Published on February 19, 2014
Cyclone and Tsunami Risk Mitigation Measures in India Presented by CT.Lakshmanan B.Arch., M.C.P. Asst. Prof. (SG) SRM University CT.Lakshmanan
Earthquake, Oct, 2005 MAJOR DISASTERS (1980-2005) Avalanche Feb 2005 Earthquake Uttarkashi, 20 Oct 1991, Chamoli, 23 April 1999 Flood, Assam & Bihar 2004 Bhuj, Earthquake, 26 January, 2001 Bhopal Gas Tragedy, Dec 1982 Earthquake, Latur, 30 Sept 1993 S Cyclone 29 Oct 1999 Tsunami 26 Dec 2004 Floods, Mumbai, 26 July 2005 Tsunami 26 Dec 2004 Tsunami 26 Dec 2004 CT.Lakshmanan
Recent Disasters in India (1990-2005) YEAR PLACES & DISASTER LOSS OF LIVES (APPROX) LOSS OF PROPERTY ( Rs Crore) APPROX) 1991 Uttarkashi Earthquake 2000 2000 1993 Latur Earthquake 9500 6000 1997 Jabalpur Earthquake 200 5000 1999 Chamoli Earthquake 2000 2000 1999 Orissa Super Cyclone 9887 10000 2001 Bhuj Earthquake 14000 13400 2004 SE India Tsunami 15000 10000 2004 Assam & Bihar Floods 700 5000 2005 J&K Avalanche 350 100 2005 Mah, Guj, HP, Karnataka, T’Nadu Floods 1569 10300 2005 J&K Earthquakes 1336 1000 Total Losses of Major Disasters only 56542 64800 CT.Lakshmanan
India is vulnerable to a large number of disasters • Approx. 60% of the landmass is prone to Earthquakes • Approx.12% (About 40 million hectares of land) is prone to flood and river erosion. • Approx. 68% of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought//landslides/avalanches • About 5770 km of coastline out of a total 7516 km is prone to Cyclone and Tsunami CT.Lakshmanan
Vulnerability is increasing with • Rising population • Haphazard Urbanization • Developments in High-Risk zones • Environmental Degradation • Climate Change etc. CT.Lakshmanan
Tsunami Damage CT.Lakshmanan
Tsunami Damage CT.Lakshmanan
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CONTINUUM Disaster Strikes CT.Lakshmanan
Disaster Management Cycle Organisations Involved Prevention Research Institutions (Sponsored Research) Ministry of Earth Science (IMD, DOD, DST) Ministry of Water Resources Ministry of Agriculture Mitigation Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA, MUD, MoEF and other related ministries and departments) State Govt. (Various Departments) District/Local Administration and NGO’s Preparedness Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA, MUD, MoEF) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s CT.Lakshmanan
Disaster Management Cycle Cont. Organisations Involved Response Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Relief Central Govt. (NDMA. MHA) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Rehabilitation Reconstruction Long term Recovery Central Govt. (Integrated efforts of various ministries and departments) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Central Govt. (Integrated efforts of various ministries and departments) State Govt. District/Local Administration and NGO’s Central, State, Local Govt. and NGO’s CT.Lakshmanan
Disasters offer a unique opportunity to learn where we have gone wrong…. Preparedness and Mitigation of Disasters is the most important part of Disaster Management while strengthening our response capabilities CT.Lakshmanan
Disaster Mitigation Natural Hazards cannot be prevented, however with mitigation measures the effects/damages could be reduced India’s three pronged approach Mitigation measures integrated with the ongoing developmental projects National-level mitigation projects in high priority areas (Initiated by NDMA with the help of all concerned ministries, departments and states) State-level mitigation projects (Assistance in guidelines, plans and implementation by NDMA) CT.Lakshmanan
Mitigation Measures • Integrated multi-hazard approach (emphasis on cyclone and tsunami risk in coastal areas) • Early warning system for cyclones and tsunamis • Evacuation plans (with emphasis on self reliance for sustenance with the coastal community) • Capacity building • Training of all concerned • Public awareness programmes • Hazard Mapping and Vulnerability Analysis • Risk Identification, zoning and mapping CT.Lakshmanan
Mitigation Measures Cont. Structural Mitigation Measures Seawalls and Coral reefs Tsunami breakwaters (to provide cushion against Tsunami and Cyclone) Increasing the river dike height Tsunami and Cyclone Shelters (safe places to flee) Evacuation routes identification CT.Lakshmanan
Mitigation Measures Cont. Structural Mitigation Measures Permanent structures strictly according to BIS codes Retrofitting of vulnerable structures for tsunami/cyclone resistance Retrofitting of important buildings I. Fire stations / police stations/ army structures/ hospitals II. VIP residences / offices/ railways, airport, etc. III. Schools/colleges IV. Hazardous industries V. Other critical structures (i.e. power stations, warehouses, oil and other storage tanks etc) CT.Lakshmanan
Mitigation Measures Cont. Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Education Public Awareness Information Risk Communication Training to all concerned (Govt. officials, search and rescue workers, volunteers, women, children, elderly, local community as a whole) CT.Lakshmanan
Mitigation Measures Cont. Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Coastal regulations Zone Act – Strict implementation (no development within 500 m of the high tide line with elevation of less than 10 m above m.s.l) Land use Zoning in accordance with CRZ Natural Bioshields (Mangroves) and shelterbelt plantations (Casuarina) Maintaining Natural Sand dunes Maintaining and promoting beach development CT.Lakshmanan
Mitigation Measures Cont. Non-Structural Mitigation Measures Risk transfer in highly vulnerable areas (Insurance) Network of local knowledge centers along the coast lines ( Training and Emergency communication) Reducing Vulnerability Diverse Livelihood options Micro Finance Empowerment Gender sensitive development CT.Lakshmanan
ERS – RADAR IMAGE TSUNAMI INUNDATION IN NAGAPATTINAM COAST CT.Lakshmanan
RIVERS / CREEKS AS CARRIERS OF TSUNAMI WAVES PATHS TO BE KEPT FREE & BANKS TO HAVE STONE EMBANKMENTS CT.Lakshmanan
Radial Drains --- PALAEO /PRESENT BACKWATERS & TIDAL FLATS-----ACCOMODATORS Aforestation ---Promotion of Bird Sanctuaries NAGAPATTINAM CT.Lakshmanan
BEACH AS ABSORBERS - MARINA BEACH, CHENNAI CT.Lakshmanan
Reconstruction in Andaman Stilt Type Non-Stilt Type CT.Lakshmanan
Reconstruction in Andaman Source: www.and.nic.in Online Monitoring System of Construction of Permanent shelters for Tsunami victims CT.Lakshmanan
Reconstruction in Cuddlore CT.Lakshmanan
Thank You CT.Lakshmanan
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