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Cultural Studies 3 lecture 8

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Information about Cultural Studies 3 lecture 8
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Published on November 28, 2008

Author: liamgr

Source: authorstream.com

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Cultural Studies 3:  Cultural Studies 3 Digital culture and life in the 21st Century Culture Jamming Liam Greenslade http://ncad.culturalstudies.googlepages.com http://ncadculturalstudies3.blogspot.com Vuk Cosic Lifeforars Nike Culture jamming: The future of net.art?:  Culture jamming: The future of net.art? "Culture Jamming" sticks where rational discourse slides off. It is, simply, the viral introduction of radical ideas. It is viral in that it uses the enemy's own resources to replicate itself -- corporate logos, marketing psychology, clean typography, "adspeak". It is radical because--ideally--the message, once deciphered, causes damage to blind belief. Fake ads, fake newspaper articles, parodies, pastiche. The best CJ is totally unexpected, surprising, shocking in its implications http://www.abrupt.org/CJ/ Origins of culture jamming:  Origins of culture jamming Culture jamming is a form of political communication which emerged in response to the commercialisation of public life. Its practitioners argue that culture, politics, and social values have been warped in commercial environments simply to bring targeted audiences/consumers to corporate sellers Culture jammers seek to disrupt and expose questionable political assumptions behind commercial culture so that people become aware of the branded environment in which they live Culture jamming is, at root, just a metaphor for stopping the flow of spectacle long enough to adjust your set." or "..breaking the syntax, and replacing it with a new one. The new syntax carries the instructions for a whole new way of being in the world.“ (Lasn, 1999) Culture jamming & the media:  Culture jamming & the media The culture-jammer and media activist approach questions the underlying social relations which govern the place of media (and by extension, capital) in our culture. Culture-jammer methods are strategies for self-empowerment which embrace self-publishing in all its forms. Fanzines, techno music done by teenagers in bedrooms, personal web site production, graffiti, hacking, billboard alteration and other forms of popular media resistance to the mainstream can reside under the broad banner of media activism. DIY & Culture Jamming:  DIY & Culture Jamming The D.I.Y. or “do it yourself” movement had its correlates in the punk scene of the seventies and prior to that in the 'homegrown' media production culture of the anti-Vietnam war counter-culture Here “low-tech” and “hands-on” techniques for music and self publishing became very popular and widespread. Audio jamming:  Audio jamming Audio collage by groups such as Negativland, take materials from as many sources; scanned mobile phone conversations, old radio serials, and material on the internet. Negativland are claimed as the originators of the term ‘culture jamming’ The Tape Beatles took out a patent on 'plagiarism' as a technique. By copying materials by the Beatles, the Tape Beatles intended to discredit the idea of the originality of the artist. The record companies interpret copying of any sort as bootlegging, despite the fact that most copies of music is not made for resale. The battle between companies and culture-jammers reached its zenith in the early 1990s when Island Records sued Negativland for using a sample of a song by the megagroup “U2” in a parody. Negativland and U2:  Negativland and U2 In August 1991, the band and its label at the time, SST Records, released a single called U2 that featured a U-2 spy plane, the lettering "U2," and Negativland's name in small print on its cover. The recording included about 35 seconds of a U2 song, American Top 40 icon Casey Kasem making disparaging comments about the band and commentary from The Weatherman, one of the group's occasional members. Within two weeks of the release, Island Records filed a suit claiming that the song's cover art violated trademark protection and that its music's "unauthorized use of a sound recording" violated copyright law. Island demanded that every copy of the single and all materials for its promotion and manufacture be immediately delivered to the company for destruction and that U2's copyright be reassigned to Island. Unable to afford legal representation the band settled out of court. However, the case prompted an ongoing campaign regarding the notion of ‘Fair Use’ and copyright law ‘No logo’:  ‘No logo’ “Media concentration is high, and increasing. Furthermore, those who occupy managerial positions in the media...belong to the same privileged elites, and might be expected to share the perceptions, aspirations, and attitudes of their associates” (Noam Chomsky) Naomi Klein’s book ‘no logo’ addresses this convergence and ideas of corporate synergy and the spread of brands into ever more corners of everyday life. While critical of organisations such as Adbusters, Klein shows their links to anti-corporate and anti-globalisation movements. Subvertising:  Subvertising Subvertising is the Art of Cultural resistance. It is the "writing on the wall", the sticker on the lamppost, the corrected rewording of billboards, the spoof T-shirt; but it is also the mass act of defiance of a street party. The key process involves redefining or even reclaiming our environment from the corporate beast. (www.subvertise.org) Subvertising can take the form of spoofs but can also involve the cloning and hacking of websites Adbusters:  Adbusters Adbusters attacks the culture of consumerism by turning its own slick advertising tools and tactics against it. Adbusters employs the glossy tactics of advertising to encourage people to take part in events such as “Buy Nothing Day” and “TV Turnoff Week.” Kalle Lasn, author of “Culture Jam: The Uncooling of America” (1999) has highlighted the role of culture jamming as a way for the population to reclaim its collective creative life. Adbusters draws upon Guy Debord and the Situationist theory of ‘the society of the spectacle’ "Culture jamming is, at root, just a metaphor for stopping the flow of spectacle long enough to adjust your set." or "..breaking the syntax, and replacing it with a new one. The new syntax carries the instructions for a whole new way of being in the world. Source: Adbusters The meme:  The meme The basic unit of communication in culture jamming is the meme: the unit of cultural transmission. Memes are condensed images that stimulate visual, verbal, musical, or behavioural associations that people can easily imitate and transmit to others (Dawkins, 1989) Brand logos are memes par excellence and as a consequences have formed a core element in culture jamming campaigns Culture jamming is self-consciously parasitical on ‘brand memes’ as a method of evoking a response Source: Adbusters Jonah Peretti ‘My Nike Media adventure’ (2001):  Jonah Peretti ‘My Nike Media adventure’ (2001) Peretti exploited the Nike website’s facility to customise purchases by ordering a pair of shoes customised with the word ‘Sweatshop’ When the company refused his order, Peretti forwarded his correspondence by email to friends who forwarded them across their social networks. In a short space of time the ‘nike meme’ spread from micromedia (email and blogs) to ‘middle media’ (community sites like Slashdot) to mass media (TV and national newspapers) The Nike Sweatshop meme had success because it appealed to several different demographics, including Culture Jammers, union organizers, teachers, parents, anti-globalization protesters, human rights advocates, religious groups, and people who simply enjoyed a humorous prank. etoy: Toy wars:  etoy: Toy wars etoy is a Swiss art collective that in 1999 came into conflict with eToys a multimillion dollar internet retailer over its domain name. When the collective refused an offer to sell its name, the retailer obtained an injunction to close the site down etoy responded by launching an internet based campaign in conjunction with RTmark which effectively brought eToys to its knees RTmark set up a spoof website and made use of Floodnet, a denial of service program that overloads a site with calls. By January 2001 eToy had filed for bankruptcy The Toywars timeline:  The Toywars timeline Source RTMark ®TMark : Webjacking as cultural critique:  ®TMark : Webjacking as cultural critique ®TMark was founded in 1991 as an entity designed to support various culture jamming practices, especially those aimed at undermining corporate power. ®TMark is a market-driven system, and we list any project that meets our bottom-line criterion of "attack without physical injury"... to humans, that is. ‘ The organisation has created ‘rogue’ websites for George W. Bush, McDonalds, Shell, Rudy Guliani, inter alia ®TMark endeavours include the creation of "The Yes Men," a group of anonymous speakers who impersonate representatives of the World Trade Organisation and attempt to spark outrage by exhorting audiences toward morally bankrupt practices, but overall the goal is to encourage people to think rather than to follow. Slide16:  As a means of raising funds, the dockers’ supporters sold T-shirts and posters with a hi-jacked version of the Calvin Klein logo. When Robbie Fowler revealed the T-shirt after scoring his 2nd goal in a EUFA Cup tie, he was fined 2000 Swiss Francs for breaching rules on ‘politics’ in football In 1995, 500 Liverpool dockers went on strike in support of fellow dockers in the port. Lasting for over 2 years the dispute was vilified and largely ignored in the British media despite achieving a high level of support amongst workers internationally. Further Reading:  Further Reading Boyd A (2002) TRUTH IS A VIRUS: Meme Warfare and the Billionaires for Bush (or Gore) http://www.culturejamming101.com/truthisavirus.html Bradley P Knight C (eds) (2004) Another World is Possible How the Liverpool Dockers Launched a Global Movement http://www.radicalanthropologygroup.org/pub_another_world.pdf Dawkins R (1989) The Selfish Gene Ch 11 http://www.rubinghscience.org/memetics/dawkinsmemes.html Nome D (no date) Culture Jamming http://www.anthrobase.com/Txt/N/Nome_D_01.htm Lasn, Kalle 1999. Culture Jam – The Uncooling of America, New York: Eagle Brook Peretti J (2001) Culture Jamming, Memes, Social Networks, and the Emerging Media Ecology: The "Nike Sweatshop Email" as Object-To-Think-With http://depts.washington.edu/ccce/polcommcampaigns/peretti.html

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