Published on March 15, 2014
DATA INPUT AND OUTPUT
INPUT/OUTPUT IN C C has no built-in statements for input or output. A library of functions is supplied to perform these operations. The I/O library functions are listed the “header” file <stdio.h>. You do not need to memorize them, just be familiar with them.
STREAMS All input and output is performed with streams. A "stream" is a sequence of characters organized into lines. Each line consists of zero or more characters and ends with the "newline" character.
TYPES OF STREAMS IN C Standard input stream is called "stdin" and is normally connected to the keyboard Standard output stream is called "stdout" and is normally connected to the display screen. Standard error stream is called "stderr" and is also normally connected to the screen
I/O FUNCTIONS IN C There are six i/o functions in C are: 1. getchar() 2. putchar() 3. printf() 4.scanf() 5.gets() 6.puts()
GETCHAR() getchar(); Single character can be entered in computer using C. Example: Char c; ………… ……. C=getchar();
PUTCHAR() putchar(); It is used to display single char. Example char c=‘H’; putchar(c);
SCANF scanf ( ) ; This function provides for formatted input from the keyboard. The syntax is: scanf ( “format” , &var1, &var2, …) ; The “format” is a listing of the data types of the variables to be input and the & in front of each variable name tells the system WHERE to store the value that is input. It provides the address for the variable. Example: float a; int b; scanf (“%f%d”, &a, &b
FORMAT OF DATA Format Conversion Specifiers: d -- displays a decimal (base 10) integer l -- used with other specifies to indicate a "long" e -- displays a floating point value in exponential notation f -- displays a floating point value g -- displays a number in either "e" or "f" format c -- displays a single character s -- displays a string of characters
STRINGS When you enter string data the compiler automatically add 0 in the end of string; Char name; gets(name); ‘ROHIT’ But actual value stored in computer is ‘ROHIT0’
PRINTF This function provides for formatted output to the screen. The syntax is: printf ( “format”, var1, var2, … ) ; The “format” includes a listing of the data types of the variables to be output and, optionally, some text and control character(s). Example: float a ; int b ; scanf ( “%f%d”, &a, &b ) ; printf ( “You entered %f and %d n”, a, b ) ;
GETS AND PUTS To input a string to computer gets(name); Puts is used to display string data on screen puts(name);
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Input/output This article does not cite any sources ... Inputs are the signals or data received by the system and outputs are the signals or data sent from it.
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Surabhi Saxena continues our series on the foundation computer language C, this time looking at data input and output.
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