Cultural Studies 3 Lecture

50 %
50 %
Information about Cultural Studies 3 Lecture
Education

Published on October 22, 2008

Author: liamgr

Source: authorstream.com

Cultural Studies 3:  Cultural Studies 3 Digital culture Lecture 3 Digital Culture: The intellectual context of digital culture Liam Greenslade http://ncad.culturalstudies.googlepages.com http://ncadculturalstudies3.blogspot.com Information Theory:  Information Theory Claude Shannon: Mathematical Theory of Communication (1949) Separation of message delivery problems from meaning problems Attempts to theorise the encoding information and overcome the problem of ‘noise’ Simple model of communication Shannon’s Model of Communication (1949):  Shannon’s Model of Communication (1949) The word information, in this theory, is used in a special sense that must not be confused with its ordinary usage. In particular information must not be confused with meaning. In fact, two messages, one of which is heavily loaded with meaning and the other of which is pure nonsense, can be exactly equivalent, from the present viewpoint, as regards information (Weaver, 1949). Noise, entropy, redundancy:  Noise, entropy, redundancy Noise – extraneous elements of a signal Entropy – measure of efficiency in a communication system. According to Shannon, a message high in entropy is high in information Redundancy – fraction of the structure of the message which is determined not by the choice of the sender, but rather by the accepted statistical rules governing the choice of the symbols in question Entropy can be thought of as the opposite of redundancy. As redundancy increases, entropy declines and with it the amount of information NB meaning and information are not the same thing. Influence of Information Theory:  Influence of Information Theory Shannon’s theory influenced thinking in communications and electronics Also influenced work in cognition, biology, cybernetics, physics, economics, linguistics and psychology Formed the basis of contemporary ‘Information Technology’ ‘I just wondered how things were put together’ Cybernetics:  Cybernetics Norbert Weiner The human use of human beings (1950) Concerned with feedback and self-regulation in mechanical and organic systems Goal-directed (teleological) systems Complex ‘open’ systems Uncertainty/probabilistic thinking Key concepts:  Key concepts Mutuality: Complex systems contain many components which interact in parallel, cooperatively, and in real time, creating multiple simultaneous interactions among subsystems. Complementarity: many simultaneous modes of interaction lead to subsystems which participate in multiple processes and structures, yielding any single dimension of description incomplete, and requiring multiple complementary, irreducible levels of analysis. Evolvability: Cybernetic systems tend to evolve and grow in an opportunistic manner, rather than be designed and planned in an optimal manner. Constructivity: Cybernetic systems are constructive, in that as they tend to increase in size and complexity, they become historically bound to previous states while simultaneously developing new traits. Equifinality: Same end-state can be reached by many different causal paths Multifinality: Different end-states arrived at from same starting point The Macy Conferences (1946-53):  The Macy Conferences (1946-53) Organized to understand the role of feedback mechanisms in biological, technological and social systems, The conferences were strongly interdisciplinary: Applicability of a Logic Machine Model to both Brain and Computer Analogies between Organisms and Machines Neuroses and Pathology of Mental Life Human and Social Communication Information Theory Techno-hippies: Silicon Valley, San Francisco & the counter-culture:  Techno-hippies: Silicon Valley, San Francisco & the counter-culture The impetus for digital research was motivated by defence and security needs. The proximity of Silicon Valley to San Francisco counter-culture inevitably brought researchers into contact with ‘alternative lifestyles’ Prompted interest the role of computing in the counterculture. Silicon and LSD led directly to the development of the personal computer The Whole Earth Project:  The Whole Earth Project Catalogue which gave access to information and tools to develop counter-cultural lifestyles Drew upon cybernetics Concerned with the ecology, the economy and the relationship between biosystems, information and the environment Buckminster-Fuller – Information as a ‘negatively entropic’ source of wealth increased by research and technology Gregory Bateson (1904-1980):  Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) Interest in cybernetics and systems theory also directed attention towards the contexts, environments and eco-systems in which intelligent goal directed organisms operated Gregory Bateson’s (1972) ‘Steps to an Ecology of Mind’ emphasised notions of inter-connectedness and interdependence of goal seeking systems and their environment Stressed a holistic and relational approach to phenomena Information as ‘a difference which makes a difference.’ i.e. a relationship not a thing ‘2nd Order’ Cybernetics:  ‘2nd Order’ Cybernetics Cybernetics interested in the similarities between living systems and machines. In the immediate post-war era, attention was dominated by engineering approaches. Control engineering and computer science disciplines had became independent in the 1960s Other cyberneticists started to emphasise autonomy, self-organization, cognition, and the role of the observer in modelling a system. In the early 1970's this movement became known as ‘second order cybernetics’. (Heylighen and Josslyn, 2001) Computers and the counterculture:  Computers and the counterculture Cold war computing appropriated by counterculture Stewart Brand (1972) computers as ‘the best thing since psychedelics’ PC as a revolutionary device Development of hacking Homebrew clubs set up for sharing ‘hacks’ and developing personal computers and programs Palo Alto Research Centre:  Palo Alto Research Centre As ARPA became DARPA and research funding was limited to military relevant projects other funders stepped into fund blue-sky development PARC was funded by Xerox and based close Silicon Valley Influenced by Stewart Brand and the Whole Earth Project Attracted brightest young researchers and thinkers from many other disciplines Amongst other things developed window-based GUI controlled by mouse later licensed by Apple The GUI makes computers ‘human friendly’ and is thus a significant step towards the democratization of digital culture Evolution of the PC 1975-1985:  Evolution of the PC 1975-1985 Altair (1975) Apple 1 (1976) Apple II (1977) IBM PC (1981) Apple Mac (1983) Amstrad PCW 256 (1985) A step on the road to the global village:  A step on the road to the global village In less than a decade the personal computer was transformed from a proto-geek, do nothing novelty into a powerful tool for business and leisure use. The affordable PC was an vital component in the spread of a meaningful digital culture outside of the narrow domain of computer, academic and military specialisms. The cheap PC opened a market for applications ranging from word processors to games and accelerated the development of the global internet Further Reading:  Further Reading Bateson G (1973) Steps to an ecology of mind London: Paladin Part IV Epistemology and Ecology Bateson G (1979) Mind & Nature: A necessary unity London: Fontana Gere C (2002) Digital Culture London: Reaktion Chapter 4 Old Computers.Com http://www.old-computers.com/museum/default.asp Whole Earth Catalog http://www.wholeearth.com/index.php

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Cultural Studies, (lecture 3): What is language ...

3rd lecture of the series of 11 lectures, given by the professors of International Studies. This lecture discusses linguistic turn in Cultural Studies.
Read more

Introduction to Cultural Studies - timmsrc.uni-tuebingen.de

Cultural Studies, English, Lecture, Vorlesung, Culture, Ostensive Definition, ... Vorlesung Introduction to Cultural Studies, 3. und 4. Stunde. Title:
Read more

Introduction to Cultural Studies - uni-tuebingen.de

Title: Lecture Introduction to Cultural Studies, 3. and 4. Lesson Description: Vorlesung im SoSe 2015; Dienstag, 21.
Read more

Cultural Studies - Introductory Lectures

March (3) ... On the Question “What is Cultural Studies?” Lecture Six: ... Professor of Cultural Studies ...
Read more

Introduction to Cultural Studies - Lecture 3

Browse. Interests. Biography & Memoir; Business & Leadership; Fiction & Literature; Politics & Economy
Read more

Cultural Studies Syllabus - Matt Huculak

Intro to Cultural Studies Course Theme: Magazines and ... Monday 2:30-3:30pm ... This course will employ a lecture and discussion format.
Read more

Mod-01 Lec-01 Understanding Cultural Studies Part 1 - YouTube

Cultural Studies by Dr. Liza Das, ... Cultural Studies Lecture - Duration: ... What does Cultural Studies do - Duration: 3:25.
Read more

Evolution and Culture Video Lecture, IIT Guwahati

Lecture Details : Cultural Studies by Dr. Liza Das, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, IIT Guwahati. For more details on NPTEL visit http ...
Read more