Published on March 9, 2014
CUSTOMS OF THE MIDDLEEAST (Jasmine kaur-2012043 Shreya Kumar-2012100)
What are Customs? “A custom is a cultural idea that describes a regular, patterned way of appearing or behaving that is considered characteristic of life in a social system.”
Customs for Middle-Eastern Muslim Women guided by primary Islamic sources of law religious guidelines, preIslamic traditions impact on women’s life dress code of Muslim women
Kinds of Head Scarves
Religious Life unusual for women to worship in mosques men and women on opposite sides of the aisle men in front of women women in second floor balconies separate rooms
Politics Saudi women given the right to vote in 2007 Egypt-25 percent reservation in the constituent assembly Iraq-25 percent representation in the parliament Tunisia and Libya- “zippered list model” (Queen Rania Al Abdullah of Jordan)
Education Colonial rule- compulsory education to a select elite Post colonial rule: majority of women still excluded from higher education focus on religious education In many countries, women must obtain permission from a male guardian for attending university
Employment MENA region ranks lowest in women labour force participation in the world Islam- women allowed to work subject to certain circumstances Limited opportunities- restricted to fields like medicine and teaching Role of women as mothers and wives is stressed upon
Property Rights Women do not have to give their premarriage possessions to their husbandsreceive “dower” instead All their earnings through employment are theirs to keep Iraq-women cannot own property, inherit less than half of what their brothers do
Marriage Marriage is a contractrequires consent of women Female circumcision - part of a ritual before marriage Muslim men can indulge in polygamy Endogamy is common in Islamic countries In some regions, child marriages are forced.
Inter-Faith Marriages A Muslim woman cannot marry a non-Muslim But Muslim men can marry Jewish or Christian women A Muslim woman cannot convert her religion However, a man can leave Islam or convert to another religion
Behavior and rights within a Marriage A woman’s space is the private sphere of the home; man’s space is the public sphere Women must fulfil marital and maternal responsibilities men are financial heads
In case of death of the husband , wives get a share of the movable property but have no right on the immovable property such as land, farm or real estate.
Divorce In Islam, a woman can initiate a divorce in some circumstances- ‘Sharis’ law seek a ‘tafriq’ under certain allowable reasons. The second method, by far more common in wife-initiated divorces, ‘khul’ is a divorce without cause but mutual consent. Women applies for divorce- complicated legal procedure which may take up to 2 years In some regions, men can divorce their wives just by saying “you are divorced!” three times.
Movement and Travel No limitations or prohibitions on women’s travelling alone is mentioned in the Quran In some countries, if a journey longer than 3 days is undertaken, the woman must be escorted by a male guardian. In some regions, women are not allowed to drive or even ride a bicycle. These customs originated for the safety of women.
A Book and Movie based on a true story…. (Movie) The Stoning of Soraya M. is a 2008 American Persian language drama film adapted from French journalist Feridoune Sahebjam’s 1900 book ‘La Femme Lapidee’ based on a true story.
Famous Books written on true narratives…. The Princess Trilogy Princess : A true story of Life Behind the Veil in Saudi Arabia Princess : Sultana’s Daughters Princess : Sultana’s Circles
Recent Changes The government has granted women the right to vote. Participation in the local elections. The women have been allowed to ride bicycles .
Implementations that could improve the situation Education of women should be stressed. The system of male guardianship should be abolished. Steps should be taken to improve the female workforce. The religious body should be separated from the political and judiciary system. Women representation in the religious Islamic Body.
Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzung für customs im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc (Deutschwörterbuch).
Übersetzung für customs im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch dict.cc.
Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports ...
Includes the former Border Patrol and Customs Service. Missions include detecting and preventing the illegal entry of persons and goods into the country.
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