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Data Analysis - Scientific Research Definitions

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Information about Data Analysis - Scientific Research Definitions
Education

Published on March 3, 2014

Author: shivoo.koteshwar

Source: slideshare.net

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Research Methodology
Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research
definitions by Research Scholars
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Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars   ASSIGNMENT 7: Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars Research Methodology Dr. Sridhar TITLE: A Study on Pragmatic Approaches and Quality Initiatives for Enhancing Teachers’ Caliber in Post Graduate Institutes offering MBA Programme under Bangalore University Under the Guidance of Dr. T.V. Raju Director, RV Institute of Management, Bangalore CANARA BANK SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BANGALORE UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY Shivananda R Koteshwar PhD Research Scholar, 2013, REG# 350051   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars   PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 1. After discussion in class, an assignment was given to each individual to define “Scientific Research Methodology” 2. Out of 30, research scholars, 27 submitted their understanding of “Scientific Research Methodology” 3. Task is to analyze this data of 27 definitions 4. Quantitatively comment on the qualitative data SAMPLE • 27 “Scientific Research Methodology” definitions from Research Scholars TOOLS USED 1. Microsoft Word functions (Word Count, Search, Search &Replace) 2. Microsoft Excel Tool for charts STEPS 1. Data Analysis (Conversion of Qualitative Data to Quantitative Data) a. Analyze the qualitative data and identify key parameters which define Scientific Research from the sample (27 Definitions from research scholars) b. Calculate the frequency of this parameter in each definition and across different definitions (Both most and least parameter occurrence) 2. Measure the extent of my knowledge: Analyze self-definition and check how many of these global parameters exist and if there are new parameters, identify and record the same. 3. Enhance and redefine: Enhance and redefine the “Scientific Research Methodology” definition based on new knowledge acquired. This will be purely data driven and unbiased DATA ANALYSIS 1. Analyze the qualitative data and identify key parameters which define Scientific Research from the sample (27 Definitions from research scholars)   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars   Earlier Definition Scientific Research Method Scientific research method is inquiry based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the scientific method as: "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses” When research is not based on scientific method, then the result could be biased. Scientific method applies to the entire life cycle of the research – Hypothesis, Prediction, Formulation of question, Sampling, Experimentation, Observation, Recording, Measurement, Analyzing, Formulation, Testing, Modification and Conclusion. The tools used for any of these steps also need to pass reliability tests. The scientific method also includes other components required even when all the iterations of the steps above have been completed: • Replication: If an experiment cannot be repeated to produce the same results, this implies that the original results were in error • External review: The process of peer review involves evaluation of the experiment by experts, who give their opinions anonymously to allow them to give unbiased criticism. • Data recording and sharing: Scientists must record all data very precisely in order to reduce their own bias and aid in replication by others Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena and design experimental studies to test these hypotheses via predictions, which can be derived from them. These steps must be repeatable to guard against mistake or confusion in any particular experimenter. Scientific inquiry is generally intended to be as objective as possible in order to reduce biased interpretations of results. The key elements of scientific research is 1. Ethical neutrality (Eliminate personal opinion) 2. Objective (not subjective) 3. Evidence based Aristotle viewed scientific inquiry as a progression from observations to general principles and back to observations. The scientific method is not a single recipe: it requires intelligence, imagination, and creativity. It is not a mindless set of standards and procedures to follow, but is rather an ongoing cycle, constantly developing more useful, accurate and comprehensive models and methods Guidelines for effective scientific method: 1. Define a question 2. Gather information and resources (observe) 3. Form an explanatory hypothesis   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars   4. Test the hypothesis by performing an experiment and collecting data in a reproducible manner 5. Analyze the data 6. Interpret the data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis 7. Publish results 8. Retest (frequently done by other scientists) SOURCE: Source of information is class notes, Wikipedia and Textbook ANALYSIS: “Must” occurrence Parameters: Unbias/Ethically Neutral, Systematic/Orderly, Logic/Reasoning, Objective/Object Oriented/Fact/Evidence, Verify/Validate “Missing” Parameters in my definition: Verify/Validate “Least” occurrence Parameters: Rational, Scrutiny, Cause & Effect Any “Least” Parameters exist in my definition: None Enhance and Redefine the Definition based on new Knowledge Acquired. (To include all “must” parameters) Scientific Research Method Scientific research method is inquiry based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the scientific method as: "a method or procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses” When research is not based on scientific method, then the result could be biased. Scientific method applies to the entire life cycle of the research – Hypothesis, Prediction, Formulation of question, Sampling, Experimentation, Observation, Recording, Measurement, Analyzing, Formulation, Testing, Modification and Conclusion. The tools used for any of these steps also need to pass reliability tests.   Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

Data Analysis - To analyze the Scientific Research definitions by Research Scholars   The scientific method also includes other components required even when all the iterations of the steps above have been completed: • Replication: If an experiment cannot be repeated to produce the same results, this implies that the original results were in error • External review: The process of peer review involves evaluation of the experiment by experts, who give their opinions anonymously to allow them to give unbiased criticism. • Data recording and sharing: Scientists must record all data very precisely in order to reduce their own bias and aid in replication by others Scientific researchers propose hypotheses as explanations of phenomena and design experimental studies to validate these hypotheses via predictions, which can be derived from them. These steps must be repeatable to guard against mistake or confusion in any particular experimenter. Scientific inquiry is generally intended to be as objective as possible in order to reduce biased interpretations of results. The key elements of scientific research is 1. Ethical neutrality (Eliminate personal bias) 2. Objective (not subjective) 3. Evidence based 4. Should have Validity and Reliability Aristotle viewed scientific inquiry as a progression from observations to general principles and back to observations. The scientific method is not a single recipe: it requires intelligence, imagination, and creativity. It is not a mindless set of standards and procedures to follow, but is rather an ongoing cycle, constantly developing more useful, accurate and comprehensive models and methods Guidelines for effective scientific method: 1. Define a question 2. Gather information and resources (observe) 3. Form an explanatory hypothesis 4. Prediction – the researcher comes to a logical conclusion 5. Test the hypothesis by performing an experiment and collecting data in a reproducible manner 6. Analyze the data 7. Interpret the data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis 8. Publish results 9. Retest (frequently done by other scientists) SOURCE: Source of information is class notes, Wikipedia and Textbook, Peer Research Scholars Definitions     Shivananda  R  Koteshwar,  PhD  Research  Scholar,  Bangalore  University  

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