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Information about DallasHistory

Published on January 23, 2008

Author: Rainero

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Andy Wolber Executive Director Dallas Historical Society January 10, 2000 Dallas History Disclaimer...:  Disclaimer... I am NOT a professional historian This is going to be a very QUICK overview, covering lots of topics and OMITTING many important things Feedback welcome at: www.dallashistory.org Sources:  Sources William L. McDonald: Dallas Rediscovered (Dallas Historical Society, 1978) Nancy Wiley: The Great State Fair of Texas (Taylor Publishing, 1995) Mike Hazel Dallas County Sesquicentennial Celebration brochure Darwin Payne: Dallas: An Illustrated History (Dallas Historic Preservation League, 1982) Kenneth B. Ragsdale: Centennial ‘36 (Texas A&M University Press, 1987) Dallas Historical Society archives Two questions:  Two questions Where are Bonnie and Clyde buried? How did Dallas get its name? Bonnie and Clyde:  Bonnie and Clyde Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker were responsible for at least 12 killings between 1932 and 1934 Bonnie & Clyde:  Bonnie & Clyde Clyde Barrow (1909-1934): Western Heights Cemetery Bonnie Parker (1910-1934): Crown Hill Cemetery Dallas Historical Society: Bonnie & Clyde Tour, April 22 (John Neal Phillips) Dallas name?:  Dallas name? Bryan named the town for “his friend, Dallas” and it was known as Dallas as early as 1842 Vice President at time of Texas annexation, George Mifflin Dallas? Commodore Alexander Dallas, who was fighting piracy in the Gulf of Mexico? Walter Dallas, who fought in San Antonio (nearby land grant)? James Dallas, a former Texas ranger (Walter’s brother, also nearby land grant)? Joseph Dallas, who came to Cedar Springs in 1843 from Arkansas? Street Layout:  Street Layout Warren Ferris laid out streets at 45-degree angle according to Mexican cultural tradition; W.J. Peters surveyed in one-mile sections. 1841...:  1841... 1841 John Neely Bryan settles on the East Bank of the Trinity River 1843 Bryan marries Margaret Beeman 1845 William and Mary Hord settle west of the Trinity, at Hord’s Ridge, which will become Oak Cliff. “Dour-faced John Neely Bryan, founder of Dallas, and his young wife Margaret Beeman pose about 1850 in clothing far different from their customary frontier attire.” p. 27, Dallas: An Illustrated History (photo: Dallas Public Library) 1846:  1846 Texas legislature creates Dallas County on March 30, from portions of Nacogdoches and Robertson Counties, naming it for U.S. Vice President George Mifflin Dallas 1846...:  1846... 1846 John Neely Bryan begins operating a ferry across the Trinity River The first horsepowered grist mill is erected on the west side of the Trinity River 1848 A post office at James J. Beeman’s house is the first recorded institution on the east side of White Rock creek. 1848:  1848 This Peters Company Land Grant, dated 1848, gave Weston Perry 640 acres of land as a married settler who had arrived before July 1, 1847. 1849…:  1849… 1849 J. Wellington Latimer arrives in Dallas, hauling an ox wagon with the printing equipment to print the county’s first newspaper, originally called the Cedar Snag, later renamed the Dallas Herald. 1849 Latimer’s wife, Lucy, brings the first piano to the county and begins offering music lessons The first cotton gin in the county is erected at Farmers Branch 1850...:  1850... 1850 Dallas is elected the permanent county seat and a log courthouse is erected on the square donated by John Neely Bryan for that purpose 1852 French immigrant Maxime Guillot opens the county’s first manufacturing company, a carriage-making factory on Elm Street. 1852…:  1852… 1852 Alexander Cockrell purchases Bryan’s remaining interest in Dallas as well as his ferry license for $7,000 1855 Alexander Cockrell erects a covered wooden toll bridge across the Trinity River, connecting Dallas with Hord’s Ridge. 1855:  1855 About 200 immigrants from France, Belgium, and Switzerland settle west of Dallas to organize a utopian community known as La Reunion. Victor Considerant, pictured, was the Frenchman who chose the site. He later wrote a book, Au Texas, that generated excitement in Europe for settling in Texas. 1856...:  1856... 1856 The Texas Legislature incorporates Dallas as a town 1857 A two-story brick courthouse is erected at a cost of $7,400 1858 When flood washes out the toll bridge, Cockrell’s widow, Sarah, resumes the ferry service. 1859 Dallas County Agricultural and Mechanical Association holds the first of its annual county fairs to promote trade. Sarah Horton Cockrell:  Sarah Horton Cockrell Widowed at 38 Became Dallas’ leading entrepreneur Owned and operated the ferry across the Trinity Owned three hotels Leading principal in building the first iron bridge across Trinity Dominant partner in city’s first commercial flour mill Held extensive downtown real estate The year she died (1892) the city directory listed her occupation as “capitalist.” Cockrell Hotel:  Cockrell Hotel Begun by Alexander Cockrell and completed after his death in 1858 by his widow, Sarah Cockrell, this hotel was the first three-story structure in Dallas. Located on the west side of Houston Street, between Main and Commerce, the hotel burned in 1860. 1860...:  1860... 1860 A fire destroys most of downtown Dallas. 1861 Dallas County voters vote by a margin of approximately 3 to 1 to secede from the Union. 1862 Dallas is selected as one of eleven quartermaster and commissary posts in Texas for the Trans-Mississippi Army of the Confederacy. 1867...:  1867... 1867 Grand Prairie is established. 1868 Job Boat #1 navigates the Trinity from Galveston to Dallas. 1868 The Sallie Haynes, heading from Dallas to the Gulf, is less fortunate, sinking 40 miles south of town. 1868:  1868 William H. Gaston and A.C. Camp establish an “exchange office,” the first banking institution in Dallas; after many mergers and name changes, this bank becomes First National Bank (NCNB). W.H. Gaston was involved in banking, real estate, transportation and public utilities. He also was instrumental in the shaping of the State Fair of Texas. 1870...:  1870... 1870 The population of the county is 13,414 1872 Mule-drawn street cars link the railroad depot with the courthouse square 1872:  1872 Texas & Pacific Railroad crosses the Houston & Texas Central at Dallas. Telegraph lines link Dallas with towns along the railroad route 1870s:  1870s Photo from the west side of the Trinity River. Note Commerce Street Bridge installed by Sarah Cockrell in 1872. Dallas County Courthouse built in 1880 (burned 1890). 1872...:  1872... 1872 Bethel African American Methodist Church is recognized as one of the first black churches in the county Terminus merchants like the Sanger Brothers arrive 1873 Residents of Breckenridge, a community founded in the 1840s, move north to the H&TC rail line, naming their new town Richardson in honor of the railroad contractor, E.H. Richardson 1873...:  1873... New Hope Baptist Church is organized as the first African-American church within the city limits. The Dallas Bar Association is organized. 1873:  1873 First Jewish congregation, Temple Emanu-El, is established. This is their second synagogue, built in 1899 on the northeast corner of S. Ervay and St. Louis streets in the Cedars. 1875:  1875 John H. “Doc” Holliday, having practiced dentistry in Dallas for three years, is “invited” to leave town after a shooting at a local salon. 1876...:  1876... 1876 Dallas County Medical and Surgical Association replaces the Dallas County Medical Society; only doctors holding degrees from schools recognized by the American Medical Society may join. 1878 The county purchases Sarah Cockrell’s toll bridge, making it a free bridge. 1879 R.C. Buckner founds a home for orphans. 1880...:  1880... 1880 The county courthouse burns, but its walls survive and are incorporated into a new three-story building with a dome. The population of the county is 33,477 1881 The first telephone lines link the homes of Philip and Alexander Sanger with their store, and the water plant at Browder’s Springs with the fire station downtown. 1882:  1882 The town of East Dallas is incorporated. The first long-distance telephone line in the county stretches from Dallas to Lancaster. First electric lights illuminate Sanger Brothers store and Mayer’s Garden downtown. 1885:  1885 The Dallas Morning News begins publication on October 1. A.H. Belo, pictured, eventually moved to Dallas (Belo mansion). Later, G.B. Dealey rose to local prominence via the paper. 1885...:  1885... 1885 Five railroads serve Dallas County The 14th Judicial District Court is created. 1886 The town of Lancaster is created. Two competing fairs, the Dallas State Fair & Exposition and the Texas State Fair, open in Dallas. 1887:  1887 The fairs combine at a site in East Dallas. Thomas L. Marsalis begins development of Oak Cliff. The town of Mesquite is incorporated. Residents of Trinity Mills shift several miles to the north when the Missouri-Kansas-Texas railroad is constructed, forming the town of Carrollton. 1887:  1887 John Henry Brown writes the first history of Dallas County, covering the period 1837-1887. He thought the history of each locality had to be preserved in order to create "an admirable pride" in its citizens. Covers the Peters Colony Company and the role that transportation improvements played in opening the region's agricultural riches to distant markets. 1888:  1888 Texas Baseball League is organized; Dallas’ team, the Hams, wins the champion-ship. 1888...:  1888... 1888 The Dallas Times Herald is formed through a merger of the Dallas Times (1876) and the Dallas Evening Herald (1886). 1889 Dallas annexes the City of East Dallas, thereby becoming the largest city in Texas (for the first and only time) in the 1890 census. 1890:  1890 Fire destroys the county courthouse in less than 35 minutes. A well being dug on the courthouse square explodes in a gusher. Population of Dallas County is 67,042; for the first time, more than 50% live within Dallas city limits. Great Texas State Fair:  Great Texas State Fair Founded 1886 Fair Grounds in East Dallas In 1890, ran Oct 18 - Nov 2 (16 days) In 1999, ran Sep 24 - Oct 17 (24 days) 1891:  1891 Embree and Duck Creek consolidate to form Garland at the junction of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas (MKT) Railroad with the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fe. Oak Cliff:  Oak Cliff “Oak Cliff was widely promoted as the Brooklyn of the Southwest upon its development by Thomas J. Marsalis and its incorporation in 1890. Railway cars ran every 10 minutes between Oak Cliff and Dallas.” 1890s:  1890s Oak Cliff was originally intended to be much like Cambridge is to Boston - the educational neighbor to a city. This is the Oak Cliff College for Young Ladies (southwest corner of Crawford and Jefferson). The college was founded in 1892 and ceased operation in 1907. 1892:  1892 The sixth county courthouse, “Old Red,” designed by the Little Rock architectural firm of Orlopp and Kusener, is completed. Several restoration plans recently have been developed Infrastructure improvements:  Infrastructure improvements Snag Boat Dallas was launched in November 1892 to clear the river to Galveston Business community:  Business community Trinity River Navigation Company was formed in early 1890s as an attempt to provide river shipping to compete with the railroads Stock certificate for the Trinity River Navigation Company issued in 1893 to G. B. Dealey Navigation celebrated:  Navigation celebrated Arrived in Dallas on May 21, 1893 Dam built at McCommas Bluff to help maintain water level…but no lock! Harvey sold in 1898 H.A. Harvey, Jr. Steamboat 1896:  1896 Golf is introduced to Dallas in a cow pasture in Oak Lawn. 1897...:  1897... 1897 St. Paul Sanitarium (later renamed St. Paul’s Hospital) opens as the first really modern hospital in Dallas, with electricity and hot and cold running water. 1899 Coldest weather in recorded history of the county, 10 degrees below zero, occurs. 1899:  1899 October 6, 1899: E.R. (Ned) Green drives a gasoline-powered automobile from Terrell to Dallas, the first privately owned-car in the county. 1900:  1900 The first high school football team in Texas is formed at Dallas High School; frowning on the game as too rough, school officials refuse to allow practice on school property, so the team works out on a nearby vacant lot. The Dallas Symphony Club, forerunner of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra, performs its first concerts. Population of Dallas is 42,638 Hundred and Fifty Thousand Club:  Hundred and Fifty Thousand Club Formed to fulfill Jay Gould’s 1887 prediction that Dallas would reach 150,000 in his lifetime (he died in 1892) 1901:  1901 Rural Free Delivery begins, bringing mail service to homes throughout the county. The new Dallas Public Library, funded by Andrew Carnegie, opens. A Colored Fair and Tri-Centennial Exposition is held in Dallas to launch the new Century Cotton Mills, an African-American enterprise. 1902...:  1902... 1902 The town of Irving is established. Interurban electric train service begins, linking Dallas County residents with Sherman, Denison, and Fort Worth. 1903 Oak Cliff citizens vote for annexation to Dallas. The Dallas Art Association, the forerunner of the Dallas Museum of Art, is established. 1904...:  1904... 1904 Schuyler Marshall, Jr. build the first manufacturing plant near Mesquite, the Dallas Pressed Brick Company. 1905 Theodore Roosevelt becomes the first U.S. President to visit Dallas. Munger Place opens as Dallas’ first deed-restricted residential neighborhood. 1907:  1907 Dallas voters adopt a Mayor-Commission form of government Herbert Marcus, Carrie Marcus Neiman, and Albert L. Neiman open Neiman-Marcus. 1907:  1907 John Armstrong, with his sons-in-law Hugh E. Prather and Edgar Flippen, begin developing a residential community north of Dallas called Highland Park. 1908 Flood:  1908 Flood May 1908 Worst flood in Dallas history Losses of more than $2.5 million Displaced more than 4,000 people 4 or 5 people died Texas & Pacific Railroad trestle and other bridges were washed out Slide60:  McKinney Avenue, flood of 1908 Water reached depth of more than 52 feet 1909...:  1909... 1909 President William H. Taft visits the State Fair in Dallas. 1910 A Herring-Curtis biplane is the first airplane to fly over Dallas, in an exhibition at Fair Park. 1910 Dallas County boasts 1,200 miles of public roads, 295 miles of railroads and over 61 miles of electric lines. The population of Dallas is 135,748 1912:  1912 The Houston Street Viaduct, touted as the longest concrete structure in the world, connects Oak Cliff to Dallas. 1912 & 1919 Kessler Plan:  1912 & 1919 Kessler Plan City Beautiful movement Levees for the Trinity Removing train tracks on Pacific Widening streets Adding parks and “greenbelts” Adolphus Hotel:  Adolphus Hotel Adolphus Hotel built in 1913 with funds from Adolphus Busch (yes, as in Busch family associated with beer) Tom Barnett of St. Louis firm designed Located at corner of Commerce and Akard, on the site of the old City Hall. Included Palm Garden, Grand Ballroom, Century Room nightclub Also known for the French Room restaurant Interior remodeled in 1950s 1913...:  1913... 1913 Dallas Equal Suffrage Association is organized to work for voting rights of Texas women. Miss Hockaday School opens on Haskell Avenue. 1914 Dallas is selected as the site for the 11th District of the Federal Reserve Bank. 1915 Ford Motor Company opens an assembly plant on Canton Street, near “Deep Ellum.” 1915:  1915 Southern Methodist University opens with 706 students enrolled. 1916...:  1916... 1916 Union Terminal opens, consolidating six downtown Dallas railroad depots. Dallas voters ban alcoholic beverages at the State Fair in an election instigated by the Mothers’ Council. 1917 Refugees from the Mexican Civil War immigrate to Dallas and form the city’s first sizable Hispanic community. Love Field is established as an army training base. 1918:  1918 The U.S. Army takes control of Fair Park and establishes an aviation boot camp known as Camp Dick. 1918...:  1918... 1918 Dallas County, the worlds’ largest inland cotton market, leads the world in cotton gin manufacturing. 1919 Dallas votes approve prohibition and women’s suffrage amendments to the state constitution. The clock tower is removed from the county courthouse out of concern for the structural stability of the building. 1920...:  1920... 1920 The population of the county is 210,551 1921 WRR becomes the first municipally owned radio station in the U.S. to feature scheduled entertainment programs. 1921:  1921 The Magnolia Building is completed; at 29 stories, it remains the tallest building west of the Mississippi River for 20 years. 1922:  1922 Booker T. Washington High School opens, serving African American students from throughout the county. 101 civic leaders found the Dallas Historical Society. WFAA radio is established. Ku Klux Klan candidates carry elections in Dallas County. 1923:  1923 Henry Garrett installs the first automatic traffic signal in the U.S. in downtown Dallas The last train runs down Pacific Avenue before tracks are removed. Newspaperman George Bannerman Dealey, Rabbi David Lefkowitz, and politician M.M. Crane work to defeat the political and social influence of the Ku Klux Klan in Dallas. 1924...:  1924... 1924 The City of University Park is incorporated. 1926 Air mail service is inaugurated from Dallas’ Love Field to Chicago and New York. Performing in “Deep Ellum,” Blind Lemon Jefferson is the biggest selling black blues signer in the U.S. for three years. 1925:  1925 Ford Motor Company builds a new assembly plan on Grand Avenue. (Photo from a second plant, which operated until about 1970.) 1927...:  1927... 1927 City of Dallas purchases Love Field as a municipal airport. 1928 Ground is broken for the Trinity River levee and reclamation project. 1927:  1927 Hero Charles Lindbergh is welcomed by a parade through downtown Dallas 1930:  1930 Trinity Canal Association is formed Dallas voters approve council-manager form of government Construction of Fair Park Stadium, later renamed the Cotton Bowl, begins; built to seat 46,200 spectators, it is the largest stadium in the South. 1931:  1931 Levees are completed in the Trinity River project, reducing the danger of flooding in downtown Dallas Highland Park Village opens as the first planned shopping center in the U.S. with a unified architectural style and stores facing an interior parking area. 1932...:  1932... 1932 Dallas resident Babe Didrikson wins the AAU women’s track team championship individually, scoring all 30 points against the Illinois team’s 22. 1933 The Red Cross distributes 138,896 sacks of flour and 265,121 garments to 10,000 needy Dallas County families. Texas Theater:  Texas Theater On Jefferson Boulevard in Oak Cliff, the theater charged 35 cents during the depression to see Harlow and Gable in “Red Dust” (1932). Many years later, accused presidential assassin Lee Harvey Oswald was captured in this movie house. 1934:  1934 The Flying Red Horse, the world’s largest revolving sign, is installed on the Magnolia Building in honor of the convention of the American Petroleum Institute. 1936 Centennial:  1936 Centennial Fair Park is transformed into a collection of Art Deco buildings to host the Texas Centennial Exposition. President Franklin D. Roosevelt attends opening ceremonies. Dallas Historical Society: Fair Park and East Dallas Tours 1937...:  1937... 1937 Dallas hosts the Pan American Exposition at Fair Park. 1938 The town of Preston Hollow is incorporated. 1940 Dallas County population is 398,564. 1941 Starlight Operettas premier at the Fair Park Bandshell. 1942 Ford Motor Company plant converts to war-time production, building jeeps and military trucks. 1943...:  1943... 1943 Dallas County begins war rationing Southwestern Medical School is established. Polio epidemics force the closings of swimming pools and movie theaters. 1944 The Dallas County Library System is organized. Residents of Preston Hollow vote to merge with Dallas, but Highland Park and University Park residents vote to remain independent. 1947...:  1947... 1947 Construction of Central Expressway begins along the former route of the Houston & Texas Central Railroad. 1948 KRLD-TV is granted the first permit to operate a television broadcast station in Dallas; WBAP broadcasts the first live telecast. 1950 Population is 614,799 Margo Jones:  Margo Jones Theater-in-the-round in Gulf Oil Building in Fair Park Presented works by authors such as Tennessee Williams Operated from 1947 to 1955, producing 85 plays Theater closed four years after her death from cancer in 1955 1952:  1952 Big Tex makes his first appearance at the State Fair, wearing size 70 boots and a 75-gallon hat 1957...:  1957... 1957 The Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike, the first in Texas, opens A devastating tornado kills 10 people and injures more than 100 1958 The world-famous Mesquite Championship Rodeo is founded 1959 The Southland Center, tallest structure west of the Mississippi, is dedicated. 1960...:  1960... 1960 Dallas Cowboys professional football team is formed Population of Dallas County is 951,527 1962 Daily service from Dallas Love Field to Europe is inaugurated Educators:  Educators Dr. John Leslie Patton, Jr. and Dr. Warren Travis White, c. 1961 Patton began working in DISD in 1926 as a teacher at J. P. Starks Elementary. He became principal of Booker T. Washington High School in 1939 and led the school until 1969, when he became an assistant superintendent, serving until retirement in 1971. White came to DISD in 1931 as the principal for Sunset High School. Ten years later, he became assistant superintendent, and then superintendent of the district in 1945, serving until 1968. Kennedy Assassination:  Kennedy Assassination November 22, 1963 Photographer Bob Jackson of the Dallas Times-Herald received a Pulitzer Prize for the photo of Jack Ruby murdering Lee Harvey Oswald 1964...:  1964... 1964 The Civil Aeronautics Board orders Dallas and Fort Worth to work together to find a location for a regional airport 1966 El Centro College opens as the first campus of the Dallas County Community College District. The Dallas County Heritage Society is formed to save Millermore, the largest remaining antebellum mansion in Dallas. Erik Jonsson:  Erik Jonsson Moved to Dallas in 1934 as office manager for Geophysical Service, Inc. (predecessor to Texas Instruments) Mayor from 1964 to 1971 Founder of Goals for Dallas First chairman of the board of D-FW Airport Founder of institute that became University of Texas at Dallas 1969...:  1969... 1969 Ninety-seven years of continuous passenger train service from Dallas come to an end. 1970 Dallas County population is 1,327,695 1971 Dallasite Lee Trevino wins both the U.S. and British Open golf championships. Texas Stadium is built in Irving to host the Dallas Cowboys. 1972...:  1972... 1972 Eddie Bernice Johnson becomes the first African-American woman elected to public office in Dallas County when she is elected to the Texas House of Representatives. Dallas Cowboys win their first Super Bowl title. 1972 North Texas acquires a major league baseball team, the Texas Rangers. 1973 Voters reject canalization of the Trinity River. 1974:  1974 Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport opens as the world’s largest airport. 1978:  1978 I. M. Pei designed the new Dallas City Hall, one of the more distinctive public buildings in Dallas. 1978...:  1978... 1978 CBS introduces the weekly television show, “Dallas.” 1980 Dallas Mavericks basketball team is created. 1982 Voters approve the creation of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit Authority (DART). 1984 Dallas hosts the Republican National Convention. 1985 The State Fair of Texas celebrates its 100th anniversary and the state’s sesquicentennial 1987...:  1987... 1987 The Friends of Fair Park is organized to support preservation and restoration of the historic Art Deco buildings at Dallas’ first National Historic Landmark 1989 The Sixth Floor Museum opens on Dealey Plaza. 1990 Population of Dallas County is 1,852,810. How to learn more:  How to learn more Dallas Historical Society: www.dallashistory.org 214-421-4500 x 112 Handbook of Texas History online: www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/ Dallas Historical Society:  Dallas Historical Society Preserves a collection of items and information related to Dallas and Texas history in order to create engaging learning experiences that increase the community’s understanding of the influence of people, events and ideas on greater Dallas.

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