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Published on November 2, 2007

Author: Gallard

Source: authorstream.com

The Boy and the Bank Officer Philip Ross:  The Boy and the Bank Officer Philip Ross The Boy and the Bank Officer Philip Ross:  The Boy and the Bank Officer Philip Ross Background: bank / churches and churchgoers Text: word study / sentence understanding Discussion: questions on text / School Bully Activities: dramatization Background: Banks:  Banks first emerged in the Middle Ages when people grew tired of carrying around all their gold and began leaving their money with the goldsmith. The Medici family, one of the most prominent banking families in Europe during this time, became quite wealthy from its banking and money lending practices. This 14th-century painting depicts people depositing and withdrawing money in an Italian bank. Italian Banking in the 14th Century Background: Banks Background: Banks:  HISTORY OF BANKS Functions performed by banks today have been carried out by individuals, families, or state officials for at least 4,000 years. Clay tablets dated from about 2000 BC indicate that the Babylonians deposited personal valuables for a service charge of one 60th of their worth. Interest charges on loans ran as high as one third. The widespread commerce of Rome required a well-developed banking system. Roman authorities set aside the Street of Janus in the Forum for money changers. These individuals not only bought and sold foreign coins; they accepted deposits, made loans, issued bills of exchange and bills of credit (similar to today's checks), and bought mortgages. Background: Banks Background: Banks:  The Justinian Code of the 6th century AD included laws that governed the lending and trading in money. During the Middle Ages banking activities were curbed by severe restrictions on lending practices. But during the early Renaissance, as international trade revived, Italian money changers once again appeared. They did business in the streets from a bench (banca in Italian; hence the word bank). Florence, Italy, became a great banking center, dominated by the Medici family. A 16th century painting depicts a money changer and his wife Background: Banks Background: Banks:  Banking as it is now practiced dates from the Banco di Rialto, founded in Venice in 1587. It accepted demand deposits and permitted depositors to transfer their credits by checks. It could not make loans, however, or pay interest on deposits. Its services were free since its expenses were paid by the city. The Banco Giro was formed in Venice in 1619. The two banks merged in 1637 and continued to operate under the name Banco Giro until Napoleon liquidated it in 1806. Built in the style of ancient Greek temple, the Bank of United States had its headquarters in Philadelphia. It was the nation’s first experiment with central banking Background: Banks Background: Banks:  With the growth of commerce and trade in Northern Europe, the Netherlands became an international financial center. The Bank of Amsterdam was organized in 1609. A chartered public bank was opened in Sweden in 1656. It was probably the first financial institution in the world to issue standard-size payable-on-demand bank bills, which eliminated the handling of copper coins. This bank was merged with the Bank of Sweden in 1668. Background: Banks Background: Banks:  Until the founding of the Bank of England in 1694, England's goldsmiths were its first bankers. They kept money and other valuables in safe custody for their customers. They also dealt in gold bullion and foreign exchange. They profited from acquiring and sorting coins of all kinds. To attract coins, the smiths were willing to pay interest. Depositors besiege the Merchant Bank of Passaic, N.J., after the bank was officially closed in 1929. Background: Banks Background: Banks:  The goldsmiths noticed that deposits remained at a fairly steady level over long periods of time. Deposits and withdrawals tended to balance each other because customers only wanted enough money on hand to meet everyday needs. This allowed the smiths to loan out at interest cash that would otherwise be idle. From this practice emerged the modern facets of banking: keeping deposits, making loans, and maintaining reserves. Another practice of the goldsmiths, by which a customer could arrange to transfer part of his balance to another party by written order, was the start of the modern check-writing system. Background: Banks Background: Banks :  Background: Banks Banks of the 17th century also began to issue bank notes as a form of money. The notes had monetary value because they could be exchanged for specie: hard cash in the form of gold or silver. The amounts of the bank notes issued depended on a banker's expectation of public demand for specie and the bank's confidence in itself. Bank notes were probably first issued in the 1660s by the Bank of Stockholm in Sweden; the practice soon spread to England. The Bank of France was founded in 1800. For most of the 19th century the money markets of Europe were dominated by the House of Rothschild. Background: Banks:  Background: Banks This photograph depicts the original banking house opened by Mayer Amschel Rothschild in Frankfurt, Germany. The house was operated by Rothschild and his oldest son, Amschel Mayer, until its dissolution in 1901. The four other Rothschild sons opened bank branches in Vienna, Austria; Naples, Italy; London, England; and Paris, France. The London and Paris branches are still in operation. Frankfurt House of Rothschild Background: Churches and churchgoers:  Background: Churches and churchgoers As for the British churchman, he goes to church as he goes to the bathroom, with the minimum of fuss and no explanation if he can help it. ---Ronald Blythe, British writer. The British churchgoer prefers a severe preacher because he thinks a few home truths will do his neighbours no harm. ---Attributed to George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright. Background: Churches and churchgoers:  Background: Churches and churchgoers A man who is good enough to go to heaven, is good enough to be a clergyman. ---Samuel Johnson (1709 - 1784) British lexicographer and writer I had explained that a woman's asking for equality in the church would be comparable to a black person's demanding equality in the Ku Klux Klan. ---Mary Daly (1928 - ) U.S. feminist and theologian. Background: Churches and churchgoers:  Background: Churches and churchgoers If people want a sense of purpose they should get it from their archbishop. They should certainly not get it from their politicians. - --Harold Macmillan British prime minister. Nobody but poor folks get happy in church. ---Richard Wright, U.S. novelist. Word Study: :  Word Study: happen to do: occur by chance She happened to be out when he called yesterday.. Word Study::  Word Study: Word Study::  Word Study: -ish: 1). somewhat,near to reddish greenish yellowish darkish 2). in the manner of foolish childish boyish womanish snobbish 3). of a country Irish Polish Finnish Spanish fortyish: at about the age of forty Word Study::  Word Study: Word Study::  Word Study: more than: (colloq.) ---very; extremely; beyond They were more than willing to help. more… than…: The child was more frightened than hurt. He always seemed old to me, more like a grandfather than a father. Word Study::  Word Study: no more than: ---only; just It cost me no more than $5 to buy the book. ---the same as He’s no more able to read Spanish than I am. Word Study::  Word Study: think twice about / doing sth: ---think carefully before deciding to do sth You should think twice about employing someone you’ve never met. Once bitten, twice shy. ---(saying) after an unpleasant experience one is careful to avoid sth similar Lightning never strike in the same place twice. ---(saying) an unusual event, or one that happens by chance, is not likely to occur again in the exactly the same circumstances or to the same people. Word Study::  Word Study: Word Study::  Word Study: Word Study::  Word Study: Word Study::  Word Study:

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