Dancing Durga at Cham Po Nagar Kalan

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Information about Dancing Durga at Cham Po Nagar Kalan
Design

Published on February 16, 2009

Author: bryangelo

Source: slideshare.net

 

Architecture: Po Nagar Kalan Sculpture: Dancing Durga

 

 

Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing Durga Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan

Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan

Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan

 

It is the main temple-tower ( kalan) 22.8 meters tall Dedicated to the goddess of the kingdom, Yan Po (Inu) Nagar or Goddess Bhagavati Early 8 th century wood temple burnt down by Javanese raiders Built of clay “spongy” 8 bricks joined with molasses 2

It is the main temple-tower ( kalan)

22.8 meters tall

Dedicated to the goddess of the kingdom, Yan Po (Inu) Nagar or Goddess Bhagavati

Early 8 th century wood temple burnt down by Javanese raiders

Built of clay “spongy” 8 bricks joined with molasses 2

Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan

3-tier step-pyramidal structure on a square base 10 Source: Trán, Kỳ Phương. Vestiges of Champa Civilisation

3-tier step-pyramidal structure on a square base 10

Body of the tower has undecorated oblong double pilasters 10 5 columns on each wall

Body of the tower has undecorated oblong double pilasters 10

5 columns on each wall

Unique spearhead (or maybe lotus petal?) arcature on the vestibule and false doorways

Unique spearhead (or maybe lotus petal?) arcature on the vestibule and false doorways

Inscription on the pillars of vestibule (11th to 13th centuries) 10 Stylised lotus petal designs on vestibule Mixed technique of high and low relief Small corridor that leads to the sanctum sanctorum Main deity: Goddess Bhagavati or Goddess Po Inu Nagar

Inscription on the pillars of vestibule (11th to 13th centuries) 10

Stylised lotus petal designs on vestibule

Mixed technique of high and low relief

Small corridor that leads to the sanctum sanctorum

Main deity: Goddess Bhagavati or Goddess Po Inu Nagar

False-doors feature figures holding swords (barely visible) 10 Possible to be Dvarapala? Source: Wikipedia, “Dvarapala” Dvarapala Bantaey Kdei Angkor, Cambodia c. 12 century Dvarapala or Standing Shiva Khuong My style Vietnam (Champa) c. 10 century Metropolitan Museum of Art

False-doors feature figures holding swords (barely visible) 10

Possible to be Dvarapala?

Design are carved directly on the walls 8 Not carved on soft bricks, fired then arranged as walls 8

Design are carved directly on the walls 8

Not carved on soft bricks, fired then arranged as walls 8

Repeated motifs on each tier The central kalan , archways / doorways repeated, apsara s and leaf-like motifs repeated Multiplicity of images

Repeated motifs on each tier

The central kalan , archways / doorways repeated, apsara s and leaf-like motifs repeated

Multiplicity of images

Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan

Kalan : temple-tower Based on the Indian (Hindu-Buddhist) notion of Mount Meru – abode of deities Abides by strict guidelines: Centripetal in layout Axes oriented in 4 cardinal points Main entrance facing eastwards Relationship between politics and power for the kalan?

Kalan : temple-tower

Based on the Indian (Hindu-Buddhist) notion of Mount Meru – abode of deities

Abides by strict guidelines:

Centripetal in layout

Axes oriented in 4 cardinal points

Main entrance facing eastwards

Relationship between politics and power for the kalan?

 

Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan

Described as “pyramidal” 5 (Parmentier, 1918) Dated as 10 th to 14 th centuries Classified under Po Nagar Nha Trang 5 Style or Intermediate 5 / Transitional 3 Style (Stern, 1942) Transitions from My Son A1 to Binh Dinh style Dated as 11 th – 12 th century Characterised by: three-storied, conical roof rising 10 Reduced architectural ornamentation and simplified motifs 3

Described as “pyramidal” 5 (Parmentier, 1918)

Dated as 10 th to 14 th centuries

Classified under Po Nagar Nha Trang 5 Style or Intermediate 5 / Transitional 3 Style (Stern, 1942)

Transitions from My Son A1 to Binh Dinh style

Dated as 11 th – 12 th century

Characterised by: three-storied, conical roof rising 10

Reduced architectural ornamentation and simplified motifs 3

Source: Trán, Kỳ Phương. Vestiges of Champa Civilisation Conical roof rising

Comparison of Styles: My Son A1, Intermediate Style & Binh Dinh Styles My Son Kalan My Son A1 Style (10 th century) Thap Nham Kalan Binh Dinh Style (12 th- 13 th century) Po Nagar Kalan Intermediate Style (11 th -12 th century)

Comparison of Styles: My Son A1, Intermediate Style & Binh Dinh Styles

According to Stern: Other Intermediate Style buildings Chien Dan Kalan Intermediate Style (11 th -12 th century) Thap Nham Kalan Intermediate Style (11 th -12 th century) Po Nagar Kalan Intermediate Style (11 th -12 th century)

According to Stern: Other Intermediate Style buildings

Much damage from nature, the war and vandalism has been done to ruin or completely destroy the artistic legacy of Champa 8 Restoration Issues Source: Ngô, Văn Doanh. Champa Ancient Towers: Reality & Legend

Much damage from nature, the war and vandalism has been done to ruin or completely destroy the artistic legacy of Champa 8

Restoration Issues

The various models for iconographical identification (at this point) are still generalising and sometimes contradictory 5 Different models had different preoccupations There’s still a lot that we do not know about Champa (dead culture). Archaeological research has barely begun for any real insight 4 Models conjured up based on just primary information; insufficient experience with the subject 5 Dating by characteristics may be problematic Could the stylistic differences between the kalan s due to regional development (i.e.: Kauthura-style, Vijara-style) instead of progressive time development?

The various models for iconographical identification (at this point) are still generalising and sometimes contradictory 5

Different models had different preoccupations

There’s still a lot that we do not know about Champa (dead culture).

Archaeological research has barely begun for any real insight 4

Models conjured up based on just primary information; insufficient experience with the subject 5

Dating by characteristics may be problematic

Could the stylistic differences between the kalan s due to regional development (i.e.: Kauthura-style, Vijara-style) instead of progressive time development?

Po Nagar Kalan versus Angkor Wat Where is it and basic info Physical Description The Kalan as Mount Meru Style and its problems Po Nagar Kalan

ORIGINS BUILT IN CONCEPT RELIGION STYLE MATERIAL Champa Khmer 11th century 12th century Temple-Mountain Temple-Mountain-City Hindu (Saivaite) Hindu (Vaishnavaite) then Buddhist (Theravada) Intermediate Style (Stern) High classical style of Khmer Clay bricks & molasses Sandstone & slaked lime

DECOR TOWERS MULTIPLI- CITY Designs carved on directly Designs carved then laid 3-tier step pyramidal tower Redented towers shaped like rose buds Mini tower & doorways repeated on tower Mini tower & doorways repeated on tower

 

Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing Durga

Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing Durga

 

Found on the pediment* above the entrance to the Po Nagar Kalan 14 Carved in 1065 Identified as: Bhagavathi (means Goddess in sanskrit ) Mahishasuramardhi ( lit. the One who crushes Asura Mahisha) 14

Found on the pediment* above the entrance to the Po Nagar Kalan 14

Carved in 1065

Identified as:

Bhagavathi (means Goddess in sanskrit )

Mahishasuramardhi ( lit. the One who crushes Asura Mahisha) 14

Who is Durga? 7 Shakti (energy of a god) or consort of Shiva; the inaccessible Popular s hakti of Shiva: Uma, Gauri, Parvarti, Kali, Mahadevi 9 Terrifying form of the goddess Born of the anger of Vishnu and Shiva Destroyed the great demon, Mahisa (buffalo appearance) Bears the weapons of all the great Gods (10 weapons in all) Dressed and adorned in jewellery from the mythical milk ocean Dawon (lion) as vehicle

Who is Durga? 7

Shakti (energy of a god) or consort of Shiva; the inaccessible

Popular s hakti of Shiva: Uma, Gauri, Parvarti, Kali, Mahadevi 9

Terrifying form of the goddess

Born of the anger of Vishnu and Shiva

Destroyed the great demon, Mahisa (buffalo appearance)

Bears the weapons of all the great Gods (10 weapons in all)

Dressed and adorned in jewellery from the mythical milk ocean

Dawon (lion) as vehicle

Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing Durga

 

 

Embedded in a leaf (or lotus petal?) -shaped design Carved in high relief on stone, three-dimensionality Main figure robust volumes and full forms Accompanied by 2 dancing figures

Embedded in a leaf (or lotus petal?) -shaped design

Carved in high relief on stone, three-dimensionality

Main figure robust volumes and full forms

Accompanied by 2 dancing figures

Torso not draped Full-breasted (Mother Goddess) Tribhunga posture (dancing or active engagement); maybe even athi bhunga posture? Limbs appear large and solid Four-arms, holding discus, lotus and trident 1 hand performing a mudra ? Durga Mahisasuramardini statues in athi bhunga ; Source: Internet (http://ssubbanna.sulekha.com/)

Torso not draped

Full-breasted (Mother Goddess)

Tribhunga posture (dancing or active engagement); maybe even athi bhunga posture?

Limbs appear large and solid

Four-arms, holding discus, lotus and trident

1 hand performing a mudra ?

Feather-like skirt Bare-feet Right foot standing on a buffalo figure Submissive buffalo

Feather-like skirt

Bare-feet

Right foot standing on a buffalo figure

Submissive buffalo

Heads are disproportionately bigger Eyes are partially open Very slight eyebrows (low-relief) Gentle smile Rounded features, Fleshy cheeks and lips Introverted, passive demeanour

Heads are disproportionately bigger

Eyes are partially open

Very slight eyebrows (low-relief)

Gentle smile

Rounded features,

Fleshy cheeks and lips

Introverted, passive demeanour

Crown of Kitira Heavily adorned with jewellery: Beaded necklace, bracelets and a loop earring with adornment Dancers are equally vested with jewellery

Crown of Kitira

Heavily adorned with jewellery: Beaded necklace, bracelets and a loop earring with adornment

Dancers are equally vested with jewellery

Dancers and musical accompaniment Less intricate crowns Left dancer more extroverted Posture and dynamic movement Long, attenuated limbs (“heptic”?) Durga’s apsara s?

Dancers and musical accompaniment

Less intricate crowns

Left dancer more extroverted

Posture and dynamic movement

Long, attenuated limbs (“heptic”?)

Durga’s apsara s?

The Cham’s appearance and dressing as reference point for their sculpture? “ The Cham people had dark complexions, protruding noses, deep eye sockets and curly hair….They wrapped a single cotton cloth around their bodies and walked barefoot, save the wealthy and the aristocracy who wore shoes. They wore necklaces and earrings of metal loops.” A History of Vietnam by Oscar Chapius, Pg 40

The Cham’s appearance and dressing as reference point for their sculpture?

The sculptors were also inspired by their environment: corporal appearance and clothing were those of people around them; nature became a model for decorative motifs 5

The sculptors were also inspired by their environment: corporal appearance and clothing were those of people around them; nature became a model for decorative motifs 5

Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing Durga

A representation of Durga in tribhunga (or in a dance posture) is not very common What could be the reasons why Durga is represented in tribhunga here? From left : Durga Mahisasuramardini statues from Chittaranjan Park (New Delhi), Singahasari (Java) and Rotunda South 16 (Java) ; Source: Internet

A representation of Durga in tribhunga (or in a dance posture) is not very common

What could be the reasons why Durga is represented in tribhunga here?

To establish a relationship with Shiva Nataraja? (Saivaite cult) Or was dance a very vital aspect of the Cham culture? “ heptic” sense of the body; coursing of the rasa From left: Dancing Siva, Gupta, 5th century and Dancer, Laos/Vietnam, 10th century Source: ADM210 Lecture 5, ADM215 Lecture 5 Shiva with twenty-eight arms dancing on Nandi, My Son A1 Style, Laos/Vietnam, early 10th century, Grey sandstone, Danang Museum Source: Hindu –Buddhist Art of Vietnam: Treasures from Champa by Emmanuel Guillon

To establish a relationship with Shiva Nataraja? (Saivaite cult)

Or was dance a very vital aspect of the Cham culture?

“ heptic” sense of the body; coursing of the rasa

Is Goddess Po Nagar also Durga? Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis

Is Goddess Po Nagar also Durga?

Legend of Po Nagar: Mother Goddess of the Chams Born from sea form and clouds 5 Creator of the earth and at the hierarchical summit of all natural beings 5 Durga as Mother Goddess 7 Worshipped as Mother of the Universe (Jaganmata) and Earth Mother Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis

Legend of Po Nagar:

Mother Goddess of the Chams

Born from sea form and clouds 5

Creator of the earth and at the hierarchical summit of all natural beings 5

Durga as Mother Goddess 7

Worshipped as Mother of the Universe (Jaganmata) and Earth Mother

Stele inscriptions 8 : 918: Building of golden statue of Bhagavati 965: Built a new statue out of sandstone ( sailamagi ) after it was stolen by Khome ethnic 1143: Recorded praying statement to Yan Po Nagar 1165: Offering gold crown to Bhagavati Kautharesvati Goddess

Stele inscriptions 8 :

918: Building of golden statue of Bhagavati

965: Built a new statue out of sandstone ( sailamagi ) after it was stolen by Khome ethnic

1143: Recorded praying statement to Yan Po Nagar

1165: Offering gold crown to Bhagavati Kautharesvati Goddess

Name translation 8 : In sanskrit, name of Goddess in stele would be written as Bhagavati In Cham language, it would Yan Po Nagar

Name translation 8 :

In sanskrit, name of Goddess in stele would be written as Bhagavati

In Cham language, it would Yan Po Nagar

Statue 8 : Kala - Makara - Torana styled arch Dressed only skirt, bare upper body, flabby breasts Has 10 arms, carrying weapons associated with Durga Seated cross-legged on a lotus throne over a set of yoni 10 Indian religious influence (Hinduism) has integrated into the worship of Yan Po Nagar Goddess 8 Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis

Statue 8 :

Kala - Makara - Torana styled arch

Dressed only skirt, bare upper body, flabby breasts

Has 10 arms, carrying weapons associated with Durga

Seated cross-legged on a lotus throne over a set of yoni 10

Indian religious influence (Hinduism) has integrated into the worship of Yan Po Nagar Goddess 8

Is Goddess Po Nagar statue inspired from Quan Am statues? Durga / Goddess Po Nagar, Po Nagar Kalan, c. 965AD Source: Corbis Thousand-armed Quam Am statues, Lê Dynasty (980 to 1009), Vietnam, Hanoi Fine Arts Museum Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tuey/2394684729/

Is Goddess Po Nagar statue inspired from Quan Am statues?

Basic Info Physical description and iconography Durga, Shiva and Po Nagar Durga from Champa and Khmer Dancing Durga

Mahishasuramardani, western pediment, gopura II, Bantreay Srei Source: Images of the Gods: Khmer Mythology in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. Bangkok by Vittorio Roveda, 2005

ORIGINS BUILT IN WHERE SCENE MATERIAL RELIEF Champa Khmer 11th century c. 12th century On pediment (Po Nagar Kalan ) On pediment (West pediment, Gopura 2) Mahishasuramardini Mahishasuramardini Stone Sandstone Higher relief Lower relief

WEAPONS VEHICLE BUFFALO POSTURE FACE CROWN War discus, lotus and trident Spear, shield, war discus, noose No Yes Yes Yes, with Naga binding it 9 Tribhanga Slight tribhanga Eyes partial open, gentle smile Eyes partial open, gentle smile Yes Yes

JEWELLERY FIGURE ORNAMEN- TATION SIGNI- FICANCE Yes No Rounded, soft and full Slender and gentle 6 No Leaf/swirl ornaments 6 Po Nagar/Durga/Bhagavati Protective power of the lintel 6

 

1 Bassoul, Aziz. Human and Divine: The Hindu and Buddhist Iconography of Southeast Asian Art from the Claire and Aziz Bassoul Collection . Lebanon: Cedar of Lebanon, 2006 2 Chapius, Oscar. A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bac to Tu Duc . USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995 3 Chihara, Daigoro. Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia . New York: Leiden, 1996 4 Higham, Charles. Early Cultures of Mainland Southeast Asia . Bangkok: River Books, 2002 5 Hubert, Jean-François. The Art of Champa . New York: Parkstone, 2005 6 Kerlogue, Fiona. Arts of Southeast Asia . London: Thames & Hudson, 2004 7 Nagar, Shantilal. Durga The Great Goddess . India: B.R. Publishing Corporation, 2006 8 Ngô, Văn Doanh. Champa Ancient Towers: Reality & Legend . Hanoi: Thê giói, 2002 9 Roveda, Vittorio. Images of the Gods: Khmer Mythology in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand . Bangkok: River Books, 2005

1 Bassoul, Aziz. Human and Divine: The Hindu and Buddhist Iconography of Southeast Asian Art from the Claire and Aziz Bassoul Collection . Lebanon: Cedar of Lebanon, 2006

2 Chapius, Oscar. A History of Vietnam: From Hong Bac to Tu Duc . USA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995

3 Chihara, Daigoro. Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia . New York: Leiden, 1996

4 Higham, Charles. Early Cultures of Mainland Southeast Asia . Bangkok: River Books, 2002

5 Hubert, Jean-François. The Art of Champa . New York: Parkstone, 2005

6 Kerlogue, Fiona. Arts of Southeast Asia . London: Thames & Hudson, 2004

7 Nagar, Shantilal. Durga The Great Goddess . India: B.R. Publishing Corporation, 2006

8 Ngô, Văn Doanh. Champa Ancient Towers: Reality & Legend . Hanoi: Thê giói, 2002

9 Roveda, Vittorio. Images of the Gods: Khmer Mythology in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand . Bangkok: River Books, 2005

10 Trán, Kỳ Phương. Vestiges of Champa Civilisation . Hanoi: Thê giói, 2004 11 Wikipedia. “Champa”. http://en.wikipedia.org/champa (accessed 15th January 2009) 12 Wikipedia. “Art of Champa”. http://en.wikipedia.org/art_of_champa (accessed 23rd January 2009) 13 Wikipedia. “Durga”. http://en.wikipedia.org/durga (accessed 23rd January 2009) 14 Wikipedia. “Po Nagar”. http://en.wikipedia.org/po_nagar (accessed 23rd January 2009) 15 Vietnam Explorer. “Po Nagar Towers illuminate the myths of the Cham Goddess”. http://vietnamexplorer.com/index.php? option=comcontent& task=view&id= 100&Itemid=34 (accessed 5 th February 2009) 16 Knirck-Bumke, Krista., Gillian S. Clough, and Laraine Nelson. “Victorious Durga: Javanese Images of the Hindu Goddess who conquered the Buffalo Demon” . Indonesian Heritage Society, December 2003

10 Trán, Kỳ Phương. Vestiges of Champa Civilisation . Hanoi: Thê giói, 2004

11 Wikipedia. “Champa”. http://en.wikipedia.org/champa (accessed 15th January 2009)

12 Wikipedia. “Art of Champa”. http://en.wikipedia.org/art_of_champa (accessed 23rd January 2009)

13 Wikipedia. “Durga”. http://en.wikipedia.org/durga (accessed 23rd January 2009)

14 Wikipedia. “Po Nagar”. http://en.wikipedia.org/po_nagar (accessed 23rd January 2009)

15 Vietnam Explorer. “Po Nagar Towers illuminate the myths of the Cham Goddess”. http://vietnamexplorer.com/index.php? option=comcontent& task=view&id= 100&Itemid=34 (accessed 5 th February 2009)

16 Knirck-Bumke, Krista., Gillian S. Clough, and Laraine Nelson. “Victorious Durga: Javanese Images of the Hindu Goddess who conquered the Buffalo Demon” . Indonesian Heritage Society, December 2003

 

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