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Data collection methods (2)

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Information about Data collection methods (2)
Education

Published on March 8, 2014

Author: clauditacar

Source: slideshare.net

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Selecting Appropriate Data Collection Methods

‘It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.’ -Sir Arthur Conan Doyle as Sherlock Holmes O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 2

Data Collection Options Data collection possibilities are wide and varied with any one method of collection not inherently better than any other  Each has pros and cons that must be weighed up in view of a rich and complex context  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 3

The Data Collection Process  All methods of collection require rigorous and systematic design and execution that includes  thorough planning  well considered development  effective piloting  weighed modification  deliberate implementation and execution  appropriate management and analysis O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 4

Surveys   Surveying involves gathering information from individuals using a questionnaire Surveys can  reach a large number of respondents  generate standardized, quantifiable, empirical data as well as some qualitative data  and offer confidentiality / anonymity  Designing survey instruments capable of generating credible data, however, can be difficult O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 5

Survey Types  Surveys can be  descriptive or explanatory  involve entire populations or samples of populations  capture a moment or map trends  can be administered in a number of ways O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 6

Survey Construction  Survey construction involves  formulating questions and response categories  writing up background information and instruction  working through organization and length  determining layout and design O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 7

Interviewing    Interviewing involves asking respondents a series of open-ended questions Interviews can generate both standardized quantifiable data, and more in-depth qualitative data However, the complexities of people and the complexities of communication can create many opportunities for miscommunication and misinterpretation O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 8

Interview Types  Interviews can range from  formal to informal  structured to unstructured  can be one on one or involve groups O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 9

Conducting Interviews  When conducting your interviews you will need to  question, prompt, and probe in ways that help you gather rich data  actively listen and make sense of what is being said  manage the overall process O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 10

Observation Observation relies on the researchers’ ability to gather data though their senses and allows researchers to document actual behaviour rather than responses related to behaviour  However, the observed can act differently when surveilled, and observations can be tainted by a researcher’s worldview  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 11

Observation Types  Observation can range from  non-participant to participant  candid to covert  from structured to unstructured O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 12

The Observation Process The observation process is sometimes treated casually, but is a method that needs to be treated as rigorously as any other  The process should include planning, observing, recording, reflecting, and authenticating  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 13

Unobtrusive Methods Unobtrusive methods involve researchers and research processes that are removed from the researched  Unobtrusive methods are ‘non-reactive’ and capitalize on existing data  But researchers need to work through data not expressly generated for their proposes that may contain biases  O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 14

Unobtrusive Methods  Unobtrusive methods include  the exploration of official data and records  corporate data  personal records  the media  the arts  social artefacts O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 15

The ‘Unobtrusive’ Process  In order to gather data by unobtrusive means you need to  know what you are looking for  where you can find it  whether it can be trusted  what you can do with it O'Leary, Z. (2005) RESEARCHING REAL-WORLD PROBLEMS: A Guide to Methods of Inquiry. London: Sage. Chapter 6. 16

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