Cycle of Abuse Notes

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Information about Cycle of Abuse Notes

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Teobaldo


Non-Accidental Injury: The Cycle of Abuse :  Non-Accidental Injury: The Cycle of Abuse Paula Boyden BVetMed, MRCVS Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements Helen M C Munro MRCVS University of Edinburgh Phil Wilson RSPCA Doreen Graham/Penny Johnston Scottish SPCA Liz Ormerod SCAS The Human/Animal Bond:  The Human/Animal Bond Some people do not understand why companion animals can be so important to so many people Human-Animal Interactions Some Identified Health Benefits:  Human-Animal Interactions Some Identified Health Benefits Reduced risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Lower blood pressure Lower cholesterol and triglycerides Reduction in heart rate Enhanced long-term survival post heart attack Reduction in stress hormone - cortisol C. Henry Kempe et al, 1962:  C. Henry Kempe et al, 1962 The Battered Child Syndrome Journal of the American Medical Association 181, 17-24 In Britain:  In Britain 1973 Maria Colwell battered to death by stepfather 2000 Victoria Climbie James Stuart Hutton (1983):  James Stuart Hutton (1983) Suggested that evidence of animal abuse might be a useful diagnostic indicator of abuse to other family members Phil Arkow (1994):  Phil Arkow (1994) Child Abuse, Animal Abuse and the Veterinarian JAVMA, 204, (7), 1004-1007 Types of Abuse:  Types of Abuse Physical Sexual Emotional Neglect Slide10:  Penny’s drunken owner used a walking stick to beat her over the nose. Physical Abuse: Synonyms:  Physical Abuse: Synonyms Non-accidental injury NAI Battered Child Syndrome Battered Pet Syndrome Animal Sexual Abuse:  Animal Sexual Abuse Bestiality Sex between a person and an animal Zoophilia Affection or affinity for animals Neglect:  Neglect Deprivation of the basic necessities of life Food and water Shelter Veterinary / Medical Treatment Affection Non-Accidental Injury (NAI):  Non-Accidental Injury (NAI) Features that indicate non-accidental injury (NAI) are very similar in animals and children Similarity between animals and humans can be difficult for people to understand Similarities:  Similarities Base of skull fracture ‘Stocking scald’: a limb is forcibly immersed and held in scalding water Cigarette burn Spiral fractures Non-Accidental Injury (NAI):  Non-Accidental Injury (NAI) The common denominator.. Circumstances of violence Actions involved Excuses offered The common denominator… The human perpetrator Diagnostic Pointers, NAI, Child :  Diagnostic Pointers, NAI, Child History inconsistent with injury Discrepant history Repetitive injury Behaviour of parent /child (Certain patterns of injury) Diagnostic Pointers, NAI, Pet:  Diagnostic Pointers, NAI, Pet History inconsistent with injury Discrepant history Repetitive injury Behaviour of owner/pet Behaviour of abused animal:  Behaviour of abused animal May be subdued / frightened May show behaviour change May be frightened of men Happier when hospitalised Dogs may be desperate to please Dogs may still appear to welcome abusive owner Behaviour of Owner:  Behaviour of Owner “Implausible and aggressive” “Reluctant to give history” “Angry on questioning” “Lack of concern” “Uneasy” What has happened since 2001?:  What has happened since 2001? RCVS has changed Guide to Professional Conduct More referral between professions Pet fostering services more widespread First successful RSPCA prosecution in NAI First successful Scottish SPCA prosecution in NAI Mixed Breed Dog: Young Adult:  Mixed Breed Dog: Young Adult 6 limb fractures 3 soft tissue injuries Occurred over 4 months No evidence of pre-existing bone pathology Explanation of fractures included::  Explanation of fractures included: “Jumped off the furniture” “Fell off a chair” “Found on the floor lame” “Another dog ran into her” A Tale of 3 Kittens:  A Tale of 3 Kittens 3 kittens - same household Housed kittens Repetitive injury Inconsistent histories Slide25:  Head trauma Head trauma Dislocated spine Kitten 1 Kitten 2 Kitten 3 Same household Where do we go from here?:  Where do we go from here? Non-Accidental Injury Consider as a differential diagnosis Communication and cross reporting Members of the (dental) team are not responsible for making a diagnosis of child abuse or neglect, just for sharing concerns appropriately Importance of the human animal bond Pet fostering services

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