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CTD Wi14 Weekly Workshop: Best practices for running peer instruction with clickers

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Education

Published on February 20, 2014

Author: peternewbury

Source: slideshare.net

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Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development, UCSD
ctd.ucsd.edu

19 February 2014
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resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/weekly-workshops-winter-2014/ CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: BEST PRACTICES FOR RUNNING PEER INSTRUCTION WITH CLICKERS Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, February 19, 2014 12:00 – 12:50 pm Warren College Room

We know How People Learn …and what that means for teaching [1]: 1. Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understanding that students bring with them. Classrooms must be learner centered. 2. Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and revealing/modeling an expert’s conceptual framework of the content. 3. Teaching (and practicing) metacognitive (“thinking about thinking”) skills should be integrated into the curriculum. 2 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

traditional lecture 3 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers student-centered instruction

peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction 4 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Let’s try it…  Don’t get (too) distracted by the content of the questions: this is not a test of your knowledge!  Try to be aware of how the peer instruction is “choreographed” – we’ll talk lots about it afterwards 5 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Astronomy class We’re in an astronomy survey course. We’ve just finished a worksheet on the phases of the Moon. 6 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker question This is the phase of the Moon when it rises: What is the phase of the Moon 12 hours later? A B D C E (Adapted from Ed Prather) 7 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography The instructor needs to run the peer instruction in a way that gives students sufficient time to 1. think, 2. discuss, and 3. resolve the concepts. We want students to focus all of their precious cognitive load on the concept. We don’t want them wasting any of it wondering, “What am I supposed to do now?” 8 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 1. Present the question. Don’t read it aloud. Reasons for not reading the question aloud: • your voice may give away key features or even the answer • you might read the question you hoped to ask, not the words that are actually there • the students are not listening anyway – they’re trying to read it themselves and your voice may, in fact, distract them 9 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 2. “Please answer this on your own.” Goals of the first, solo vote is to get the students • to commit to a choice in their own minds • curious about the answer • prepared to have a discussion with their peers If they discuss the question right away: • students are making choices based on someone else’s reasoning • those students cannot contribute to the peer instruction as they have no ideas of their own 10 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 2. “Please answer this on your own.” Students may be reluctant to quietly think on their own. After all, they have a better chance of picking the right choice after talking to their friends. If you’re going to impose a certain behaviour on the students, getting their “buy-in” is critical. Explain to them why the solo vote is so important. Explain it to them early in the term and remind them when they start drifting to immediate discussions. www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/SEI_video.html 11 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 3. Don’t immediately start the i>clicker poll. Instead give the students sufficient time to make a choice. What is sufficient? • Turn to the screen, read and answer the question as if you are one of your students. • Another possibility: keep facing the class, watching for confused stares and/or and satisfied smiles. • Another possibility: model how to think about the question by “acting it out.” • When you notice students picking up their clickers and getting restless, they are prepared to vote. 12 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 4. When you have made a choice or when you see the class getting restless, ask the students, “Do you need more time?” If many students are not ready to vote, they will not have committed to a choice and will be unprepared to discuss the question. Some students may be uncomfortable asking for more time. Make it clear, from the first class, that you’ll honour the request with no repercussions. 5. “Yes!” Give them a few more seconds. “[silence]” Ask them to prepare to vote. 13 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 6a. Open the poll, “Please vote.” If you’ve given them sufficient time to commit to a choice, the voting should take very little time. 14 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 6b. Prepare to close the poll When almost all the votes are in, say, “Final votes, please, in 5…4…3…2…1…Thank-you!” and close the poll. Don’t wait for every last student to vote. Some may be choosing not to vote. 15 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 7. Initiate small group discussions: “Please turn to your neighbors and convince them you’re right.” Students may not know how to “discuss” the question so give them direction: “…convince them you’re right.” Don’t display the histogram: if the students see it, they tend to pick the popular choice on the 2nd vote even if it’s not the answer they feel is correct: “lemming effect” 16 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography 8. Wander around the room, listening to the conversations. o Avoid joining conversations – this is their time to talk, not yours. o Listen for misconceptions, places where students get stuck – these nuggets of student thinking are your source for improving the questions, clarifying the questions, etc. 17 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography one best answer (~ STEM) 9. When it starts to get quiet and/or you notice students starting to disengage or talk about other things, collect the 2nd vote: “Group vote, please!” Start the poll. “Last call on the group vote [pause 10 seconds] in 5…4…3…2…1…thank-you!” Stop the poll. 18 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography one best answer (~ STEM) 10a. Now you can display the histogram – this is the signal to the students that a discussion is about to begin. Depending on their votes, you have several choices for sparking the discussion… 19 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography one best answer (~ STEM) 10b. Correct answer is the clear winner. Ok, well done, B is correct but…     20 why might A be tempting? why might someone think it could be E? could someone explain why D is wrong? (possible follow-up question) How would be change the question so that A is right? Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography one best answer (~ STEM) 10b. No clear winner. Ok, this was a harder one, we need to look at all the options…  what reasoning would someone use for A (repeat for all popular choices)  if you changed your vote, what did you discuss in your group? 21 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography one best answer (~ STEM) 10b. If you’re not sure what to do, you’re never wrong asking, What did your group talk about? 22 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography one best answer (~ STEM) 11. At the end, confirm the answer(s) and continue with the class. Even if more than 80–90% of the students have picked the correct choice, some students may still not sure why that choice is correct. Briefly confirm the correct choice: • explain why the right answer is right • explain why wrong answers are wrong • allows students who chose the right answer to make sure they had the correct reasoning 23 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography many answers (~ A&H, SS) 8. Wander around the room, listening to the conversations. o Avoid joining conversations – this is their time to talk, not yours. o Listen for misconceptions, places where students get stuck – these nuggets of student thinking are your source for improving the questions, clarifying the questions, etc. 24 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography many answers (~ A&H, SS) 9. When it starts to get quiet and/or you notice students starting to disengage or talk about other things… Show the histogram – this is the signal to the students that a discussion is about to begin. 25 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography many answers (~ A&H, SS) 10. Facilitate a class discussion, provoking the students to share  which answer they chose  what evidence they have to support that choice (for example, citing readings) 26 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Clicker choreography many answers (~ A&H, SS) 11. Continue the discussion until each choice has been discussed. Create a “summary” slide with each point or argument + evidence you wanted covered. If the students get to all of them, great. If not, you can briefly add anything that was missed. 27 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Peer instruction takes time! 28 (Image: Ready steady go by purplemattfish on flickr CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) Where does that time come from? Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

Traditional classroom 29  first exposure to material is in class, content is transmitted from instructor to student  learning occurs later when student struggles alone to complete homework, essay, project learn easy stuff together transfer Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers learn hard stuff alone assimilate

Flipped classroom 30  student learns easy content at home: definitions, basis skills, simple examples. Frees up class time for...  students come to class prepared to tackle challenging concepts in class, with immediate feedback from peers, instructor learn easy stuff alone learn hard stuff together transfer assimilate Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

typical set of class slides identify “easy” content & content you want to do together assign as pre-class readings and/or tasks * * * 31 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers identify key points, concepts *

Resources 1. 2. Peer instruction resources from the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative at the Univ. of British Columbia : http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/clickers.htm 3. Videos by the Science Education Initiative at the Univ. of Colorado (Boulder) provide excellent background for using clickers: http://www.cwsei.ubc.ca/resources/SEI_video.html 4. 32 National Research Council. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2000. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=9853&page=1 Peer Instruction network blog.peerinstruction.net Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

resources: ctd.ucsd.edu/programs/weekly-workshops-winter-2014/ CTD WEEKLY WORKSHOPS: BEST PRACTICES FOR RUNNING PEER INSTRUCTION WITH CLICKERS Peter Newbury Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Wednesday, February 19, 2014 12:00 – 12:50 pm Warren College Room

Typical Episode of Peer Instruction (PI) 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging, multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right.” one best answer (STEM) many answers (A&H, SS) 4. Students vote again and 4. Instructor leads a class-wide instructor leads a class-wide discussion where students give discussion about why the right evidence to support each answer(s) is right and the choice. wrong answers are wrong. 34 Best Practices for Peer Instruction with Clickers

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