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Information about Cultivation1

Published on August 25, 2008

Author: gooseunl



Cultivation:  Cultivation Selective tillage Modifies physical characteristics Chemical, microbial, etc. char. may also be altered Four Purposes of Cultivation:  Four Purposes of Cultivation Reduce thatch problems Alleviate soil compaction & layering problems Reduce grain Facilitate overseeding Reduce Thatch Problems:  Reduce Thatch Problems Thatch-loose layer of living and dead organic tissue between foliage and soil surface Problems with thatch: Insects: Chinch bug, cutworm Diseases: Patch diseases Shallow rooting Pesticide adsorption Fertilizer sink Slows play Scalping Alleviate Soil Compaction & Layering Problems:  Alleviate Soil Compaction & Layering Problems Disrupts incompatible soil layers Channels from surface into soil increase internal drainage Channels = space for roots Increase water, nutrient efficiency May temporarily decrease surface hardness Grain Reduction:  Grain Reduction Grain-procumbent growth, often in one direction Primarily greens Other controls: Vary mowing patterns Groomers—Wiehle roller, brushes, combs Facilitate Overseeding:  Facilitate Overseeding Holes allow intimate seed to soil contact Hollow tines better than solid Spikers and slicers push seed into soil Types of Cultivation:  Types of Cultivation Coring Slicing Spiking Vertical mowing Water injection Core Cultivation:  Core Cultivation removes compacted soil combine with top-dressing can dry soil out Slide9:  Core-aerifier Coring (Core cultivation):  Coring (Core cultivation) Aeration; aerification Hollow tines or spoons Extract cores from turf: 0.25-1" diam 0.25-1" diam avg = 3 in depth Depth depends on tine length and soil type, moisture. How/why? “When in doubt, aerify” Types of Core Aerators:  Types of Core Aerators Vertical motion—hollow tines Advantages: deepest penetration, least surface interruption Disadvantages: relatively slow: 10 min/1000 ft2 Greens: use 0.25" to 0.375; fairways, athletic fields: use lger diams Types of Core Aerators:  Types of Core Aerators Circular motion (drums)---hollow tines or open spoons Advantage: relatively fast Disadvantages: severe surface disruption; shallow penetration Benefits of Coring:  Benefits of Coring Stimulate root growth in holes and assoc. shoot growth…why? Release toxic gases Improve wetting of hydrophobic soils Accelerate drying of persistently wet soils Increase IC, esp. of compacted or thatchy turfs Disrupt soil layers Modify thatch Improved fertility response Slide14:  Aerification encourages rooting Disadvantages of Coring:  Disadvantages of Coring Temporary surface disruption Increased desiccation potential—su/wi survival Increase weed seed germination—spring Increase cutworm/hole-dwelling insects When is best time to core aerate? Why? Solid Tine Cultivation:  Solid Tine Cultivation Cores not removed Potential compaction at sides and bottoms of holes research has not shown this Deep Tine Aerification Floyd-McKay: 16" depth "drill” "Shatter tine”: unit vibrates, dry soil cracks Slide17:  Solid-tine aerifier Deep-Tine Cultivation:  Deep-Tine Cultivation Probably the best innovation for sports field management usually use solid-tine followed by hollow-tine pulls cores 5-10” deep contract cost at $.02 / ft2 local service - $500 / field ($400 / field for multiple fields Slide19:  Deep- Tine Aerifier Drill Cultivation:  Drill Cultivation relatively new technology costly ($ .10 per foot) can back-fill holes with sand may be useful for “between the hashes” Slide21:  Drill Aerifier Slide22:  Drill and Fill Holes

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