Published on March 5, 2009
S. De Jongh – M. Van Wijnendaele – F. Cardoso – K. Van Balen samat Damage Atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador samat Damage patterns found in (mainly earthen) building materials samat Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium :: Universidad de Cuenca, Ecuador :: VLIR‐IUOS :: 2009
Contents 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 2. How to use the Atlas in 3 steps ....................................................................................................... 2 3. Cuenca’s cultural awareness, environment and climate ................................................................ 3 4. Material and its value, damaging cause and damage pattern ........................................................ 4 I. Classification ........................................................................................................................................ 5 1. Classification through material type [Which material is affected?] ................................................ 5 2. Classification through damaging mechanism [What is the cause?] ................................................ 7 3. Classification through damaging pattern [What do you see?] ........................................................ 9 4. Classification through building state [What is the actual state?] ................................................. 12 5. Classification through severity [How bad or threatening is the damage?] .................................. 12 . II. Case Studies ...................................................................................................................................... 14 . 1. Aesthetical and surface problems ................................................................................................. 14 2. Disintergration (surface to structural problems) .......................................................................... 28 3. Surface cracks ................................................................................................................................ 50 4. Structural cracks ............................................................................................................................ 52 5. Other structural problems ............................................................................................................ 64 .
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 1. Introduction This Damage Atlas wants to be a helpful tool in defining damages and their causes in historical building materials. Research methods and solutions for occurring problems are integrated as well. More specific, the center of this book are the materials and buildings in the Unesco World Heritage city of Cuenca (Ecuador). A manual will lead the reader through this atlas which should be used preferably in situ and in an active way. The first questions always should be quot;What do we see?quot; and quot;What are we talking about?quot; since a proper investigation and correct description are necessary. In a second stage, quot;What are the (physical) damaging causes?quot; and quot;What is a sustainable precaution or solution?quot; are critical in evaluating the seriousness and developing right decisions for damages. SaMat is the Systematical Analysis of these Materials and Their damages through centralizing and validating data on an engineering level. SaMat comprises the methodology, the database, called SaMat Doccenter1, and this damage atlas as resulting product. This master piece should lead to our thesis2 in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Master of Applied Sciences and Engineering (Civil Engineering). The thesis fits within the VLIR IUOS project quot;World Heritage City Preservation and Managementquot;3. We have to thank all the people who were involved and extremely helpful for this project. Special thanks go to prof. Koenraad Van Balen, prof. Fausto Cardoso, arq. Veronica Heras and our families. Sam De Jongh and Matthias Van Wijnendaele Cover (left to right, top to bottom): Casa de Los Arcos, Casa de Las Posadas, Iglesia Santo Domingo and Casa de las Palomas, carrying adobes, adobe wall There are some copylefts to the authors on photos in this book 1 SaMat Doccenter is available online https://ernie.urania.be/oberon/mvwn/Thesis/doccenterV6/ or on the included CD and is only usable with Internet Explorer (all versions) 2 2009, “Earthquakes and other damaging mechanisms to earth structures (case study Cuenca, Ecuador)” 3 Information on the project can be found on http://vlir iuc.ucuenca.edu.ec/proyectos_detalle.php?proyecto=20 1
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 2. How to use the Atlas in 3 steps This book is intended for students and professionals (architects, engineers…) involved in (problems with) historical buildings in Cuenca. This book is a guide in determining damaging causes and proper solutions but can’t replace the expert. Part I of the book comprises definitions, explanations and classifications, while part II (in color) includes the different case studies. Step 1 ‐ First, the observed damage has to be classified with the help of the figures in the cases (part II of the Atlas). The respective definition of the damage type with the probable causes of the damage can be found in part I. Step 2 ‐ Afterwards, the user’s own hypothesis and further analysis can be compared with the first idea which can be adjusted if needed. Through facts‐analysis and visual inspection, first assumptions can be made and should be verified or rejected by further laboratory and literature research. Step 3 ‐ In a third stage the opinion and help of an expert or the experience and knowledge of local people can be important since a wrong analysis and treatment can cause further harm to the building. Special care should be taken at all times in separating damage and cause clearly from each other. All data gathered during our expedition to Cuenca can be found in the Doccenter database on the CD attached to this Atlas. This database comprises photographs from us and other people, all investigated buildings and damages. Also papers and presentations and references can be found here. This Atlas refers to Doccenter with following symbols Referring to buildingID (building identity number) Referring to photoID (photo identity number) Referring to damageID (damage identity number) 2
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 3. Cuenca’s cultural awareness, environment and climate The historical importance of the city center of Cuenca is big and UNESCO approved this in 1999 by declaring it as a cultural World Heritage site. The awareness of the local people and governments is rising but still on a low level. Academic staff, historians and architects are playing a leading role in the conservation of the historical city. The existing VLIR‐IUOS project is an example of this concern. Cuenca is lying in a dale of 4 rivers in the high mountains of the Andes at 2500 m above sea level. The environment is healthy, but due to heavy traffic combined with unrefined oil, local air pollution is a great threat for the city. At this height, the climate is not comparable with the tropical weather of the rainforest and coastal region (e.g. Guayaquil). In contrary, Cuenca has a year‐round mild climate with an average daily temperature of 16°C. The temperature is not varying much during the year with maxima and minima of around 20°C and 10°C respectively (see Figure 1Error! Reference source not found.). It is comparable to the spring season in Belgium. There are no temperatures lower than 0° measured in this period. The rainy season with periodic afternoon showers, generally lasts from mid‐October until early May. A maximum of 110 mm monthly rain fall is found in April and May, proving the local saying “Avril, aguas mil”4. The relative humidity is less than 80 % (comparable to spring and summer in Belgium). Data from ISMCS v4.0, NOAA National Data Centers (US Department of Commerce) for Cuenca and from Royal Meteorological Institute (KMI) for Belgium were used. Since the earth is moving around the sun in a quasi‐circle with a 23°27’ inclination, seasons exist. In Ecuador however, there is no actual north (where the sun never comes) or no south as we know it. Only between 23rd of September and 21st of March, the sun is standing in the South. This should be taken into account for damages caused by the sun (e.g. algae growth). The sun rises and sets in the East and West, but its path has only a little variation to the South or North during the year. This explains the stable climate through the year. 120 100 25 Monthly Temperature (° C) Relative Humidity (%) 100 90 20 Precipitation (mm) 80 80 15 60 70 10 40 60 5 20 50 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Precipitation (Cuenca, 10‐year Average) Highest Temperature (Cuenca, 7‐year Average) Precipitation (Belgium) Highest Temperature (Belgium) Lowest Temperature (Cuenca, 7‐year Average) Relative humidity (Cuenca, 10‐year Average) Lowest Temperature (Belgium) Relative Humidity (Belgium) Figure 1: Climate data for Cuenca (source: ISMCS v 4.0, NOAA National Data Centers) and Belgium (source: KMI) 4 “Avril, aguas mil”, dixit José‐David Heras Barros meaning “A thousand rain showers in April” 3
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 4. Material and its value, damaging cause and damage pattern What is damage or deterioration? It’s the reduction of ability to perform up to an anticipated defined standard due to an unwanted change of any property other than considered normal. This process of change causes a damage pattern which is determined by the severity of the damaging agent and the resistance of the material to the damaging mechanism. When this mechanism is more severe than the material’s resistance and the damage reaction is higher than accepted, one speaks from damage (Franke & Schumann, 1998). On the other side, not all changes are unwanted (e.g. renovation) and some changes can be considered as normal (e.g. renewing outdoor paint). In this last case, weathering or erosion has found place due to the action of weather and environment which is completely predictable. Also some damage can be considered faster as damage when the building (or object) is more valuable. As engineering students, we are not participating in the estimation of the (historical) value of buildings. However, we are influenced by the enthusiasm of the Cuencanian historians and architects, learning the importance of colonial earthen dwellings. The key issue on studying damages is to distinguish damaging patterns from their (primary or secondary) causes. For example, powdering of bricks is the damaging pattern due to a chemical process introduced by urine (secondary cause). The primary cause is the biological deposit of human urine (see Figure 2). Damaging Damage pattern Material  mechanism   Figure 2: Building materials are affected by damaging mechanisms resulting in a damage pattern 4
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) I. Classification 1. Classification through material type [Which material is affected?] Different types of material are used in the historical buildings of Cuenca. Next to cloth (for ceilings), paint and glass, this section gives a summation of the most important ones. Stone (piedra) and marble (mármol) – During the colonial period Pumapungo was declared a public quarry providing stone for the foundations of colonial churches and houses. Also the 4 rivers were a reference for round stones (piedra del rio). On the other hand the historical buildings in Cuenca are a reference for honey‐coloured and pink travertine marble from the Sayausì mines (e.g. actual city hall or Alcaldìa, 13). In Ingapirca ( 211) diorite stone (intrusive volcanic stone) was found. This stone is characterized by its visible crystals (> 1mm). But also the finer variant andesite stone (extrusive volcanic stone) is present in and around Cuenca with crystals invisible for the eye. Other volcanic stones are from the pyroclastic, tuff or ashstone type containing bigger fragments ( 217). Wood (madera) – Eucalyptus wood is used as such in roofs, floors or as supporting element in composite walls (see bahareque). The type, known as Eucalyptus globules, was introduced from Australia in the 1860s and dominates the landscape of the inter‐Andean valleys (Neill, 2008). It is a hardwood that earns high marks for strength, durability and excellent weathering characteristics similar to those of teak wood. Hardwoods have pores or vessel elements that occur among fiber and parenchyma cells. Cellulose content ranges from 40 to 50% with 15‐25% lignin (less than softwood) and 15‐25% hemicelluloses (more than softwood). The remaining components consist of various extracellular compounds (Blanchette, 2000). Reed (carrizo) – The reed in Cuenca is found to be sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) and is locally called carrizo or sometimes caña (de azucar). They also can make rope or strings with cut and dried leaves. In Ecuador also the flatter caña guadua and used in construction in the coastal part and the Oriente. Do not confuse carrizo with the giant cane or bamboo reed Arundo donax (in Ecuador called carrizo grande or caña brava from which the popular caña drink is made. Earth (barro) – Earth can be found on the construction site or at local extraction sites. Generally very little is known about the characteristics of the mud. The properties for different locations near Cuenca are investigated (De Jongh & Van Wijnendaele, 2009). Earth is used in adobe, tapial and bahareque, as well as in finishing layers and in mortars for cementation of tiles, stones and (adobe) bricks. (Polychrome) metal sheets (placas de latón policromado) – Multicoloured sheets of zinc are found a lot in interior (mainly ceilings) as well as in exterior decoration (Casa de los Arcos, 214). The history of this from Europe imported sheets is found in the nationwide boom in exports around 1860 (Torres Hidalgo, 2007). Wrought iron (hierro forjado) – This iron has a very low carbon content and due to slag inclusions it is fibrous. It is ductile (not brittle) and easily welded. The material was introduced during the 1860 boom (Torres Hidalgo, 2007). 5
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Fired bricks (ladrillo) – A ceramic material obtained by preparation, moulding (or extrusion) of raw material (clay) and subsequent drying and firing at an appropriate temperature (Franke & Schumann, 1998). It is widely used as building material in new constructions in the new district of Cuenca (El Ejido). Roof tiles (teja) – This ceramic material consists mainly of clay but it is not known with the usual glaze finish. There shape is semi‐cylindrical (called mission or barrel, 207) or flat ( 59). Trash of tiles (cisco) – Cisco is found and used as protecting layer on bahareque and adobe masonry ( 267). Broken tiles are applied in the earthen surface layer (revoque). Reinforced concrete (hormigón / concreto armado) – A construction material composed of cement, gravel, sand and water which hardens after a chemical process called hydration. It is mostly reinforced with steel to increase the tensile strength. It is a modern building material used in Cuenca (Universidad de Cuenca, 260). A decorative concrete floor, called terrazzo was found in iglesia Santo Domingo ( 59 and 379) as well. Adobe masonry (mamposteria de adobe) – Adobe walls should not be mistaken for tapial or bahareque even if they are called so in literature (e.g. Guía de arquitectura). Adobe bricks are made of earth (containing sand and high amounts of clay), water, straw and sometimes animal excrements. They are made in wooden moulds with dimensions of 25‐60cm by 14‐20cm by 10‐17cm. They can be reinforced with steel in combination with cement mortar, but in Cuenca only unreinforced adobe is found (see Figure 3a). Additives such as asphalt, ethyl silicate and other chemical additives are also not used. Its composition (clay content, type of clay, particle size distribution, soluble salt content…) is determinant for the adobe properties (colour, compressive strength, durability…) and is investigated by the authors in their thesis. Finally, the properties of an adobe brick cannot be plainly extrapolated to the masonry, a combination of earthen joints, wooden reinforcement and adobe bricks. Rammed earth (tapial) – Although it is not much found in Cuenca, rammed earth is a traditional way for construction of walls (see Figure 2b). Moist earth is poured into a formwork (encofrado, two connected parallel plates) in layers of to 15 cm thick, and then compacted by ramming. Since it is monolithic, a longer life is granted in comparison with adobe (Minke 2006). Figure 3: (a) An unfinished adobe wall in Cuenca (SaMat Doccenter 206); (b) Shrinkage cracks and production joints of tapial in Ecuador (Minke 2006) (c) A rural house made of bahareque (SaMat Doccenter 322) Wattle‐and‐daub (bahareque) – In the wide surroundings of Cuenca, bahareque is made of wood, reed and earth and is known as bahareque de tierra (see Figure 3c). The primary (diagonal V‐structure or crossed) and secondary (vertical parallels heart‐to‐heart 40 cm) structures are always made of wood. Regularity in this framework is rare since windows and doors are introduced in the structure. The reed is braided on both sides of this structure. Since the cavity between the reed is not filled we are dealing 6
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) with hollow bahareque (tierra hueco). Afterwards a thick earthen layer (revoque) with straw and a thin earth‐chalk layer (empaneite) are applied (Ortiz Crespo, 2005). Lime plaster (empaneite, yeso) – Although earthen surface finishes are found as well, a lot of (adobe and brick) buildings are finished with lime plasters. Lime plasters are a mixture of calcium hydroxide and sand. Cement plaster (cemento) – Cement is regularly used as surface layer and is a mixture of (plaster,) sand, Portland cement and water. The choice is (often incorrectly) based on its high strength and water resistant properties. For an overview of how and where these materials are used in the historical buildings of Cuenca, the authors are referring to their thesis. Patios and balconies (decorated with wrought iron) with a wooden structure, ceilings of wood or zinc are typical. A traditional colonial dwelling may consist of river stones at the basement, adobe masonry on the ground floor (paved with floor tiles or small river stones) and bahareque for the upper floors (with wooden floors). Tiles on the roof and cisco at the side walls makes it complete. But also brick masonry is frequently found. Sometimes they are left naked, but often they are finished with travertine marble or – more common – decorative plasters. 2. Classification through damaging mechanism [What is the cause?] We can also classify the damages by its cause or damaging mechanism (see Table 1). This gives a structural overview of the probable risks for the historical buildings in Cuenca. The damages are always listed per cause from structural (e.g. collapse) to aesthetical (e.g. staining). We should mention that some damages only can be caused in one time (an impact) and other by a continuous action (erosion). It is also important to understand the place of a damage pattern in the buildings life cycle starting from the design (e.g. general error/risk) to the end (e.g. no intervention). 7
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Table 1: Classification by damaging mechanisms (or causes) CAUSE SPECIFIC CAUSE DAMAGE PATTERN Mechanical (Over)loading Deformation, crack, spalling Settlement Leaning, deformation, crack Wind Leaning, erosion, pitting Use Crack, corrasion, polishing Impact Chipping, crack, cut Traffic Crack Seismic Collapse, crack, loss of material Design Renovation (/reparation) Destruction (+ new), loss of material, change of impression Design General error/risk, structural instability, crack, choices Construction Applied material, technique or system Maintenance Incorrect use, incorrect / no intervention Physical Water Bending, erosion, (network) crack, powdering, sanding, bulging, loss of bond, peeling, blistering, fading, staining, soiling, rotting, softening Salt (network) crack, powdering, crumbling, encrustation, scaling, spalling, delamination, exfoliation, (crypto)efflorescence, patina, blistering, patina (Differential) expansion Crack Chemical Metal corrosion Conversion, crack, loss of bond, staining Sun (UV) Fading Fire Destruction, crack, spalling, blackening Air (pollution) Soiling Water, gases, acid Crack, conversion, staining Graffiti Staining Soot Soiling Biological People and animals Conversion, deposit Beetles Structural instability, loss of material, change of impression Moulds Conversion, visible Algae Peeling, visible Lichens, liverwort, Visible Fern Visible Higher plants Structural instability, crack, loss of bond, visible Moss Sanding, visible 8
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 3. Classification through damaging pattern [What do you see?] A brief list of damage jargon with description is given here since it is not always easy to describe what you are seeing in situ in one word. This is the starting point for users of this Damage Atlas since the causes can be determined out of the observation of the damaging pattern. Change of impression Caused by new design due to renovation/reparation 32 and attack of beetles 94 Discoloration Fading5 : paint ‐ Loss of colour intensity or brightness of colour Caused by water 49 and ultraviolet radiation (sun) 74 Staining5: a spot of distinct colour Caused by water 50, polluted water 82, corrosion 73 and graffiti 83 Blackening: caused by fire 78 5 Deposit : material accumulated on the surface; exogenic (dust, dirt) / endogenic (efflorescence) Caused by people and animals 91 Soiling5: is the exogenic deposit of uncrystalline and unconsolidated material (e.g. dirt, soot…) Caused by water 51, air pollution 79 and root 85 Encrustation: is the crust‐like deposit with good adherence of whitish and dense mortar constituents Caused by salts (leading to crust formation) 58 Efflorescence: is the endogenic formation of soluble (white) salts deposited on surface by capillarity Called crypto‐efflorescence if beneath the surface Caused by salts 63 Visible biological growth (can be mistaken for a deposit) Higher plants: building material is used as substratum; determine their type by comparing images Caused by growth of trees, plants and grasses 109, mosses 110 and fern 105 Lower plants: sometimes mistaken for mosses; determine their type by comparing images Algae5: lower plants consisting of single cells or groups of cells Caused by algae growth 102 and lichens (a combination of algae and mould) 103 Mould5: eucariotical micro‐ and macro‐organisms which subsist on dead organic matter Caused by mould growth 98 Transformation5 involves a chemical conversion of the surface material Patina5: change of very thin surface layer protecting the underlying material from degradation 5 (Franke & Schumann, 1998) 9
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Caused by oxidation 86 Conversion: chemical alteration of the material (in combination with other damaging patterns) Caused by moulds 99, water/air pollution 81, people/animals 90 and corrosion 70 Rotting: wood – (hemi‐) cellulose and lignin undergoes chemical alteration by microbes Caused by water 52 Disintegration, loss of material or loss of cohesion Caused by beetles on wood 93, caused by design renovation/reparation 31 Pitting: small pits formed by wind erosion 9 Crumbling5: adobe/bad brick ‐ Falling apart into small shapeless lumps Caused by water (adobe) 67 and salt (brick) 56 Powdering5: brick – Loss of coherence starting from the surface resulting in fine powder Caused by water 43 and salt 54 5 Sanding : mortar – Lack of cohesion due to granular disintegration Caused by water 44, salt 55 and growth of mosses 111 Erosion5: abrasive wearing away of material creating a relief at the building material’s surface Caused by wind 8 and water 41 Corrasion5: also called mechanical erosion, erosion by mechanical forces (use or impact) Caused by an impact 16, mechanical forces during use 13 and polishing 15 Cut5: scratch (superficial loss of material), cut (line of division) or puncture (penetration) Caused by mechanical impact 18 Layering subdivided into delamination and exfoliation Delamination5: separation of an originally laminated material into one or more layers Caused by salts 61 Exfoliation5: separation of an originally homogeneous material into one or more layers Caused by salts 62 Spalling 5: Detachment of a relatively thick part of surface Caused by overloading 3, earthquakes 22, salts 60 and fire 77 Scaling5: Scale‐like detachment of a relatively thin part of the surface Caused by salts 59 Loss of cohesion concerns a type of deterioration where the material is no longer bond Softening: The transformation of clay minerals changes adobe’s macrostructure by swelling Caused by (excess of) water 68 10
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Loss of adhesion concerns the detachment of one material from another Peeling5: Detachment due to loss of adherence between surface and paint film or plaster finish Caused by water 47 Blistering5: Dome‐like detachment of part of surface by local swelling/expansion (paint on plaster) Caused by water (transport) 48 and salt 66 Loss of bond5: Detachment of mortar or rendering from masonry… (relatively thick layer) Caused by water 46, corrosion 72 and higher plant growth (roots) 108 Cracks5: Lines of division which will go completely through the material (> 0,15 mm) Caused by overloading 2, settlement 6, use 12, impact 17, traffic 19, earthquake 21, design error 35, water 57, diff. expansion 69, corrosion 71, fire 76 and plant growth 107 Crazing5: network cracking, a network of hair cracks < 0,15 mm Caused by water 42 and salt 53 Deformation Bulging5: Caused by water 45 Bending5: Caused by overloading 1, settlement 5, water 40 Leaning 5: Caused by settlement 4 and wind 7 Destruction: collapse or by purpose destruction of a (part of a) building Caused by earthquake 20, design (combined with new construction) 30, fire 75 Risk Error/risk Caused by error in the design process 33 Instability Caused by error in design 34, by beetles on wood 92 and higher plant growth 106 Wrong choice of material, technique or system in the design process can cause problems in the future Caused by error in design 36 Incorrect use is introducing risks for the future 38 Intervention during reparation or the lack of intervention is a risk for future damages 39 11
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 4. Classification through building state [What is the actual state?] For the conservator, historian, architect or engineer the actual state of the building is important for her or his inspection. Some buildings are just renovated and every damage pattern is or structurally solved or camouflaged by cosmetic repairs. There is of course a difference between extremely altered dwellings and carefully restored houses ( 50). Most of the buildings are in a phase of degeneration or consolidation, no interventions are planned. Some major problems are clearly visible ( 74). The most interesting observations are made in buildings under renovation. After removal of the surface layers and ceilings, the structure is visible and it is possible to follow the repairs day by day and to talk with the handicraftsmen ( 43). 5. Classification through severity [How bad or threatening is the damage?] Most problems such as graffiti are luckily aesthetical or superficial. But these damage patterns can evolve to more structural problems and indicate delicate places. In a lot of other cases, the functionality of the material is lost by disintegration or a general loss of bond. In the first case, the material is converted by chemical or biological attack often combined with the presence of water. Material is also lost by different kinds of loss of adhesion (between 2 different materials) or cohesion (in 1 material). It is an ‐ often slow – irreversible process and should be prevented. Cracks are commonly known as a structural and dangerous problem. Cracks often indicate structural instability, high vulnerability for earthquakes and a future collapse. But also superficial cracks (e.g. network cracking) can occur. Structural problems such as deformation of structural construction elements, effects of fire and the intentional destruction of historical buildings are the most unwanted damages. The order of the case studies is using this classification, through increasing severity of the damaging patterns and risks. 12
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 13
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) II. Case Studies 1. Aesthetical and surface problems Damage: staining (discoloration) 83 Cause: chemical ‐ graffiti Building: Iglesia San Blas ( 1), Pasaje Hortensia Mata ( 27) Graffiti is typically an (intentional) human intervention, which causes (almost always) aesthetical unwanted staining. Older graffiti can attract other new ones. The location of the affected building is an important parameter; degraded neighbourhoods ( 49) or places of manifestation ( 118) are more suffering. Solution and Prevention: For plasters, paints and earthen layers, the best solution is to paint over the graffiti ( 279). For other materials such as brick and natural stone ( 252), there are 3 different preventive treatments possible (van de Weert, 2004). Epoxy or polyurethane pore filling resins are permanent, long lasting and resistant but their high diffusion coefficient causes problems in materials with high water content (such as adobe and bahareque). In contrary, an acrylic emulsion functions as sacrificing and temporary layer which can be washed off together with the graffiti. It is very useful since it is not hydrophobic and not preventing diffusion. A combination (semi permanent) is the optimal solution, but is predicted as more expensive. Damage: soiling 85 Cause: chemical – soot Building: Hotel Victoria ( 95) and Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 25) Although soot can cause unwanted blackening (especially on white painted chimeys, 262), no other solution is given than washing or repainting. We should mention that candles, where the soot is a witness ( 452), are a serious threat for the fire safety. Damage: blackening (discoloration) 78 Cause: chemical ‐ fire Building: Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 25), Edificio San Agustin ( 24) This kitchen ( 1469) is blackened during use. During the June 2008 fire the building was partly destroyed and this wall suffered from blackening ( 1040). Solution and Prevention: Fire should be prevented as much as possible, but blackening is not a threatening damage and will not evolve further. 14
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 49 118 279 252 262 en 452 1469 1040 15
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Damage: deposit Cause: biological – people and animals 91 Building: Casa de las Palomas ( 74) Peoples and animals deposit such as faeces and bird nests ( 1105 and 1301) causes just aesthetical damaging patterns in most cases. Prevention can diminish the future maintenance costs. Damage: change of impression 94 Cause: biological – beetle / moth Building: Iglesia de Santo Domingo ( 59) Beetles can cause structural and disintegration problems, but in a lot of cases, just aesthetical problems are found ( 340, 377). Damage: visible lichens 103 Cause: biological – lichens (chlorophyllous) Building: Casa de las Palomas ( 74) Lichens exist in unpolluted environments, such as Ingapirca. They are not considered to cause damage. Since they are grey, they are probably “Diploicia canescens”6 ( 315) Damage: visible fern 105 Cause: biological – fern (chlorophyllous) Building: Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 74) Fern is a protected species and should not be removed therefore. It is not considered to cause damage ( 562). 6 http://www.lichenology.info/ 16
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 1105 1301 340 377 315 562 17
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Damage: visible algae 102 Cause: biological – algae (chlorophyllous) Building: casa Arizaga Guzman ( 39) These algae are greenish and grow in a shaded place (stairs between two high buildings). No direct sun radiation and exposition to rainwater are contributing to the growth of algae here ( 246). In this wet climate, there is a big risk for biological damage. The water source here is waterfall ( 167, 171, 172) and algae grow giving a black shine. Further research: To be sure, it is recommended to look after the formation of gypsum crust on cement. The black shine is than caused by air pollution. Damage: visible higher plant (general) 109 Cause: biological – higher plants (chlorophyllous) Building: El Chagra’s restaurant ( 207) This small restaurant is a typical remnant of traditional houses with only a ground floor in the historical city ( 218). Growth of higher plants is not harmful as such, but can be a witness of general lack of maintenance of the whole building. Damage: visible moss (higher plants) 110 Cause: biological – moss (chlorophyllous) Most occurrences of mosses are not very dangerous ( 227), but they can secrete acids which are harmful for mortars (see next case). Damage: sanding of mortar 111 Cause: biological – moss (chlorophyllous) Building: Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 25) Mosses do not have genuine roots, but rhizoids that secrete acids which dissolve the mortar binder ( 510). In very wet circumstances a relatively weak mortar can be turned into loose sand within one year (Franke and Schumann, 1998). Further research: Measuring the pH of the affected mortar can exclude other possible damaging causes. A low pH in combination with visible mosses, proves the growth of rhizoids. Some mortar tests were carried out in this building ( 25) (see page 34). Damage: loss of bond 108 Cause: biological – higher plants (chlorophyllous) Building: Iglesia de Santo Domingo ( 59) Higher plants and its roots can cause serious damage growing between tiles and bricks ( 1315). Maintenance is recommended to prevent higher reparation costs. 18
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 246 172 218 227 510 1315 19
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Damage: efflorescence and blistering/peeling 63, 66 Cause: physical – salts Building: Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 25) In the tomb of the main cathedral salts were found in the first half meter above the ground. Rising damp is the damaging cause since the brick masonry is in contact with the ground. Next to (beautiful) salt efflorescence ( 449), blistering and peeling of the paint were found as well ( 456 and 694). Damage: efflorescence 63 Cause: physical – salts Building: Hotel Victoria ( 95), Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 25) Although initially designed to be finished with a layer of plaster and paint, naked masonry facades are characterizing calle Larga. Due to inadequate eaves, rain water is washing the bricks regularly introducing salt efflorescence after drying ( 257). Furthermore, after cleaning with water under high pressure, salts crystallized on the domes of the main cathedral immediately ( 516, 2078, see page 34). It is interesting to mention that salts were only found on bricks and not on earthen materials. However, it is very probable that high salt contents are present and causing damages to adobe and bahareque. Damage: peeling (loss of adhesion) 47 Cause: physical – water Building: Casa de las Palomas ( 74) Wood exposed to rain or a high content of moisture, will be damaged on its paint. It is known as an aging process when no maintenance is carried out. Peeling ( 604) and blistering is found. Solution and Prevention: In the case of wood, we can refer to a publication of Iowa University (1994). Damage: blistering (loss of adhesion) 48 Cause: physical – water Building: Iglesia de Deleg ( 228) Blisters mostly occur on paints with low vapour diffusivity attached on earthen materials such as adobe ( 694). Water (coming from condensation or drying processes, rain infiltration…) is prevented from evaporation by this paint and small spaces (bubbles) filled with vapour are growing. Paint is detached from the substrate and if the spots burst (already visible here), more water is introduced behind the paint. This is how the damaging pattern will evolve from innocent blisters to paint peeling and adobe softening. Prevention: Prevention is easy by using paint that allows vapour transport and by protection against water contact (rain and other sources). 20
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 449 456 694 516 604 257 2078 21
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Damage: fading (discoloration) 49 Cause: physical ‐ water Building: Casa de las Palomas ( 74) The ceilings of the first floor of casa de las Palomas are made of zinc. Water infiltration from above introduces discoloration of the paint on this metal sheets ( 600). Damage: staining (discoloration) 50 Cause: physical ‐ water Building: Iglesia de Santo Domingo ( 59), casa de las Posadas ( 50), la Bella de Paris ( 221) and la casa del coco ( 41) Red paint is washed out and deposited on the white paint on the wall ( 343). 685 of casa de las Posadas is made outside the project area. The road is in poor condition and on very rainy days with heavy traffic water is splashed onto the façade (up to 2m high). The plaster on this recently restored colonial house (adobe) is in good condition which is accredited to the choice of good paint (allowing vapour diffusion). Rain water infiltration in patios is also a known problem though in this case watering the plants can also be an explanation ( 177). The restoration of la Bella de Paris is in many ways very successful. However, dealing with rising ground water is essential in the design. Inside walls are showing sever moisture stains immediately after construction ( 410). Furthermore, rising damp is not solved by applying cement mortar on the lower part of the wall ( 414). The ground water will rise above this plaster resulting in staining, loss of bond… A cement layer can only serve as protecting layer against splashing. Solution and Prevention: An impermeable membrane (or chiva) on the bottom is needed to stop the water transport. Damage: staining (discoloration) 73 Cause: chemical – metal corrosion Building: Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 25) The statue of Holy Santa Anna on the main cathedral is made of bronze and placed on brick masonry. The green staining is caused by corrosion of this statue ( 479). The powdering of the bricks is not correlated with the corrosion process (see page 32). 22
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) 600 343 685 410 414 177 479 23
Damage atlas of historical Cuenca, Ecuador (earthen materials) Damage: polishing 15 Cause: mechanical – use Building: Casa de las Palomas ( 74) Stairs or steps are the most popular place to find polishing. The frequent and abrasive use of natural stone ( 592) has led to this shiny and slippery erosion. It is not considered as damage, but as a predictable weathering process. Therefore, solutions and prevention are not an issue here. Damage: change of impression 32 Cause: design – renovation/reparation Building: Hotel Crespo ( 108), Casa de las Palomas ( 74) The structural stability isn’t affected while introducing a new entrance in this hotel on calle Larga, but other effects are not less important ( 238). The total concept and harmony are changed forever while the functionality will probably increase. This operation gives a full view of the brick masonry that is hidden behind plaster and natural stone in normal conditions. Though lime plaster is frequently used without problems, the application of lime plaster is sometimes a debatable intervention ( 2028). We refer to the thesis for a more detailed discussion. Damage: loss of original materials 31 Cause: design – renovation Building: Catedral de la Inmaculada ( 25) It is thought that the light blue tiled domes – a symbol of Cuenca – of the main cathedral were completely covered. A closer look is showing cracks in the tiles (see II.3) and absence of tiles in the corners ( 504). Instead, we found cement mortar which, in first place, is only an aesthetical issue. Damage: change of
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Damage Atlas historical Cuenca This Damage Atlas is a representation of the damage patterns found in the world heritage city of Cuenca, Ecuador
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