Published on February 8, 2014
curriculum A General view
What is curriculum? There are many definitions that are correct…………. but for our purposes we define curriculum as : WHAT is taught to students? What we plan to teach? What we want SS to learn? What SS want to learn?
Definition of Curriculum The content standards, objectives and performance descriptors for all required and elective content areas and 21st century learning skills and technology tools at each programmatic level
How Do We Define Curriculum? • Curriculum is that which is taught at school. • Curriculum is a set of subjects. • Curriculum is content. • Curriculum is a sequence of courses. • Curriculum is a set of performance objectives.
How Do We Define Curriculum? • Curriculum is all planned learning for which the school is responsible. • Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school. John Delnay (1959.)
How Do We Define Curriculum? • According to Bandi & Wales (2005), the most common definition derived from the word Latin root, which means “racecourse.” • Bandi & Wales (2005) also stated that “ for many students, the school curriculum is a race to be run, a series of obstacles or hurdles (subjects) to be passed.”
How Do We Define Curriculum? • It is important to keep in mind that schools in the Western Civilization have been heavily influenced since the fourth century B.C. by the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle and the word curriculum has been used historically to describe the subjects that are being taught during the classical period of Greek Civilization.
How Do We Define Curriculum? • The interpretation of the word curriculum has broaden in the 20th century to include subjects other that the Classics. Today school documents, newspaper articles, committee reports, and many academic textbooks refer to any and all subjects offered are prescribed as the curriculum of the school.
Definition (Wilson, 1990) of curriculum is: •Anything and everything that teaches a lesson, planned or otherwise. Humans are born learning, thus the learned curriculum actually encompasses a combination of all of the below -- the hidden, null, written, political and societal etc.. Since students learn all the time through exposure and modeled behaviors, this means that they learn important social and emotional lessons from everyone who inhabits a school -- from the janitorial staff, the secretary, the cafeteria workers, their peers, as well as from the department, conduct and attitudes expressed and modeled by their teachers. Many educators are unaware of the strong lessons imparted to youth by these everyday contacts.
Concept of curriculum
Introduction The concept of curriculum is as dynamic as the changes that occur in society. In its narrow sense, curriculum is viewed merely as a listing of subject to be taught in school. In a broader sense, it refers to the total learning experiences of individuals not only in schools but in society as well.
Curriculum from Different Points of View • There are many definitions of curriculum. Because of this, the concept of curriculum is sometimes characterized as fragmentary, elusive and confusing. The definitions are influenced by modes of thoughts, pedagogies, political as well as cultural experiences
Traditional Points of View of Curriculum In the early years of 20th century, the traditional concepts held of the “curriculum is that it is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn”. It was synonymous to the “course of study” and “syllabus” Robert M. Hutchins views curriculum as “permanent studies” where the rule of grammar, reading, rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized.
Basic Education should emphasize the 3 Rs and college education should be grounded on liberal education. On the other hand, Arthur Bestor as an essentialist, believe that the mission of the school should be intellectual training, hence curriculum should focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar, literature and writing. It should also include mathematics, science, history and foreign language.
This definition leads us to the view of Joseph Schwab that discipline is the sole source of curriculum. Thus in our education system, curriculum is divided into chunks of knowledge we call subject areas in basic education such as English, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies and others. In college, discipline may includes humanities, sciences, languages and many more
Traditional curriculum design does not reflect these realities, it often does not provide students with opportunities to develop the kinds of critical thinking skills and problem-solving abilities that are central to thinking and learning (Jones, Palinscar, Ogle, & Carr, 1987). Furthermore, traditional curriculum design does not include opportunities to build the kinds of personal and collaborative skills that support learning (Tinzmann, Jones, Fennimore, Bakker, Fine, & Pierce, 1990).
Progressive Points of View of Curriculum On the other hand, to a progressivist, a listing of school, subjects, syllabi, course of study, and list of courses or specific discipline do not make a curriculum. These can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learner. Broadly speaking, curriculum is defined as the total learning experiences of the individual.
This definition is anchored on John Dewey’s definition of experience and education. He believed that reflective thinking is a means that unifies curricular elements. Thought is not derived from action but tested by application. Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum as “all experiences children have under the guidance of teachers”. This definition is shared by Smith, Stanley and Shores when they defined “curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the schools for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting”
Marsh and Willis on the other hand view curriculum as all the “experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students.
Islamic concept of curriculum • According to Islam, basic values are permanent. So will be the educational objectives.In traditionalism, sources of values are traditions of their forefathers, While is Islam, pleasure of ALLAH is the source of Value. • According to Islam only the prophetic knowledge is absolutely reliable. So content will essentially consist of the
Islamic concept of curriculum • knowledge, contained in the Quran and Sunnah.Knowledge gained through other sources will also be tested on this criteria (Quran & Sunnah) and may conditionally made a part of curriculum.
Which are old curriculum… • Subject Centered curriculum • Board field curriculum • Conservative core curriculum
Which are modern curriculum • The child centered curriculum • Activity and experience centered curriculum • Community centered curriculum • Progressive curriculum • Problem-oriented curriculum
History of Curriculum Three focus points for Curriculum Decisions
History of Curriculum 1. The Nature of Subject Matter Content of the curriculum, and what subject matter to include in the curriculum. The subject matter of history should be based on evens that actually happened in the past. 2. The Nature of the Society If the curriculum is to have utilitarian values, then it must lead the student not only to knowledge of the external world for its own sake, but also to knowledge that can be applied in the world.
History of Curriculum 3. The Nature of the Individuals The third basic focal point around which decisions about curricula can be made is the nature of the individual. The curriculum is also a set of suggestions to the teacher about how to take advantage of the present opportunities worthwhile, growth for each student in the long run. The History of Curricula of American school during the 20th century is, therefore, a history of these three focal points for deciding on content ad making other curriculum decisions.
History of Curriculum Colonial Era and the Early United States • Curriculum was not an issue in Colonial America during the early years of the United States. • Colonies along the Atlantic seaboard were under British control during the 17th/18th centuries. These immigrants were from many European nations. • Despite their differences the settlers shared common assumptions about education.
History of Curriculum First Common Assumptions: • Few people needed formal Education. • Mass Education was not heard. Second Common Assumptions: • Formal Education should be directed at bringing people into conformity with some prevailing idea of what and Educated person should be.
History of Curriculum Given these assumptions about education and how they worked out in schools of colonial America, the focus point of the curriculum was the nature of subject matter.
Colonial America The Harvard Curriculum Logic Physics Rhetoric History Ethnic Politics Geometry Astronomy Literacy Studies
Colonial America Franklin’s Academy • 1749. Benjamin Franklin challenge prevailing beliefs about education and the curriculum. • Curriculum –focused on Latin & Greek for those preparing to be ministers • French, German, and Spanish for those preparing to be merchants. • Everyone would study English, through reading, writing, and orating.
19th Century Common School Movement • The expansion of the curriculum. Reports of the National Education Association. • 1876. A course of study from primary school to university. • 1893. The Committee of Ten • 1895. The Committee of 15
20th Century The Cardinal Principals of Secondary Education Seven Objectives: • Health • Command of fundamental process • Worthy Home Membership • Vacation • Citizenship • Worthy use of leisure • Ethical Character
7 Common concepts of curriculum 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Scope and Sequence Syllabus Content Outline Standers Textbooks Course of Study Planned Experiences
BASIC ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM • SUBJECT-MATTER: Designation of what area of content, facts, arena of endeavor, that the curriculum deals with. (This is a further elaboration of the "topic" description in the Aim.) • INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN: Describes the activities the learners are going to engage in, and the sequence of those activities. Also describes what the TEACHER is to do in order to facilitate those activities. (This is like the traditional "lesson plan" except for a curriculum it may include more than one lesson.)
BASIC ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM • Aim: One sentence (more or less) description of overall purpose of curriculum, including audience and the topic. • Rationale: Paragraph describing why aim is worth achieving. This section would include assessment of needs.
BASIC ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM • Goals and objectives: List of the learning outcomes expected from participation in the curriculum. This section includes a discussion of how the curriculum supports national, state, and local standards. • Audience and pre-requisites: Describes who the curriculum is for and the prior knowledge, skills, and attitudes of those learners likely to be successful with the curriculum.
BASIC ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM • MATERIALS: Lists materials necessary for successful teaching of the curriculum. Includes a list of web pages. Often, the web site will NOT be the only materials needed by the students. They may need books, tables, paper, chalkboards, calculators, and other tools. You should spell these additional materials out in your teaching guide. Also includes the actual materials (worksheets and web pages) prepared by the curriculum developer, any special requirements for classroom setup and supplies, and a list of any specific hardware and software requirements
BASIC ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM • INSTRUCTIONAL PLAN: Describes the activities the learners are going to engage in, and the sequence of those activities. Also describes what the TEACHER is to do in order to facilitate those activities. (This is like the traditional "lesson plan" except for a curriculum it may include more than one lesson.)
BASIC ELEMENTS OF CURRICULUM • PLANS FOR ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: Includes plan for assessing learning and evaluating the curriculum as a whole. May include description of a model project, sample exam questions, or other elements of assessment. Also should include plan for evaluating the curriculum as a whole, including feedback from learners.
Quality curriculum • Greater depth and less superficial coverage • Focus on problem solving • Facilities the mastery of essential skill and knowledge • Coordinated • Articulation multi-level sequence study • Emphasize academic and practice • Effective integrated curricula • Mastery of a limited numbers of objectives
EDUCATION AND CURRICULUM RELATIONSHIP content of what is taught along with an overall process of how that content is to be taught, and instruction being the more detailed plans and the way those plans are implemented in order to teach the curriculum content, it becomes easy to understand that the two must be compatible in order to maximize student learning.
Curriculum as a Discipline • Curriculum as a discipline is a subject of study, and on the Graduate level of Higher Education a major field of study.
HOW CURRICULUM DIFERS FROM…… • SYLLABUS • COURSE OF STUDY • EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMME • TEACHING • INSTRUCTION
SYLLABUS VS CURRICULUM Curriculum Curriculum is a focus of study, consisting of various courses all designed to reach a particular proficiency or qualification. Syllabus A syllabus is simply an outline and time line of a particular course. It will typically give a brief overview of the course objectives, course expectations, list reading assignments, homework deadlines, and exam dates.
COURSE OF STUDY VS CURRICULUM • A course is a set of inventory items grouped together for ease of assignment and tracking. Curriculum refers to the training assigned to a student. A curriculum can consist of more than one course.
CURRICULUM VS TEACHING Curriculum Curriculum is a focus of study, consisting of various courses all designed to reach a particular proficiency or qualification. Teaching An academic process by which students are motivated to learn in ways that make a sustained, substantial, and positive influence on how they think, act, and feel.
INSTRUCTION VS CURRICULUM Curriculum Curriculum is literally defined in education as a set of courses regarding different classes or subjects offered in different educational institutions such as a school or a university. Instruction Instructions are a basic aspect of the learning process. They are all formulated to guide students in their gradual learning process in their respective fields.
Curriculum as a Discipline Graduate and undergraduate students take courses in: Curriculum development Curriculum theory Curriculum Evaluation Secondary School Curriculum Elementary School Curriculum Middle School Curriculum Community College Curriculum Curriculum in Higher Education
• References: • Cortes, C.E. (1981) The societal curriculum: Implications for multiethnic educations. In Banks, J.A (ed.) Educations in the 80's: Multiethnic education. National Education Association. • Eisner, E.W. (1994) The educational imagination: On design and evaluation of school programs. (3rd. ed) New York: Macmillan. • Longstreet, W.S. and Shane, H.G. (1993) Curriculum for a new millennium. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. • Oliva, P. (1997) The curriculum: Theoretical dimensions. New York: Longman. • Wilson, L. O. (1990, 2004, 2006) Curriculum course packets ED 721 & 726, unpublished.
Curriculum Vitae The Consul General Consulate General in Chicago. Dienstag, 6 Dezember 2016. HELLENISCHE REPUBLIK Griechenland in Deutschland.
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