CSSW - Week 2

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Information about CSSW - Week 2

Published on April 24, 2008

Author: johnhudson

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Comparative Social Structures and Welfare Week 2

Comparative Welfare States and Social Structures 1 Why Compare? How to Compare? Dr John Hudson University of York

Session Aims Overview of Module Why Compare? How to Compare? Problems of Comparing

Overview of Module

Why Compare?

How to Compare?

Problems of Comparing

1 - Module Overview Rationale & Approach

Module Overview Compare Nations social problems social policies social & political structures Place UK in Broader Context Improve understanding

Compare Nations

social problems

social policies

social & political structures

Place UK in Broader Context

Improve understanding

Module Overview Intellectually Challenging Breadth Depth Pace of Change Complex Theories

Intellectually Challenging

Breadth

Depth

Pace of Change

Complex Theories

Module Overview Weekly Lecture (Up to 1.5 hours) five formal lectures one data workshop NB: no meetings on Bank Holiday Mondays! Weekly Seminar (Up to 2 hours) Compulsory Exercises No meeting in weeks 5 & 10 Week 10 End of Module Test multiple choice comprehension

Weekly Lecture (Up to 1.5 hours)

five formal lectures

one data workshop

NB: no meetings on Bank Holiday Mondays!

Weekly Seminar (Up to 2 hours)

Compulsory Exercises

No meeting in weeks 5 & 10

Week 10 End of Module Test

multiple choice

comprehension

What We Won’t Be Doing Weekly tour of individual nations many/most text books do this will examine some in passing  in-depth understanding  describing rather than comparing

Weekly tour of individual nations

many/most text books do this

will examine some in passing

 in-depth understanding

 describing rather than comparing

What We Will Be Doing Exploring Themes theoretical propositions policy issues Quantitative (i.e. statistical) Evidence pragmatic choice Key Theories context set the scene

Exploring Themes

theoretical propositions

policy issues

Quantitative (i.e. statistical) Evidence

pragmatic choice

Key Theories

context

set the scene

What We Will Be Doing  actively comparing student led comparisons restricted range of nations data limitations mainly OECD focus Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development

 actively comparing

student led comparisons

restricted range of nations

data limitations

mainly OECD focus

Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development

2 - Why Compare? Why do social scientists compare nations?

Why? Human nature learn about ourselves Same with social policies typical or unusual broader context UK not the norm

Human nature

learn about ourselves

Same with social policies

typical or unusual

broader context

UK not the norm

Why? Policy learning improve social policies lesson drawing, policy transfer Evaluate performance rankings, league tables UNICEF Child Well Being HDI

Policy learning

improve social policies

lesson drawing, policy transfer

Evaluate performance

rankings, league tables

UNICEF Child Well Being HDI

Why? Academic reasons test hypotheses comparison is our laboratory Improve knowledge inductively deductively

Academic reasons

test hypotheses

comparison is our laboratory

Improve knowledge

inductively

deductively

3 - How to Compare? What techniques do social scientists use when comparing nations?

How to Compare? Quantitative -- Qualitative broad overview -- in-depth advantages -- disadvantages Mixed-method

Quantitative -- Qualitative

broad overview -- in-depth

advantages -- disadvantages

Mixed-method

How to Compare? Macro-level -- Micro-level big picture -- policy detail Inputs -- Outcomes what we do –- what happens Depends on issue under investigation ‘ horses for courses’

Macro-level -- Micro-level

big picture -- policy detail

Inputs -- Outcomes

what we do –- what happens

Depends on issue under investigation

‘ horses for courses’

4 - Problems of Comparing Common difficulties and dilemmas researchers face

Who to Compare? Number of countries Large Sample commonplace exact # often pragmatic ~ data sets  maximise potential for statistical experiments need to limit variables for each case danger of oversimplifying = going naive

Number of countries

Large Sample

commonplace

exact # often pragmatic ~ data sets

 maximise potential for statistical experiments

need to limit variables for each case

danger of oversimplifying = going naive

Who to Compare? Small Sample increasingly common tends to be qualitative  capture nuances and peculiarities of cases generalisable findings? danger of emphasising particular = going native

Small Sample

increasingly common

tends to be qualitative

 capture nuances and peculiarities of cases

generalisable findings?

danger of emphasising particular = going native

Who to Compare? Compromise – Ideal Types Esping-Andersen: 18 OECD nations cluster into three types subsequent analysis on three representative cases Raises question of which countries Much depends on validity of typology

Compromise – Ideal Types

Esping-Andersen:

18 OECD nations

cluster into three types

subsequent analysis on three representative cases

Raises question of which countries

Much depends on validity of typology

What to Compare? Which social policies? (slight) social security bias other sectors feature sub-sectoral studies not uncommon In what way? spending institutions packages

Which social policies?

(slight) social security bias

other sectors feature

sub-sectoral studies not uncommon

In what way?

spending

institutions

packages

What to Compare? For whom? nation as a whole different family types differing income levels From which sector? state private & voluntary informal

For whom?

nation as a whole

different family types

differing income levels

From which sector?

state

private & voluntary

informal

Role for Theory Theory will help to: interpret findings structure thoughts provide a route into exploring evidence We cannot simply describe data: pose questions develop hypotheses test hypotheses ask why or how

Theory will help to:

interpret findings

structure thoughts

provide a route into exploring evidence

We cannot simply describe data:

pose questions

develop hypotheses

test hypotheses

ask why or how

Re-Cap Differing methods and approaches: Quantitative v Qualitative Macro v Micro Inputs v Outcomes Policies v Packages Need theoretical grounding Need to interrogate data

Differing methods and approaches:

Quantitative v Qualitative

Macro v Micro

Inputs v Outcomes

Policies v Packages

Need theoretical grounding

Need to interrogate data

5 - Structure & Content

2 Introduction: Why Compare? How to Compare? [lec] Week-by Week: Lectures 3 Bank Holiday Monday – No Lecture 4 Theory: Typologies of Welfare [lec] 6 Bank Holiday Monday – No Lecture 8 Comparing Welfare Inputs: Beyond Spending [lec] 5 Using Comparative Datasets [data workshop] 7 Comparing Welfare Inputs: Spending [lec] 9 Comparing Welfare Outcomes [lec] 10 End of Term Assessment

2 Introduction: Why Compare? How to Compare? [lec]

2 Business Meeting Week-by Week: Seminars 3 Country Cases 1: the USA, Germany & Sweden 4 Country Cases 2: Japan, Italy & Australia 6 Data Exercise 1: Interpreting Comparative Data 8 Data Exercise 3: Correlating Comparative Data 5 No Seminars (Completion of Data Workshop Materials) 7 Data Exercise 2: Exploring Comparative Data 9 Revision Session 10 No Seminars

2 Business Meeting

Assessment Week 10: End of Term Assessment Multiple Choice Comprehension Exercise Based on material in lectures seminars Attendance essential Completing seminar work essential Reading an advantage

Week 10: End of Term Assessment

Multiple Choice

Comprehension Exercise

Based on material in

lectures

seminars

Attendance essential

Completing seminar work essential

Reading an advantage

Help & Support Build Up Complexity as Module Progresses Seminars Data Workshop Handouts Website

Build Up Complexity as Module Progresses

Seminars

Data Workshop

Handouts

Website

6 – Closing Comments

Closing Comments Might sound daunting... Limits to comprehension can’t master every detail research teams commonplace Comparing nations is: fraught with difficulties very challenging very frustrating

Might sound daunting...

Limits to comprehension

can’t master every detail

research teams commonplace

Comparing nations is:

fraught with difficulties

very challenging

very frustrating

Closing Comments Comparative approach is: Intellectually stimulating Home to much of the best work Globalisation: interdependence Other worlds out there need to know... ...even if don’t always fully understand

Comparative approach is:

Intellectually stimulating

Home to much of the best work

Globalisation:

interdependence

Other worlds out there

need to know...

...even if don’t always fully understand

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