Cutrona Brown and Black FACHS Powerpoint

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Information about Cutrona Brown and Black FACHS Powerpoint
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Published on January 14, 2008

Author: Demetrio

Source: authorstream.com

The Family and Community Health Study:  The Family and Community Health Study African American Youth Facing the Future Carolyn E. Cutrona, PhD Frederick X. Gibbons, PhD Iowa State University Ronald Simons, PhD University of Georgia:  Carolyn E. Cutrona, PhD Frederick X. Gibbons, PhD Iowa State University Ronald Simons, PhD University of Georgia Purpose:  Purpose Present results of a 10-year study of African American youth and families Explore the implications of the findings for addressing problems that face African American youth and young adults The Family and Community Health Study (FACHS):  The Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) Funded by… National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health National Institute on Drug Abuse Centers for Disease Control Unique Features of FACHS:  Unique Features of FACHS Largest ongoing study of African American families in the nation Began to study youth in elementary school Unique Features of FACHS:  Unique Features of FACHS Recruited a heterogeneous sample of African American families Assumed that families and youth are strongly influenced by the contexts in which they live Suspensions, Trouble with the Law, and Incarceration:  Suspensions, Trouble with the Law, and Incarceration Conclusions:  Conclusions Delinquency and more serious criminal behavior have their roots in the FAMILY and in the COMMUNITY. Families and communities influence each other. Effective solutions CANNOT focus on one or the other, but must focus on BOTH. Importance of Warmth and Control:  Importance of Warmth and Control Parenting qualities that predict good youth outcomes (“Authoritative Parenting”) High involvement and warmth Close monitoring and limit setting Neighborhood qualities that predict good youth outcomes (“Collective Efficacy”) Neighbors know and help each other Neighbors supervise each others’ children Neighbors work together to solve neighborhood problems First Step Towards Delinquency is Association with Delinquent Peers:  First Step Towards Delinquency is Association with Delinquent Peers At age 10, this is LESS LIKELY if… Parents are warm and involved Neighborhood is high on collective efficacy (cohesive and monitors the behavior of its youth) Choice of delinquent peers is MORE LIKELY if… Parents are harsh and inconsistent Neighborhood is high on poverty and crime Synergy occurs between families and the community :  Synergy occurs between families and the community The beneficial effects of high-quality parenting are STRONGER in neighborhoods high on collective efficacy (cohesion and mutual supervision of youth). Over time, improved neighborhood collective efficacy predicts improved quality of parenting! Neighborhoods can Dissipate the Effects of Parenting :  Neighborhoods can Dissipate the Effects of Parenting Authoritative parenting reduces youth conduct problems in all kinds of neighborhoods HOWEVER, in neighborhoods that are high on disorder, the effect of good parenting is diminished. Neighborhoods and Families Can Foster Positive Attitudes toward Violence:  Neighborhoods and Families Can Foster Positive Attitudes toward Violence Adoption of the “code of the street” Is MORE LIKELY if the youth… Affiliates with violent peers Experiences high life stress Experiences racial discrimination Experiences hostility from parents Lives in a neighborhood high on poverty and violence Violent Delinquency at Age 12 :  Violent Delinquency at Age 12 Is MORE likely if the youngster… Endorses the “code of the street” Is LESS likely if the youngster… Received authoritative parenting at age 10 Is positively engaged in school School Suspension and Trouble with the Law:  School Suspension and Trouble with the Law Are MORE likely if the youth CURRENTLY: Experiences frequent racial discrimination Affiliates with delinquent peers Adopts the “code of the street” Are LESS likely if at AGE 10 the youth: Experienced authoritative parenting Lived in a neighborhood high on collective efficacy and low on disorder Conclusions:  Conclusions Delinquency and more serious criminal behavior have their roots in the FAMILY and in the COMMUNITY. Families and communities influence each other. Effective solutions CANNOT focus on one or the other, but must focus on BOTH. OVERVIEW:  OVERVIEW Risk? Discrimination and substance use Discrimination and school problems Protection? Parenting as protection Ethnic identity as protection Success Indicators of success Predictors of success Slide18:  Discrimination in Iowa and Georgia > MINIMAL A LOT Age GA IA GA IA 10.5 12.5 15.6 18.6 19% 26% 1% 4% 16% 32% 1% 4% 18% 43% 2% 5% 26% 42% 2% 5% Discrimination in Iowa and Georgia:  Discrimination in Iowa and Georgia Substance Use in Iowa and Georgia:  Substance Use in Iowa and Georgia > Minimal Substance Use:  > Minimal Substance Use Regular Substance Use:  Regular Substance Use Age % reporting regular use Linking Discrimination and Substance Use:  Linking Discrimination and Substance Use Slide24:  Child Use at T3 Predictors of School Suspension (W1 +2 + 3):  Predictors of School Suspension (W1 +2 + 3) Risk-taking β = 1.79 (marginal) Early discrimination β = 2.19 Gender Academic Orientation SES School performance β = 3.07 β = - 3.35 β = - 3.42 β = - 3.43 School Suspension and Discrimination:  School Suspension and Discrimination Protection: Parenting and Ethnic Identity:  Protection: Parenting and Ethnic Identity Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Anger:  Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Anger Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Substance Use Willingness:  Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Substance Use Willingness Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Anger (lab study):  Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Anger (lab study) Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Willingness (lab study):  Supportive Parenting as a Buffer: Willingness (lab study) Ethnic Identity as Buffer in Mostly-White Neighborhoods:  Ethnic Identity as Buffer in Mostly-White Neighborhoods Ethnic Identity as a Buffer: Willingness in White Neighborhoods:  Ethnic Identity as a Buffer: Willingness in White Neighborhoods Predicting Success Among African American Adolescents:  Predicting Success Among African American Adolescents Indicators of Success at age 16:  Indicators of Success at age 16 Don't (i.e., avoid or delay):   - drinking    - heavy drinking    - drug use    - sex    - pregnancy    - conduct problems Do:    - eat healthy    - light exercise    - rigorous exercise    - protection (if sexually active)    - good relations with parents    - active in church functions    - stay in school    - academic performance Predicting Success::  Predicting Success: Variable T1 T2 Change Risk: Protection: Negative Life Events Parental Use Par. Neg. Affect Discrimination Religiosity Par. Monitoring Academic Orientation Good Self-Control % Black (neigh.) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Conclusions:  Conclusions Discrimination… is more common in Iowa (contact) predicts school problems and school performance is strongest predictor of substance use effects are mediated by anger Buffers: supportive parenting academic focus ethnic identity (esp. in mostly White neighborhoods) Success: academic focus parental monitoring religiosity Negative Life Events Predicting Success at Age 16:  Negative Life Events Predicting Success at Age 16

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