Culture Change, Globalization, and the Future

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Information about Culture Change, Globalization, and the Future

Published on January 27, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

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Globalization Trends. Culture Change. Theories of Development. Peasant Society. Guatemala: A Case Study

Cultural Change, Globality, and the Future Imperialism, Acculturation, and the Third World

Globalization and Cultural Change: Introduction Cultural Change Change always present Present era: change has accelerated Globalization Again, present since the empires Industrial era: Process has accelerated via technology Infiltrated into all parts of Third World cultures

Cultural Change

Change always present

Present era: change has accelerated

Globalization

Again, present since the empires

Industrial era: Process has accelerated via technology

Infiltrated into all parts of Third World cultures

Leading Trends: Globalization Economic Globalization: Expansion of trade into an international division of labor Core countries Peripheral countries Semiperipheral countries Expansion of a global production system Transportation innovation Communication innovation Labor-intensive processes to Third World More recently: white-collar work

Economic Globalization:

Expansion of trade into an international division of labor

Core countries

Peripheral countries

Semiperipheral countries

Expansion of a global production system

Transportation innovation

Communication innovation

Labor-intensive processes to Third World

More recently: white-collar work

Leading Trends: Globalization Impact Peasantization : Settlement of Nomadic peoples Independent cultivators (e.g. Yanomamo) Proletarianization Alienation of land Rural workers Rural-to-urban migration

Peasantization : Settlement of

Nomadic peoples

Independent cultivators (e.g. Yanomamo)

Proletarianization

Alienation of land

Rural workers

Rural-to-urban migration

Leading Trends: Earlier Phases of Globalizaton Extermination of existing populations Locations: the Americas, Australia Processes: Diseases, conquest by division Slavery Examples: African slavery by Arabs, then Westerners Contemporary examples: sex slavery in Thailand, forced labor in China

Extermination of existing populations

Locations: the Americas, Australia

Processes: Diseases, conquest by division

Slavery

Examples: African slavery by Arabs, then Westerners

Contemporary examples: sex slavery in Thailand, forced labor in China

Leading Trends: Applied Anthropology Westernization of Technology and Economics Derivative Institutions Politics Religion Positive Aspects of Westernization Health Promotion (though debatable) Elimination of harmful practices such as: Tribal Warfare Clitoridectomy and circumcision Child Marriages

Westernization of

Technology and Economics

Derivative Institutions

Politics Religion

Positive Aspects of Westernization

Health Promotion (though debatable)

Elimination of harmful practices such as:

Tribal Warfare

Clitoridectomy and circumcision

Child Marriages

Leading Trends: Applied Anthropology Negative Aspects of Westernization: Loss of land Loss of livelihood (India’s cotton): Loss of independence Role of Applied Anthropology Change from subsistence to cash crops Change from indigenous to market-based technology (e.g. fertilizer, demos ) Persuasion; changing attitudes

Negative Aspects of Westernization:

Loss of land

Loss of livelihood (India’s cotton):

Loss of independence

Role of Applied Anthropology

Change from subsistence to cash crops

Change from indigenous to market-based technology (e.g. fertilizer, demos )

Persuasion; changing attitudes

Overview Theories of cultural change Nature of peasant society Case study of the twin processes in Guatemala Guatemala at Conquest Guatemala under Colonial/Conservative Rule Guatemala under Liberal Regimes

Theories of cultural change

Nature of peasant society

Case study of the twin processes in Guatemala

Guatemala at Conquest

Guatemala under Colonial/Conservative Rule

Guatemala under Liberal Regimes

Theories of Social Change Most theories focus on the local Index variables (Sociologists) Entrepreneuralism (Economists; Psychologists) Diffusionism: (Anthropologists) Macroscopic Approaches Dependency Theory (Frank) World-Systems Analysis (Wallerstein) Recent trends: Asian corporatism?

Most theories focus on the local

Index variables (Sociologists)

Entrepreneuralism (Economists; Psychologists)

Diffusionism: (Anthropologists)

Macroscopic Approaches

Dependency Theory (Frank)

World-Systems Analysis (Wallerstein)

Recent trends: Asian corporatism?

States of Economic Growth (Rostow) Traditional stage: culture and attitudes are barriers to development Culture change (premodern) stage : acceptance that change is both necessary and beneficial Take-Off Stage: Investment and savings begin to rise Self-Sustained growth: Self-reinforcing investment and savings rates as society undergoes industrialization; spread of education High economic growth (or era of mass consumption): achievement of high standard of living

Traditional stage: culture and attitudes are barriers to development

Culture change (premodern) stage : acceptance that change is both necessary and beneficial

Take-Off Stage: Investment and savings begin to rise

Self-Sustained growth: Self-reinforcing investment and savings rates as society undergoes industrialization; spread of education

High economic growth (or era of mass consumption): achievement of high standard of living

Theory of Social Change: Pattern Variables Modernization is measured by indicators known as pattern variables Traditional vs. modern measures Ascription vs. Achievement Particularism vs. Universalism Drawbacks Traditionalism masks diversity Ignores wider economies Counterexamples in modern society

Modernization is measured by indicators known as pattern variables

Traditional vs. modern measures

Ascription vs. Achievement

Particularism vs. Universalism

Drawbacks

Traditionalism masks diversity

Ignores wider economies

Counterexamples in modern society

Theory of Social Change:Psychological variables Strategy Foster entrepreneurial attitudes Select society with this attribute Example: McClelland Need for achievement ( n -ach) : a measurable concept;t One indicator: folk tales Turkey: the boy and the grocer Implication: decision as to whom to aid.

Strategy

Foster entrepreneurial attitudes

Select society with this attribute

Example: McClelland

Need for achievement ( n -ach) : a measurable concept;t

One indicator: folk tales

Turkey: the boy and the grocer

Implication: decision as to whom to aid.

Theory of Social Change: Diffusionism Strategy Change in key societal characteristics Demonstration projects Marketing strategies Tzintzuntzan: Mexican case study Pottery marketing encouraged--and resisted Image of limited good: absolute scarcity Dyadic contract: distrust of organizations

Strategy

Change in key societal characteristics

Demonstration projects

Marketing strategies

Tzintzuntzan: Mexican case study

Pottery marketing encouraged--and resisted

Image of limited good: absolute scarcity

Dyadic contract: distrust of organizations

World Systems Analysis and Allied Theories Dependency Theory Specialization on single exports Primary sector Fostered by industrial countries World-Systems Analysis Core countries (Industrialized, Diversified) Peripheral: (Monocrop, specialized) Semiperipheral (Intermediate, go-betweens)

Dependency Theory

Specialization on single exports

Primary sector

Fostered by industrial countries

World-Systems Analysis

Core countries (Industrialized, Diversified)

Peripheral: (Monocrop, specialized)

Semiperipheral (Intermediate, go-betweens)

Peasant Society Importance: Linkage to wider society Definitions based on this linkage Kroeber: Part societies with part cultures. Redfield: Two Aspects Great versus Little Tradition Folk-Urban Continuum Fallers: African societies Lack of a long-standing tradition Drawback: Indigenous African states

Importance: Linkage to wider society

Definitions based on this linkage

Kroeber: Part societies with part cultures.

Redfield: Two Aspects

Great versus Little Tradition

Folk-Urban Continuum

Fallers: African societies

Lack of a long-standing tradition

Drawback: Indigenous African states

Peasant Society: A Structural Definition according to Eric Wolf The funding metaphor Primitive Cultivators and Peasants both must meet a Caloric fund (food, other necessities) Replacement fund (seeds, house repair) Ceremonial fund (life change, solidarity) Peasants Subject to domain of state Rent fund (taxes, tribute, forced labor)

The funding metaphor

Primitive Cultivators and Peasants both must meet a

Caloric fund (food, other necessities)

Replacement fund (seeds, house repair)

Ceremonial fund (life change, solidarity)

Peasants

Subject to domain of state

Rent fund (taxes, tribute, forced labor)

Indigenous Guatemala: Ethnohistorical Overview Pre-Columbian Era (ca 1000-1524) Either city states Or parts of a larger state. Colonization by Spain (1524-1600) Colonial and Early Independence (1600-1871) Liberal Era (1871-Present) Reform Hiatus (1944-1954) Civil War and Aftermath (1960-Present)

Pre-Columbian Era (ca 1000-1524)

Either city states

Or parts of a larger state.

Colonization by Spain (1524-1600)

Colonial and Early Independence (1600-1871)

Liberal Era (1871-Present)

Reform Hiatus (1944-1954)

Civil War and Aftermath (1960-Present)

Pre-Columbian Era Sociopolitical Organization Patrilineal Clans Joint Land Tenure Warring Kingdoms: Quiche dominated Tributaries to various cycles of states Other Attributes Calendrical System Base 20 system of numbers Writing combining glyph types

Sociopolitical Organization

Patrilineal Clans

Joint Land Tenure

Warring Kingdoms: Quiche dominated

Tributaries to various cycles of states

Other Attributes

Calendrical System

Base 20 system of numbers

Writing combining glyph types

Spanish Colonization Conquest completed by 1540, with a few exceptions Colonial Setup Spaniards perennially understaffed Created congregaciones: forced population relocation to town centers Each town deeded communal land Quota system of labor and tribute

Conquest completed by 1540, with a few exceptions

Colonial Setup

Spaniards perennially understaffed

Created congregaciones: forced population relocation to town centers

Each town deeded communal land

Quota system of labor and tribute

Spanish Colonization: Town Government Offices staffed by Indians themselves Enforced the quota system of labor Assessed each household for tribute Administered the allocation of land Handled other daily affairs Structure Caciques became the administrators Alcaldes (mayors) and regidores (council) Police and messengers: the mayores

Offices staffed by Indians themselves

Enforced the quota system of labor

Assessed each household for tribute

Administered the allocation of land

Handled other daily affairs

Structure

Caciques became the administrators

Alcaldes (mayors) and regidores (council)

Police and messengers: the mayores

Spanish Colonization: Religious Governance Priests directed the town’s church Sacristans oversaw church’s daily administration Cofradias assigned care of each saint and its celebration Alter boys handled menial chores Syncretism: Each saint “fronted” for indigenous spirits

Priests directed the town’s church

Sacristans oversaw church’s daily administration

Cofradias assigned care of each saint and its celebration

Alter boys handled menial chores

Syncretism: Each saint “fronted” for indigenous spirits

Colonial Guatemala/Central America Guatemala was captaincy-general of Central America (including Chiapas) Spain lost interest in Central America Lacked the gold/silver deposits of New Spain and Peru Spain directed staff to these two colonies Central America came to be neglected In due course, Indians gained autonomy by default

Guatemala was captaincy-general of Central America (including Chiapas)

Spain lost interest in Central America

Lacked the gold/silver deposits of New Spain and Peru

Spain directed staff to these two colonies

Central America came to be neglected

In due course, Indians gained autonomy by default

Closed Corporate Communities Communities were both closed and corporate Corporate Estate: communal land Body of rights and obligations Rights: usufruct land rights Obligations: community service Focus of service: civil-religious hierarchy

Communities were both closed and corporate

Corporate

Estate: communal land

Body of rights and obligations

Rights: usufruct land rights

Obligations: community service

Focus of service: civil-religious hierarchy

Communities as Corporate: Civil-Religious Hierarchy Civil and religious organizations became fused into a theocracy Hierarchy of offices Lowest: messengers, police Middle level mayordomo of cofradias Upper level: mayors, council, top cofrades Obligatory service Financial support of office Yearlong service without pay

Civil and religious organizations became fused into a theocracy

Hierarchy of offices

Lowest: messengers, police

Middle level mayordomo of cofradias

Upper level: mayors, council, top cofrades

Obligatory service

Financial support of office

Yearlong service without pay

Communities as Corporate: Civil-Religious Hierarchy Cargo career Youths began as messengers Early to middle age: mayordomos Elders became senior officeholders: councillors. mayors, senior mayordomos Principales (e.g. moletik in Zinacantan) Leveling mechanism Led to reduced stratification Resources directed to community welfare

Cargo career

Youths began as messengers

Early to middle age: mayordomos

Elders became senior officeholders: councillors. mayors, senior mayordomos

Principales (e.g. moletik in Zinacantan)

Leveling mechanism

Led to reduced stratification

Resources directed to community welfare

Communities as Closed: Structural Barriers Community Endogamy Community markers Distinctive dress style Linguistic dialects Product specialization Regional markets Rotating: markets held alternate days Solar: central markets Semimonopoly of crafts ensure demand

Community Endogamy

Community markers

Distinctive dress style

Linguistic dialects

Product specialization

Regional markets

Rotating: markets held alternate days

Solar: central markets

Semimonopoly of crafts ensure demand

Regional Economies of Colonial Central America Hostile symbiosis between Haciendas Closed corporate communities Conservatives vs. Liberals Conservatives: maintain national self-sufficiency Liberals: Wealth through Economic development External commerce

Hostile symbiosis between

Haciendas

Closed corporate communities

Conservatives vs. Liberals

Conservatives: maintain national self-sufficiency

Liberals: Wealth through

Economic development

External commerce

Liberal Reformas: Roots Economic Strategy Country needs to industrialize Key: Produce exports Guatemala: lucrative export proved to be coffee Origins: Costa Rica had a booming coffee economy by 1840s In 1860, coffee proved successful

Economic Strategy

Country needs to industrialize

Key: Produce exports

Guatemala: lucrative export proved to be coffee

Origins: Costa Rica had a booming coffee economy by 1840s

In 1860, coffee proved successful

Liberal Reformas: Land Rationale for Land Reforms Needed land “locked” in communal land Incentive lacking for Indians to plant the crop Land Reforms Privatization: only land registered to private individuals was recognized Result: land grabs of communal property Some communities vanished; others restructured

Rationale for Land Reforms

Needed land “locked” in communal land

Incentive lacking for Indians to plant the crop

Land Reforms

Privatization: only land registered to private individuals was recognized

Result: land grabs of communal property

Some communities vanished; others restructured

Liberal Reforma: Labor Coffee requires massive labor inputs Tending seedlings Weeding Picking and processing beans Labor Reforms Restoration of labor quota system Debt peonage legalized Fincas de mozos: worker-producing farms Vagrancy laws (1930s)

Coffee requires massive labor inputs

Tending seedlings

Weeding

Picking and processing beans

Labor Reforms

Restoration of labor quota system

Debt peonage legalized

Fincas de mozos: worker-producing farms

Vagrancy laws (1930s)

Liberal Reforma: Impact on Communities Land became a commodity Communal land mostly nonarable Communities became dependent on labor markets Corporate institutions eroded Politics dominated political part of CRH Religious movements entered communities “ True” Catholicism displace folk beliefs Protestantism entered.

Land became a commodity

Communal land mostly nonarable

Communities became dependent on labor markets

Corporate institutions eroded

Politics dominated political part of CRH

Religious movements entered communities

“ True” Catholicism displace folk beliefs

Protestantism entered.

Liberal Reforma: Long-term impact Social reforms introduced, reversed Labor legislation Land redistribution Civil war of attrition Guerrilla warfare involved Indian in 1980s Communities bombed, mass emigration Peace Accords of 1996 ended war Guatemala has become part of global system of production.

Social reforms introduced, reversed

Labor legislation

Land redistribution

Civil war of attrition

Guerrilla warfare involved Indian in 1980s

Communities bombed, mass emigration

Peace Accords of 1996 ended war

Guatemala has become part of global system of production.

Reactions to Globalization: Latin America Venezuela: Control of Oil Resources under Chavez Cochabamba, Bolivia: Privatization of water followed by return to public Bolivia: Control of gas resources Argentina: Worker takeover of closed factories Mexico: Narrow defeat of a socialist coalition; EZLN revolt

Venezuela: Control of Oil Resources under Chavez

Cochabamba, Bolivia: Privatization of water followed by return to public

Bolivia: Control of gas resources

Argentina: Worker takeover of closed factories

Mexico: Narrow defeat of a socialist coalition; EZLN revolt

Reactions of Globalization: East Asia China: Controlled foreign investment Japan: Independent industrialization The Four Tigers: Independent commerce India: New Silicon Valleys Question in ReOrient: Is East Asian hegemony about to re-emerge?

China: Controlled foreign investment

Japan: Independent industrialization

The Four Tigers: Independent commerce

India: New Silicon Valleys

Question in ReOrient: Is East Asian hegemony about to re-emerge?

Reactions To Globalization: Fundamentalism Iran: Islamic Republic as reaction to imperialism Iraq and Afghanistan: Protracted warfare, with many precedents Other Fundamentalist Movements: Turkey, Algeria, rest of Middle East

Iran: Islamic Republic as reaction to imperialism

Iraq and Afghanistan: Protracted warfare, with many precedents

Other Fundamentalist Movements: Turkey, Algeria, rest of Middle East

Conclusion Corporate capital dominates the world Third World Countries have become industrial appendages Outsourcing of manufacturing and increasingly high-tech industries Reactions have been multifarious—from co-optation to expulsion

Corporate capital dominates the world

Third World Countries have become industrial appendages

Outsourcing of manufacturing and increasingly high-tech industries

Reactions have been multifarious—from co-optation to expulsion

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