Published on March 11, 2014
Data Management Part 2 ILRI Graduate Fellows skills training Nairobi 12 November 2013
Session Objectives • Be able to describe the use and application of GPS and GIS data capture tools – introductory level. • Be able to get your data ready for analysis, store data in database servers and to access database server from statistical packages (STATA, SPSS, R) • Be able to clean data in database servers • Be able to carry out basic data querying scripts using SQL • Be able to make your data available – portals, repositories, etc. • Explore ethics – open access, acknowledgements, data ownership, confidentiality
Research Process • Problem definition • Literature review • Objective & hypothesis • Study design • Sampling • Data collection • Data management • Formal analysis • Reporting • Publication • Data archiving or publication Project development implementation Communicating findings Definition of problem domain & how the specific problem fits in Identification of gaps, appropriate methods & theory Research will approve or disapprove the hypothesis Research strategy to be used, sample size, sampling frame Sample selection Data collection tools Database development and data cleaning Exploration, description, modelling & interpretation of statistical outputs Choice of reporting media & format Advise on presentation of results Data sharing media
Overview • Introduction to IP • Overview of Intellectual Property Rights • Open access • Acknowledgments • Data ownership • Confidentiality
Intellectual property • Intellectual Property (IP) refers to creations of the mind: inventions, literary and artistic works, and symbols, names, images, and designs used in commerce. • IP is the protection, promotion or recognition of the work of the mind through rewards, incentives as well as legal mechanisms for the enforcement or vindication of these rights in the case of infringement.
Categories of Intellectual Property • IP is broadly classified in three main categories being; – Trade Marks, – Patents and – Copyright
Patent • What is a Patent? – A Patent is a legal document granted by a State that secures to the holder, for a limited period, the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering for sale, and importing the patented subject matter (invention)
Patentable subject matter • Any new and useful process, product, composition of matter, or any improvement thereof, may be patented, on condition that such invention is: – Novel – involves an inventive step i.e. must not be obvious to a person of ordinary skills in that field of art, and – industrially applicable
Cont/. What is not Patentable? • Methods of treatments of both human and animals by surgery or therapy as well as diagnostic methods practice thereto, except products for use thereof. • One cannot obtain biotechnological patent protection for plant or animal varieties, or essentially biological processes for the production of plants or animals. • Inventions contrary to public order, morality, public health and safety, principles of humanity and environmental conservation
Examples • Safety pins
Examples • Paper matchbox
Duration of Patent • Patents exist for at least 20 years which is another Trade on Related Aspects of IP Rights( TRIPS) standard. • Term is non-renewable • They are territorial in nature, enforceable only in the country that granted them
Copyright • What is Copyright? – Simply is “the right to make copies” – Copyright protection subsist in any original works of art and authorship once fixed in any tangible medium of expression, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device A cautionary Note! – Copyright only extent as much to the expressions of and NOT to the underlying ideas or facts.
Subject matter of Copyright • Literary works • Musical works, including any wordings • Dramatic works, including any music • Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works • Motion pictures and other audiovisual works • Sound recordings • computer programs or software, tables and compilation of data • Architectural works
What does copyright protect? • Copyright law protect the author of work against wilful acts of: – Copying, reprinting, publishing and vending the copyrighted work – Displaying, delivering, reading or presenting copyrighted work in public – Performing publicly e.g drama, musical composition – Producing and distributing to the public – Adapting, compiling, arranging, dramatizing translating or any other version of copyrighted works in public
Requirements for copyright Protection • Originality – Independent creation – modest quantum of creativity • Fixation – Works of authorship(intangible) – Material object
Duration of Copyright • It subsists for the life of the owner plus 50 years in Kenya • Varies in each country.
Open Access • Definition; Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of financial, legal, or technical restrictions. • By "open access" to this literature, it means free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose • What laws bind you? – IP laws – Contract law – ILRI IP (IA) Policies
ILRI Open Access Policy • ILRI Intellectual Property Policy • CGIAR Principles on the Management of Intellectual Assets (CGIAR IA Principles) • Implementation Guidelines (CGIAR IA Principles)
ILRI Open Access Policy • All Intellectual Assets produced or acquired by ILRI shall be managed in ways that maximize their global accessibility and/or ensure that they lead to the broadest possible impact on target beneficiaries in support of the ILRI and CGIAR Vision
Creative • A standardized way to grant copyright permissions to creative work.
The Licenses 2. Attribution • This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation.
The Licenses 3. Attribution-ShareAlike • This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use.
The Licenses 4. Attribution-NoDerivs • This license allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you.
The Licenses 5. Attribution-NonCommercial • This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.
The Licenses 6. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs • This license is the most restrictive of the six main licenses, only allowing others to download your works and share them with others as long as they credit you, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
Acknowledgements ILRI Institutional Strategy on Research Publishing • Any person making significant intellectual contributions to the design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of work being published should be named as authors. • People who make significant contributions in collection of data, assisting in technical operations, managing research animals or plants, and providing routine analysis should be acknowledged for their contributions. • Acknowledgement to donors/funding agencies that supported the particular research that generated the publication should also be made, along with acknowledgement of the support of the CGIAR.
Data Ownership CGIAR Principles on the Management of Intellectual Assets • International Public Goods • The CGIAR regards the results of its research and development activities as international public goods and is committed to their widespread diffusion and use to achieve the maximum possible access, scale, scope of impact and sharing of benefits to advantage the poor, especially farmers in developing countries • ILRI Institutional Strategy on Research Publishing 2011. • ILRI should produce ‘international public goods’ whose benefits can be accessed and taken up internationally. The goods need to ‘travel’. • Through appropriate licenses(CC), ILRI ensures that authors are credited
Cont/. Data Ownership • Use of third party IP ILRI may enter into agreements for the acquisition and use of third party Intellectual Assets that restrict the global accessibility of the products/services resulting from the use of such Intellectual Assets for commercialization, research and development . • Accountability must be adhered to while respecting and without infringing third party IP rights.
Confidentiality General rule “The Consortium and the Centres shall promptly and broadly disseminate their research results” Exception Restrictions associated with filing and registration of IP rights. Procedure. “Before Intellectual Assets at the Centre level are publicly disclosed, such public disclosure should be approved following the Centre's internal approval procedure.”
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