quantitative Measureable facts Continuous Both frequency and variable changes Expressed as mean, median and mode Rest all diagrams, such as histo scatter and other Test used – ANOVA,Z test and T Tesst
Data Defines as ‘’ collection of observation in scientific way’’
Types It has two types Qualitative Quantitative
Qualitative Data Qualitative data is categorized as data expressed not in terms of number, e.g. favorite color, height is tall TYPES: Normal : when there is not a natural ordringof the categories, e.g. gender, race, religion Ordinal or Ordered/ Ranked Data: when the categories: when the categories may be ordered, these are called ordinal variable e.g. small, medium, large NOTE that the distance between these categories is not measured Used for both qualitative and quantitative
Quantitative Data It is a numerical measurement expressed in terms of numbers However, not all the numbers are continuous and measureable E.g. favourite color = 450 nm, height = 1.8m
Discrete When you just count the numbers e.g 10 pencils Can not be expressed in decimal Thought countable, take only whole number values e.g. No of children
Continuous This is measured on some scale It has no ends E.g. counting the pulse rate of class Measuring BP Can be measured in decimal May be measure as fractional values e.g. 17.4C, 162.5 cm etc)
Variables Characteristic : Any characteristic whose value is different from one individual to another e.g. height of school boy A variable is any characteristic which is measured or observed It is denoted by X Variables are characteristics associated with the subjects of study e.g. height weight, gender Variables so called because they tend to vary between subjects Broadly variables are grouped into quantitative and qualitative variables
Quantitative Variables Data can be further classified beig qualitative or quantitative The STATISTICAL ANALYSIS that is appropriate depends on whether the data for variable is qualitative or quantitative In general, there are more alternatives for statistical analysis when the data are Quantitative
Quantitative Data Indicate either how many or how much Always numeric Ordinary arithmetic operation (e.g. +,- etc) are meaningful only with QULITATIVE DATA
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