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Cultural and chemical control of Botryti

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Information about Cultural and chemical control of Botryti
Science-Technology

Published on December 18, 2008

Author: aSGuest7137

Source: authorstream.com

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Control of Botrytis fruit rot in annual strawberry : Control of Botrytis fruit rot in annual strawberry Dan Legard GCREC-Dover Department of Plant Pathology University of Florida Seminar overview : General Introduction Chemical control Control of flower infections Cultural control Cultivar and plant spacing Sanitation Protected culture Seminar overview Slide 3: Strawberry Production In Florida Annual plasticulture system (6200 acres) Top winter producer Harvest from November to April $161 million crop (97/98) Two cultivars planted on 80% of the acreage: ‘Sweet Charlie’ (UF) ‘Camarosa’ (UC) Botrytis fruit rot : Botrytis fruit rot Most important preharvest and postharvest disease on strawberry Caused by Botrytis cinerea Has wide host range Conidia are wind or splash dispersed Requires free moisture (> 4 hr) and cool temperatures (15-22 C) to infect and sporulate Slide 5: Overhead irrigated for 10 - 14 days to establish plants Plants grown annually in raised beds Transplants are produced in Canada and Botrytis infects young foliage Fruit produced on methyl bromide fumigated beds Slide 6: That infect flower parts (stamen and petals) Botrytis colonizes senescent foliage Then produces air- borne condia Then invade the receptacle as it matures Botrytis can also spread by fruit-to-fruit contact Chemical control of Botrytis fruit rot : Chemical control of Botrytis fruit rot Chemical control strategies : Chemical control strategies Key is to protect the flower Weekly applications (Captan) Supplemental fungicide applications during peak bloom periods Rovral® (iprodione) no longer labeled -Elevate® (fenhexamid) Experiment Details : Experiment Details Experiment was repeated for three seasons 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98 Treatments Untreated control Weekly captan applications Iprodione (Rovral®) bloom applications Weekly captan plus iprodione bloom applications Four replicates (‘Sweet Charlie’) Harvested fruit twice weekly (December -to- March) Yield and fungicide application pattern : Yield and fungicide application pattern ‘Sweet Charlie’ Early season fungicide efficacy (running average) : Early season fungicide efficacy (running average) Weekly Botrytis incidence during second peak bloom : Weekly Botrytis incidence during second peak bloom Treatment effects on Botrytis incidence (running average) : Treatment effects on Botrytis incidence (running average) Control of Flower Infections : Control of Flower Infections Experiment : Experiment Bloom applications of fungicides can control Botrytis Determine how individual flower applications affect preharvest and postharvest Botrytis fruit rot In this experiment, individual flowers were treated with Elevate at different stages of flower/fruit development to determine when they are most efficacious Source of fruit infection : Source of fruit infection Methods : Methods Tagged 300 newly opened flowers Applied treatments to groups of 50 flowers Six treatments: Apply Elevate weekly (0, 7, 14, and 21 days) Apply Elevate 0 days (flowers) Apply Elevate 7 days (7-day-old fruit) Apply Elevate 14 days No spray--remove petals 7 days Untreated control Three separate experiments Stage of fruit development at different treatment times : Stage of fruit development at different treatment times % Botrytis Fruit Rot : % Botrytis Fruit Rot Anatomy of the strawberry flower : Anatomy of the strawberry flower Effect of Plant Spacing and Cultivaron Botrytis Fruit Rot : Effect of Plant Spacing and Cultivaron Botrytis Fruit Rot Slide 22: Grower considerations Reducing plant spacing may increase yield Wider spacing may reduce disease: -improve fungicide coverage -modify the microclimate within canopy -increase the efficiency of harvesting Experiment details : Experiment details Experiment was repeated for two seasons (1997-98, 1998-99) Captan applied weekly Harvested fruit twice weekly Data analyzed for three seasonal periods -Early (first 8 weeks of season) -Late (rest of season) -Whole (all harvests) Cultivar effects on Botrytis incidence : Cultivar effects on Botrytis incidence 1997-98 1998-99 Weekly incidence of Botrytis ‘Sweet Charlie’ : Weekly incidence of Botrytis ‘Sweet Charlie’ 1997 to 1998: Effect of spacing on Botrytis incidence : Camarosa 1997 to 1998: Effect of spacing on Botrytis incidence Plant spacing effects on Botrytis incidence(‘Rosa Linda’, ‘Camarosa’, & ‘Sweet Charlie’) : Plant spacing effects on Botrytis incidence(‘Rosa Linda’, ‘Camarosa’, & ‘Sweet Charlie’) Spacing effects on marketable yield : Spacing effects on marketable yield 1997-98 1998-99 Control of Botrytis Fruit Rot by Sanitation : Control of Botrytis Fruit Rot by Sanitation Slide 30: Senescent foliage is the main source of primary inoculum Commercial farms trim this foliage after plant establishment Trimmed foliage is left in the alleys between beds Botrytis can sporulate on this material, producing inoculum Slide 31: Diseased fruit is an important source of inoculum Fruit are graded during harvest Unmarketable fruit are dropped into the alley between beds Experiment design : Experiment design Three seasons (1995-96) 1996-97, 1998-99 Four replicates Cultivar Sweet Charlie Treatments Untreated control Weekly captan applications Sanitation treatments Removal of senescent leaves Removal of diseased fruit from alley Removal of leaves and fruit Combined fungicide and sanitation treatments Weekly incidence of Botrytis fruit rot : Weekly incidence of Botrytis fruit rot Weekly incidence of Botrytis fruit rot : Weekly incidence of Botrytis fruit rot Weekly incidence of Botrytis fruit rot : Weekly incidence of Botrytis fruit rot Treatment effect on Botrytis incidence : Treatment effect on Botrytis incidence Treatment effect on marketable yield : Treatment effect on marketable yield Control of Botrytis Fruit rot by Protected Culture (Tunnels) : Control of Botrytis Fruit rot by Protected Culture (Tunnels) Objectives : Objectives To compare the effect of field and tunnel production systems on: Incidence of Botrytis fruit rot Marketable yield Field and tunnel plots : Field and tunnel plots Compared large tunnels with field plots (50’ long) Two cultivars -Sweet Charlie -Camarosa 2 seasons 3 replicates Weather stations inside and outside Botrytis fruit rot on ‘Sweet Charlie’ (running average) : Botrytis fruit rot on ‘Sweet Charlie’ (running average) Cumulative marketable yield ‘Sweet Charlie’ : Cumulative marketable yield ‘Sweet Charlie’ Tunnel effects on Botrytis incidence (1998-99) : Tunnel effects on Botrytis incidence (1998-99) Leaf wetness periods (1998-99 season):leaf wetness periods much longer in field : Leaf wetness periods (1998-99 season):leaf wetness periods much longer in field Integrated control of Botrytis fruit rot : Integrated control of Botrytis fruit rot Fungicides must be applied within 7 days of bloom to protect flowers Fungicides partially control Botrytis and are essential for the current production system in Florida Protected culture (tunnels) provides excellent control of Botrytis (microclimate modification) Cultivars vary in susceptibility to Botrytis fruit rot and are a good control option Increasing row spacing can somewhat reduce the incidence of Botrytis fruit rot Leaf removal (i.e. sanitation) can provide some control Botrytis fruit rot Resistance to Botrytis fruit rot : Resistance to Botrytis fruit rot Reduced infection of stamens and petals Reduced colonization of foliage (or sporulation on foliage) Open canopy architecture (change microclimate) Less susceptible receptacle(?)

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