Published on March 14, 2014
Name : Jani Hetalben Umiyashankar Roll no:10 Class: M.A. Sem;2 Guided by: Dilip Barad Submitted to:Department of English Maharaja Krishnkumarsighji Bhavnagar university
What is culture? ‘Culture’ is a term which has may connotations cultural is refinement or development of mind tastes, etc. by education, training and experience. ‘Culture’, derives from ‘Cultura’ and ‘colere’ meaning ‘to cultivate’. It also meant ‘to honour’ and ‘project’ by the 19th century in Europe it tastes of the upper class (elite). ‘culture’ is the mode of producing meaning and ideas. Margaret Mead: “Culture is the learned behaviour of society or a subgroup.” Clifford Geertz : “Culture is simply ensemble of stories we tell ourselves about ourselves.” Cultural studies is not “a tightly coherent, unified movement of agenda”, but a “loosely coherent group of tendencies, issues and questions”.
Types of culture Types of culture British cultural materialism New Historicism American multi culturualism Post modernism and popular culture Post colonial studies
British cultural materialism Cultural studies is referred to as “cultural materialism in Britain. Mathew Arnold redefine the givens of British culture. Edward Tylor argued that “Culture or civilization taken in its widest ethnographic sense is a complex whole which'includes knowledge ,belief 'or morals. Law custom and any other capacities’ and habits acquired by man as a manner of society.” Raymond William Karl Marx Gyorgy Lukas Theordor Adorno Louis all are theorist of this culture.
Cultural materialism begun in the 1950s with the the work of F.R. Leavis who sought to use the educational system to distribute literary knowledge and appreciation more widely ; Lea vices promoted the “great tradition “ of Shakespeare and Milton to improve the moral sensibilities of a wider range of readers than just the elite. Althusser insisted that ideology was ultimately in control of the people that “main function of ideology is to reproduce the society’s existing relations of production and that that function is even carried out in literary texts.” Cultural materialists also turned to the more humanized and even spiritual insights of the great students of Rabelais and Dostoevsky, Russian formalist Bakhtn, especially his amplification of the dialogic form of communal, individual and social.
Since the 1960s, scholars and political activists, recognizing that the “melting pot” concept fails to acknowledge that immigrant groups do not, and should not, entirely abandon their distinct identities, embraced multiculturalism and diversity. The curriculum, which had for decades relied upon the “melting pot” metaphor as an organizing framework, began to employ the alternative notion of the “American mosaic.” Multiculturalism, in the context of the “American mosaic,” celebrates the unique cultural heritage of racial and ethnic groups, some of whom seek to preserve their native languages and lifestyles.
In a sense, individuals can be Americans and at the same time claim other identities, including those based on racial and ethnic heritage, gender, and sexual preference. American multiculturalism divided into four part. (a)African American writer (b)Latin/o Writer (c)American Indian literature (d)Asian American writer
American multiculturalism African American writer Asian American writer American Indian literature Latin/o Writer
African American writer African American writers is widely pursued in American literature criticism from the recovery of the eighteenth century poets such as Phillies wealthy to the experimental novel of Toni Morison, In Shadow and Act 1964novel Ralph Ellison Argue that any ''viable theatre of Negro American culture obligates us to fashion a more adequate theory of American culture as a whole''. African American writer display a folkloric concept of humankind.
• W.E.B Du Bois • Toni Morrison • Martin Luther King • Zora Neale Hurston 4 3 21
Latin/o Writer We will used the term ‘Latina/o’ to indicate a broad sense of ethnicity among Spanish-speaking people in the Us. Mexican American are largest group and most influenced group of Latina/o ethnicities in the Us. Latina/os are reflected at an unprecedented rate in arts , broadcasting and entertainment. Three archetypes central to Latina identity. They define America as a ‘living border’ and a site of ‘Continual crossover.’
They are: La malinche La Virgen de Guadalupe La Llorona Malinche is name of women Aztec who…..
American Indian literature • Include tales and song. Traditional Indian literature • Include Fiction poetry and autobiography. Mainstream Indian Literature
In Traditional Indian Literature North American continent composed for tribal language and performed for tribal audience. Traditional Literature is Oral Because……. This is not accessible for average reader. Today this literature written in English It translated from Cherokee into English. Mainstream Indian Literature written by Indians in English in tradition genre.
Asian American writer Asian American Literature is written by Asian people who decent in United State addressing the experience of living in a society that views them as Alien. In this Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Malaysian, Polynesian and many other people of Asia are include. This culture present a confusing array of Language, religion, social structure and skin colors . This category is wide and largest than other three writer. Carlos Blouson, Frank Chin, Louis Chu, Sui Sin Far (1865- 1914) Gish Jen, Maxine Hong Kingston, Jhumpa Lahiri, Chang-Rae Lee ,Toshio Mori (1910-1980), John Okada (1923-1971)
Cultural studies (engl.; Kulturwissenschaft(en), wörtlich übersetzt „Kulturstudien“) sind ein Forschungsparadigma der Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften.
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