Culinary Myth Powerpoint

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Information about Culinary Myth Powerpoint

Published on March 6, 2008

Author: fazil


Culinary Mythbusters:  Culinary Mythbusters Hinnerk von Bargen Jeff Cousminer Dolf DeRovira Eric Sparks Schedule:  Schedule 9:30 – 9:45 Culinary Myths Questionnaire 9:45 –11:00 Let’s bust some myths 11:00-11:10 Stretch Break 11:10-12:15 Keep on Busting 12:15- 12:30 Q&A Myth or Reality?:  Myth or Reality? Searing meats seals in juices. Baking soda in fridge or freezer absorbs odors. All thickening agents are the same. Use water instead of milk for tender eggs. Alcohol evaporates completely during cooking. Avocado pits prevent browning in guacamole. Salting meat prior to cooking dries it out. Foods made with mayonnaise are quick to spoil. Myth or Reality, cont.:  Myth or Reality, cont. Washing mushrooms causes them to absorb a lot of water. Adding oil to pasta water keeps noodles from sticking together. Acid in salad dressing causes the greens to wilt. Refrigerating onions prevents teary eyes when cutting. Cold water boils faster than warm water. Never add salt in the beginning when cooking dried beans. This session will enable you to::  This session will enable you to: Elaborate about common misunderstandings in food preparation Avoid time consuming mistakes based on culinary myths Understand culinary arts as an interesting mixture of science and arts Spread the word that searing meat does not seal in the juices Today’s Myths:  Today’s Myths Avocado Browning Acid Tenderization Seasoning Dry Out The Searing Myth Acid Wilting Color Retention Mushroom Sponges Myths We Want To Break:  Myths We Want To Break “If you leave the pit of the avocado in the guacamole, it will retard the enzymatic browning!” “REALLY?” Eric Sparks C.E.C. Director of Product Development Park 100 Foods Avocado Myth – What is Guacamole? :  Avocado Myth – What is Guacamole? Mashed Avocados Salt, Acid (Lime/Lemon), Spices, Tomato Avocado Myth – The Experiment :  Avocado Myth – The Experiment Cut and mash avocados in two separate containers. One with Pit One without One with a make believe “pit” (golf ball?) Check throughout the day First some background on types of Browning:  First some background on types of Browning Maillard - chemical interactions between sugars and proteins Searing of meat – see Hinnerk Storing of dry milk Enzymatic - a discoloration in fruits and vegetables such as apples, bananas, pears,eggplants,raw potatoes, and avocados….is known as…… Polyphenoloxidase:  Polyphenoloxidase Oxidizes phenolic compounds in the tissue and causes them to condense into brown or gray polymers Present in mushrooms,apricots,cherries, and peaches Not present in citrus fruits, melons, or tomatoes Handling Enzymatic Browning:  Handling Enzymatic Browning Chilling below 40°F Boiling the product – but this alters the texture and flavor Salt solutions – effects flavor Immersing in cold water – cuts off oxygen to enzyme Addition of Sulfur compounds – dried fruits Addition of an acid Citric acid – lemon juice Malic acid – apples and grapes Ascorbic acid – vitamin C Background on Avocados:  Background on Avocados Cultivate in Central America for about 7000 years First seen in the U.S. in 1800’s California – largest producer in the U.S. @95% San Diego county is responsible for 80% Over 80 different varieties – Hass #1 Common varieties of Avocados:  Common varieties of Avocados Fuerte – smooth skin and creamy pale flesh Gwen – considered a Hass by some but skin remains green when ripe Hass – most common, purple black skin which darkens and creamy pale green flesh – only variety available year round Pinkerton – long pear shaped – available winter thru spring Reed – Summertime –large round and thick skin, avail. Only summer and early fall Zutano – shiny yellow green skin – same color when ripe Avocados:  Avocados Fat content - 20% - “poor man’s butter” Rich in vitamin B6,C, & E Contain 60% more potassium then bananas Excellent source of dietary fiber and monounsaturated fat Sugar content decreases during ripening Will not ripen on the tree unless skin is broken Must be cut from the tree to begin ripening Storing & Ripening Avocados:  Storing & Ripening Avocados In able to metabolize anaerobically (without oxygen) – the ripening process is stopped But when oxygen is restored – the avocado will spoil Do not store under refrigeration – results are discoloration and off-flavors Store at room temperature – 70°F until soft Place in paper bag with an apple for 2-3 days Ready when yield to gentle pressure Slide20:  Q: Do Avocado Pits Left In Guacamole Retard Browning? A: No! Myths We Want To Break:  Myths We Want To Break “If you add an acid to a food it will help tenderize it!” “REALLY?” J. Jeffrey Cousminer Director of Flavor and Product Development Savory Foods Firmenich Acid Tenderization:  Acid Tenderization Examples of Preparations Containing Acid: Ceviche Sauerbraten Acid Marinades Baked Beans Acidic Poaching Liquids – Court Boullion What is an Acid and What Does It Do In Foods?:  What is an Acid and What Does It Do In Foods? Acid – pH 0-7.0 Responsible for the “Sour” taste. Denatures Proteins Retards Maillard and Enzymatic Browning Helps Caramelization Browning Tightens Cellulose - Baked Beans don’t fall apart. Retards the growth of Non-Acidophilic Microorganisms. pH Chart; 7.0=Neutral “Pure Water”:  pH Chart; 7.0=Neutral “Pure Water” pH 0= Battery Acid pH 1= Stomach Acid pH 2= Lemon Juice pH 3= OJ, Vinegar pH 4= Tomato Juice, Soda pH 5= Black Coffee pH 6= Milk, Saliva pH 8= Egg Whites pH 9= Baking Soda pH 10= Tums pH 11= Ammonia pH 12= Soapy Water pH 13= Bleach pH 14= Liquid Drano Common Acids in Food:  Common Acids in Food Acetic (vinegar) Ascorbic (Vitamin. C) Benzoic (preservative) Citric (citrus fruits) Carbonic (sodas) Glutamic (“umami”) Lactic (cheese & dairy) Malic (apples) Nicotinic (niacin) Oxalic (spinach, rhubarb) Phosphoric (sodas) Propionic (preservative) Sorbic (preservative) Stearic (fatty acid) Tannic (wine, tea) Tartaric (grapes) Acid Tenderization -The Experiment-:  Acid Tenderization -The Experiment- Ceviche will be used to demonstrate the effect of acid. Ceviche is Lime Juice marinated seafood eaten uncooked. Compare two batches of ceviche One with two hours marination beforehand. One with little marination Ceviche Recipe:  Ceviche Recipe Ingredients 1 lb seafood, cut as desired 1 tomato, roasted, p&s 2 jalapenos, roasted, p&s 2 red bell peppers, roasted, p&s ½ red onion, roasted ¾ cup lime juice ½ cup orange juice ¼ cup tomato juice 1 tblspn sugar 1-2 tspn Goya Adobo seasoning Hot sauce to taste Preparation Place seafood in non-reactive container. Place all other ingredients in blender and liquefy. Pour over seafood, mix well and allow to marinate in refrigerator for several hours. For service, strain liquid and blend with seafood at last minute: 2 Tbsp each of minced chive and cilantro. Ceviche Experimental Results:  Ceviche Experimental Results Which is tougher, long acidic marination or short acidic marination? Does acid tenderize foods? Myths We Want To Break:  Myths We Want To Break “Salting Ahead Of Time Will Dry Out The Meat!” “REALLY?” Eric Sparks, C.E.C. Director of Product Development Park 100 Foods What Is Salt And What Does It Do For Food?:  What Is Salt And What Does It Do For Food? Salts product of acid/base neutralization Sodium chloride most common Denatures & helps dissolve proteins Hydroscopic / water binding Capable of drying out foods Retards growth of microorganisms Can make food taste good & enhance all other flavor aspects Helps set up Maillard browning (bread) Salt Changes Food:  Salt Changes Food Draws out water, blood, other impurities Preserves food by making less susceptible to spoilage Plays a very important role in Osmosis, Dehydration, Fermentation, and Denaturing Proteins What is Seasoning?:  What is Seasoning? Salt Herbs Spices Sweeteners Smoke Color Purees Basic Seasoning vs. Rub:  Basic Seasoning vs. Rub Salt - Osmosis:  Salt - Osmosis Salt applied to meat causes the fluid inside the cells to travel outside in an effort to dilute the salt on the other side. Once there is more fluid on the outside of the cell then inside, the fluid returns back to the interior taking the dissolved salt with it. Now the salt is inside the cell, killing harmful pathogens This is the essence of Salt-Curing foods Salt - Dehydration:  Salt - Dehydration Appling salt attracts free water, which if left alone will help with microbial action/growth Exposure to air or heat allows the water to evaporate, which results in weight loss and yield loss Salt - Fermentation:  Salt - Fermentation Enzymes feed on compounds found in energy-rich foods like meats and grains They breakdown the compounds into gases and organic compounds If this process is left unchecked the fermentation process would completely break down the food Salt helps to control the amount of available water for the enzymes to use, therefore preventing fermentation from getting out of hand Salt – Denaturing Proteins:  Salt – Denaturing Proteins When referring to preserving foods, the structure of the proteins is changed, this is called “denaturing” Protein strands are encouraged to lengthen or coil, open or close, in such a way that.. Soft foods become firm Smooth foods become grainy Firm foods become soft Cerviche and cooking meats Seasoned Steak Results:  Seasoned Steak Results Seasoned 7 hours in advance of cooking No noticeable drying Slight color change Noticeable moisture retention difference Flavor slightly more concentrated Cooked Seasoned:  Cooked Seasoned Rub Results:  Rub Results Rubbed 7 hours in advance of cooking Definitely outer surface development of firmness under the rub Slight grayness in outer 1/8” surface layer when cooked Color retention acceptable Caution taken in cooking not to overcook Flavor excellent Rub After Seven Hours:  Rub After Seven Hours Cooked Rub:  Cooked Rub Does Seasoning Ahead of Time Dry out the Meat?:  Does Seasoning Ahead of Time Dry out the Meat? Typical seasoning - No Rub - depending on salt percentage and period of time allowed to rest prior to initiating cooking - Yes Myths We Want To Break:  Myths We Want To Break “Proper Searing of Meat Seals in the Juices!” “REALLY?” Hinnerk von Bargen, CHE Associate Professor The Culinary Institute of America What Is Searing And Why Is It Done?:  What Is Searing And Why Is It Done? Application of high dry heat to the surface of a food. Conductive or Radiant Heat Flavor color & texture development Maillard reaction and caramelization Development of pan drippings for sauce (fond) Lock in juices???? Methods Which Can Include Searing:  Methods Which Can Include Searing Roasting Braising Sautéing Important Steps for Sautéing :  Important Steps for Sautéing Heat pan Add small amount of fat Add seasoned main item Dust with flour? Sear /turn once Cook to desired doneness Oven? Remove from pan Prepare sauce utilizing deglazed fond Serve immediately Important Steps for Roasting:  Important Steps for Roasting Preheat oven Season Elevate item to be roasted Searing? Roast uncovered Add mirepoix Rest Prepare sauce from Drippings Carve Important Steps in Braising:  Important Steps in Braising Season Sear if desired Add appropriate amount of liquid Add aromatics Cover cooking vessel Simmer very slow on the stove or in the oven Prepare sauce from cooking liquid Searing Myth Experiment:  Searing Myth Experiment Weigh each steak first Two equal sized steaks cooked to the same internal temperature One seared over very high heat One not seared Weigh after cooking Taste for juiciness Does Searing Seal in the Juices?:  Does Searing Seal in the Juices? Nein! Myths We Want To Break:  Myths We Want To Break “Acid In Salad Dressings Makes The Lettuce Wilt?” “REALLY?” Dolf DeRovira President/Owner Flavor Dynamics Edible Greens:  Edible Greens What are greens? Edible leafy parts of vegetables Collect sunlight for photosynthesis Cooking Greens Mustard Greens, Collard, Dandelion, etc. Naturally tender and palatable greens Lettuce, arugula Tend to wilt very easily Why Do Greens Wilt?:  Why Do Greens Wilt? Osmotic pressure from the inside of the cell leeches out water. This happens with salt. Pressure / Bruising Oil enters the intercellular structure weighing down the leaves. What would acid do? Wilting Experiment:  Wilting Experiment Two batches of lettuce One submerged in oil One submerged in vinegar Leave in the liquids for at least 30 minutes Visual Comparison Salad Dressings:  Salad Dressings The successful pairing of a sauce with any food demonstrates an understanding of the food and the ability to judge and evaluate a dish’s flavors, textures and colors. Considerations for Salad Dressings:  Considerations for Salad Dressings What does the sauce bring to the dish? How does it function in the total composition? How does it taste? Sauces should not be an afterthought They add flavor, color, texture, sheen and moisture to a dish. Salad Dressings:  Salad Dressings Vinaigrette Vinegar, oil, aromatics 3:1 ????? Broken vs. Emulsified Appropriate greens? Creamy Dressing Thicker Dairy?? Mayonnaise based Appropriate greens? Vinaigrette:  Vinaigrette 3:1 ratio of oil and vinegar?? Endless variations using different oils, vinegars and ethnic Juices, oils, infused oils, flavored oils. Reduced stock or glace can be used instead of egg yolks as an emulsifier. Reduced fat versions can be made… Mayonnaise Based:  Mayonnaise Based Mayonnaise can be the base of any number of sauces because of its neutral qualities. Can also be “lightened” with whipped cream. Might not be used as much today for reasons of fat reduction. Dairy Based::  Dairy Based: Made from sour cream, créme fraîche, mascarpone, yogurt, buttermilk, ricotta or other soft cheeses. Various flavorings Cheese, citrus, vegetables, herbs, pickles and other condiments May be mixed with mayonnaise. Can be used as dressing or dips. Myths We Want To Break:  Myths We Want To Break “Salt Helps To Retain The Color When Parboiling Green Vegetables!” “REALLY?” Dolf DeRovira President/Owner Flavor Dynamics Chlorophyll:  Chlorophyll The pigment in vegetables which converts solar energy into carbohydrates. Photosynthesis versus respiration Soluble Mainly in Fat – some fractions in water Sensitive to heat (7 minute rule) Acid dulls it to Khaki Green Alkali and copper ions brightens it Salt preserves it??? Salt and Color Experiment:  Salt and Color Experiment Two batches of beans One in large amount of well salted water One in large amount of non-salted water One in small amount of non-salted water One in small amount of salted water How To Retain Color When Cooking Green Vegetables :  How To Retain Color When Cooking Green Vegetables Sufficient amount of water Rapidly boiling water Do not overcook (Shock in salted ice water) No Acid Uncovered Do not reuse the water more than three times. No aluminum cooking vessel Myths We Want To Break:  Myths We Want To Break “Mushrooms Should Never Be Washed Because They Absorb All The Water And Become Spongy!” “REALLY?” Hinnerk von Bargen, CHE Associate Professor The Culinary Institute of America What Are Mushrooms?:  What Are Mushrooms? Fungi Low on the evolutionary scale equivalent to molds and yeasts. Unique among the plant kingdom High protein Low P.E.R. Protein Equivalency Rating Protein Is Encased in Chitin (Insect Armor) Difficult to Digest High Water Content Over 90% How To Cook Mushrooms:  How To Cook Mushrooms Wash Cut Not Too Small Excessive Shrinkage During Cooking Sauté In Small Amount of Fat Over High Heat Browning and Flavor Development Season At The End Salt Draws Out the Water – Remember? Temperatures Too Low (Boiling Rather Than Maillard) Soggy Mushroom Experiment:  Soggy Mushroom Experiment Weigh One Pound of Mushrooms Wash by submerging in water Spin Dry Weigh Again Do Fresh Mushrooms Soak Up Water Like A Sponge?:  Do Fresh Mushrooms Soak Up Water Like A Sponge? Nein! Slide71:  Annual Conference & Tradeshow March 9-12, 2006 Houston, Texas Visit us at Any Questions?

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