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Published on July 9, 2008

Author: archikabhatia

Source: slideshare.net

Description

presentation on basics of computer

Presentation made by: Ms. Archika Bhatia COMPUTER SYSTEM ORGANISATION

Definition of Computer Electronic Device Accepts and stores input Manipulates result Outputs results Under direction of stores programs and instructions

Electronic Device

Accepts and stores input

Manipulates result

Outputs results

Under direction of stores programs and instructions

Characteristics of Computer Speed Accuracy Diligence : not afflicted to tiredness, monotony, lack of concentration like human beings. Reliability Versatility : can work with different types of data like sound, graphics, audio. Memory

Speed

Accuracy

Diligence : not afflicted to tiredness, monotony, lack of concentration like human beings.

Reliability

Versatility : can work with different types of data like sound, graphics, audio.

Memory

What is Data and Information Data is raw facts ex: India, 200, 4, Cricket, Wicket Information is meaningful and arranged form of data ex: India’s score in Cricket is 200 for 4 wickets.

Data is raw facts ex: India, 200, 4, Cricket, Wicket

Information is meaningful and arranged form of data ex: India’s score in Cricket is 200 for 4 wickets.

Hardware refers to physical components that can be seen and touched. E.g. CPU, Memory, I/O devices. HARDWARE SOFTWARE Software is a set of programs that make the Hardware of the computer run. Program is a set of instructions.

FIRMWARE LIVEWARE Firmware is like prewritten program that is permanently stored in read-only memory. BIOS ( Basic Input Output Services ) instructions are an example of firmware. It is the term generally used for the people associated with and benefited from the computer system.

Firmware is like prewritten program that is permanently stored in read-only memory. BIOS ( Basic Input Output Services ) instructions are an example of firmware.

It is the term generally used for the people associated with and benefited from the computer system.

Generations of Computer Each generation of computer is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

TIME PERIOD : 1940's-1950's TECHNOLOGY USED : Vacuum Tubes SIZE AND SPEED : Huge, taking up entire rooms, Slow speed LANGUAGE USED : Machine language COST : System and working cost very high. OTHER FEATURES : Used a great deal of electricity. Generated a lot of heat. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. EXAMPLE : UNIVAC and ENIAC ( Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator ) Structure of a Vaccum Tube UNIVAC ENIAC FIRST GENERATION

SECOND GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1950's- 1960's TECHNOLOGY USED : Transistors SIZE AND SPEED : Lesser size and increased speed LANGUAGE USED : Assembly language and languages like COBOL and FORTRAN COST : Cost decreased OTHER FEATURES : More efficient and reliable. Though the transistors still generated a great deal of heat that subjected the computer to damage, it was a vast improvement over the vacuum tube. Second-generation computers still relied on punched cards for input and printouts for output. EXAMPLE : UNIVAC 1108, IBM 1401, CDC 1604 UNIVAC 1108 IBM 1401 TRANSISITORS

THIRD GENERATION TIME PERIOD : late 1960's-1970's TECHNOLOGY USED : Integrated Circuit SIZE AND SPEED : Size Lesser and speed further increased LANGUAGE USED : Operating System was developed. COST : Cost decreased further OTHER FEATURES : Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. EXAMPLE : IBM-360 series, Honeywell Model 316, Honeywell – 6000 series, CDC – 1700. IBM 360/50

FOURTH GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1970's-today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : High Level Languages like PASCAL, COBOL, C, C++, JAVA COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors. As these small computers became more powerful, they could be linked together to form networks, which eventually led to the development of the Internet. Fourth generation computers also saw the development of GUIs, the mouse and handheld devices. EXAMPLE : Intel 4004, Apple Macintosh The Macintosh 128K , the first Macintosh, was the first commercially successful personal computer to use images, rather than text, to communicate. Intel 4004D microprocessor

FIFTH GENERATION TIME PERIOD : 1990's -today TECHNOLOGY USED : Microprocessor SIZE AND SPEED : Reduced size and tremendous speed LANGUAGE USED : Based on Artificial intelligence COST : Reduced Cost OTHER FEATURES : Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. EXAMPLE : Parallel Inference Machine Note : Artificial Intelligence is the branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans. Note : Voice Recognition is the field of computer science that deals with designing computer systems that can recognize spoken words.

Hybrid Computers : Uses both digital and analog qualities. e.g. Digital thermometer Digital Computers : Work with digits or numbers. Types of Computer Analog Computers : Works on measurement of physical phenomenon like breath, rotation, electric effects, voltage. e.g. ECO, ECG, measuring distance traveled in KM. In car, Speedometer in car.

Classification of Digital Computers Size and Purpose wise : Supercomputer Mainframe Minicomputer Microcomputer Embedded Purpose wise : General Purpose: one that can work on different types if programs. Special purpose: one that is designed to perform a specific task.

Size and Purpose wise :

Supercomputer

Mainframe

Minicomputer

Microcomputer

Embedded

Purpose wise :

General Purpose: one that can work on different types if programs.

Special purpose: one that is designed to perform a specific task.

SUPER COMPUTER The fastest type of computer. Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations. For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer. Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, , nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration. Characteristics    Powerful     Expensive     Dedicated to one purpose - weather, satellites, military     Used by large governments or very large companies     Can be used by thousands of people at the same time     Very large - fill rooms Example: PARAM by CDAC and PACE ( Processor for Aerodynamic Computation and Evaluation ) by ANURAG ( Advanced Numerical and Analysis Group )

The fastest type of computer.

Supercomputers are very expensive and are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations.

For example, weather forecasting requires a supercomputer.

Other uses of supercomputers include animated graphics, , nuclear energy research, and petroleum exploration.

Characteristics

  

Powerful

    Expensive

    Dedicated to one purpose - weather, satellites, military

    Used by large governments or very large companies

    Can be used by thousands of people at the same time

    Very large - fill rooms

Example: PARAM by CDAC and PACE ( Processor for Aerodynamic Computation and Evaluation ) by ANURAG ( Advanced Numerical and Analysis Group )

Sixteen racks of IBM's Blue Gene/L supercomputer can perform 70.7 trillion calculations per second, making it the fastest machine known so far.

MAINFRAME In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor. As the size of computers has decreased while the power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.   Characteristics:       Expensive      Powerful and fast      Is not limited to one job      Used by business and small government organizations Example: IBM 3090/60, CDC 6600 The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs simultaneously.

In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill an entire room or even a whole floor.

As the size of computers has decreased while the power has increased, the term mainframe has fallen out of use in favor of enterprise server. You'll still hear the term used, particularly in large companies to describe the huge machines processing millions of transactions every day.

 

Characteristics: 

     Expensive

     Powerful and fast

     Is not limited to one job

     Used by business and small government organizations

Example: IBM 3090/60, CDC 6600

The main difference between a supercomputer and a mainframe is that a supercomputer channels all its power into executing a few programs as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe uses its power to execute many programs simultaneously.

MINICOMPUTER Another term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers). Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now.   Characteristics:       Smaller than mainframe       Can do several jobs at once       Can be used by many people at one time       Used by small companies Example: PDP-11, VAX

Another term rarely used anymore, minicomputers fall in between microcomputers (PCs) and mainframes (enterprise servers).

Minicomputers are normally referred to as mid-range servers now.

 

Characteristics:

      Smaller than mainframe

      Can do several jobs at once

      Can be used by many people at one time

      Used by small companies

Example: PDP-11, VAX

PERSONAL COMPUTER The term microcomputer, also known as personal computer (PC), or a computer that depends on a microprocessor. A microcomputer contains a central processing unit (CPU) on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory system (read-only memory and random access memory), placed on a motherboard. Example:  desktop, notebook, laptop, handheld devices. Charcteristics: developed in 1980   designed for single user   not very powerful or expensive   found in homes

The term microcomputer, also known as personal computer (PC), or a computer that depends on a microprocessor.

A microcomputer contains a central processing unit (CPU) on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory system (read-only memory and random access memory), placed on a motherboard.

Example:  desktop, notebook, laptop, handheld devices.

Charcteristics:

developed in 1980

  designed for single user

  not very powerful or expensive

  found in homes

EMBEDDED COMPUTER Embedded within the circuitry of appliances such as T.V., washing machines, wrist watches, etc. Programmed for a specific task.

Embedded within the circuitry of appliances such as T.V., washing machines, wrist watches, etc.

Programmed for a specific task.

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTER The development of the modern day computer was the result of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify. Let us look at some of the important milestones in the evolution of computers .

The development of the modern day computer was the result of advances in technologies and man's need to quantify.

Let us look at some of the important milestones in the evolution of computers .

ABACUS The abacus was invented in 3000 BC in Babylonia.

PASCAL’S ADDING MACHINE In 1642 AD, Blaise Pascal , a French mathematician invented a calculating machine named as Adding Machine . This machine was capable of doing Addition and Subtraction. This device is known as the First Calculator of the world .

In 1642 AD, Blaise Pascal , a French mathematician invented a calculating machine named as Adding Machine .

This machine was capable of doing Addition and Subtraction. This device is known as the First Calculator of the world .

LEIBNITZ’S CALCULATOR In 1671 AD, Gotfried Leibnitz, a German Mathematician improved the Adding machine and made a new machine capable of performing multiplication and division also.

In 1671 AD, Gotfried Leibnitz, a German Mathematician improved the Adding machine and made a new machine capable of performing multiplication and division also.

BABBAGE’S DIFFERENCE ENGINE Charles Babbage was a British mathematician. In 1822, he designed a machine called Difference Engine . It aimed at calculating mathematical tables. Since the technology was not so advanced at that time this machine could not be made.

Charles Babbage was a British mathematician. In 1822, he designed a machine called Difference Engine . It aimed at calculating mathematical tables.

Since the technology was not so advanced at that time this machine could not be made.

BABBAGE’S ANALYTICAL ENGINE In 1833, Charles Babbage designed a machine called Analytical Engine . It had almost all the parts of a modern computer. Unfortunately, this machine could not be built because of lack of technology. His designs remained a concept. His great designs earned him the title of ‘ FATHER OF COMPUTERS‘.

In 1833, Charles Babbage designed a machine called Analytical Engine . It had almost all the parts of a modern computer. Unfortunately, this machine could not be built because of lack of technology. His designs remained a concept.

His great designs earned him the title of ‘ FATHER OF COMPUTERS‘.

LADY ADA Lord Byron's daughter, Ada, Countess of Lovelace , suggested to Babbage that he use the binary system in his machine. She wrote programs for his analytical engine in 1840, becoming the world's first computer programmer.

Lord Byron's daughter, Ada, Countess of Lovelace , suggested to Babbage that he use the binary system in his machine.

She wrote programs for his analytical engine in 1840, becoming the world's first computer programmer.

HOLLERITH’S TABULATING MACHINE Hollerith, a Mathematician, invented a fast counting machine named Tabulating Machine in 1880. This machine was used by American Department of Census to complete their 1880 census data.

Hollerith, a Mathematician, invented a fast counting machine named Tabulating Machine in 1880.

This machine was used by American Department of Census to complete their 1880 census data.

MARK I COMPUTER Howard Aiken of Harvard University in USA joined hands with the company IBM. He developed a computer named Mark I in 1943. It could perform mathematical operations very fast. It could perform one operation per second.

Howard Aiken of Harvard University in USA joined hands with the company IBM.

He developed a computer named Mark I in 1943.

It could perform mathematical operations very fast.

It could perform one operation per second.

ENIAC The first electronic computer ENIAC was developed in 1946 by a team lead by Professor Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in USA. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was very huge and very fast. It could solve 5000 operations per second.

The first electronic computer ENIAC was developed in 1946 by a team lead by Professor Eckert and Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in USA.

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was very huge and very fast.

It could solve 5000 operations per second.

INTEL 8080 PROCESSOR In 1974 the Intel 8080 processor was introduced - it became the basis for the first personal computers.

In 1974 the Intel 8080 processor was introduced - it became the basis for the first personal computers.

Types of Software Software ( Set of programs that govern the operations of computer ) System Software ( Software that controls internal computer operations ) Application Software ( Set of programs to carry out operations for a specified application ) Operating System ( Software which acts as an interface between user and the hardware ) Language Processor ( Software which converts HLL progran into machine language ) Packages ( General utility software ) Utilities ( perform house keeping ) Customized Software ( Tailor made software according to user’s needs )

UTILITY SOFTWARE Anti Virus: e.g. Notron, AVG File Management tools Compression tools Disk Management tools ( Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup) (Disk Defragmenter speeds up disk access by rearranging the files and free space on your computer, so that the files can be stored in contiguous units and free space is consolidated in one contiguous block)

Anti Virus: e.g. Notron, AVG

File Management tools

Compression tools

Disk Management tools ( Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup) (Disk Defragmenter speeds up disk access by rearranging the files and free space on your computer, so that the files can be stored in contiguous units and free space is consolidated in one contiguous block)

APPLICATION SOFTWARE ( PACKAGES ) Word Processor Presentation tools Spreadsheet Package Database Management System Business Software ( ex: School Management System, Inventory Management System, Payroll System, Financial Accounting, Hotel Management, Reservation System)

Word Processor

Presentation tools

Spreadsheet Package

Database Management System

Business Software ( ex: School Management System, Inventory Management System, Payroll System, Financial Accounting, Hotel Management, Reservation System)

Language Processors Assembler: This language processor converts the program written in Assembly language into machine language. Compiler: This converts HLL program into machine language in one go . After the compiler is not needed. It is removed from the memory.Therefore, better memory utilization . Interpreter: This converts HLL program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line . It must be present I memory every time program is executed. Therefore, unnecessary usage of memory . There are three types of Language Processors:

Assembler: This language processor converts the program written in Assembly language into machine language.

Compiler: This converts HLL program into machine language in one go . After the compiler is not needed. It is removed from the memory.Therefore, better memory utilization .

Interpreter: This converts HLL program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line . It must be present I memory every time program is executed. Therefore, unnecessary usage of memory .

Generations of Computer Languages Low Level Language Fifth Generation Fourth Generation Third Generation (High Level Language) Second Generation (Assembly Language) First Generation (Machine Language)

FIRST GENERATION : Machine language i.e. language of 0 and 1 SECOND GENERATION : Assembly language Similar to English Uses mnemonics codes THIRD GENERATION : High Level Language Very close to English E.g. C, C++, Java, VB FOURTH GENERATION : Languages for accessing databases FIFTH GENERATION : Uses a visual or graphical development interface to create source language that is usually compiled with a 3GL or 4GL language compiler Used mainly in artificial intelligence research E.g. Prolog , OPS5 , and Mercury

Need For Operating System To make computer system convenient to use To use computer hardware in an efficient manner It decides How to do? What to do? When to do?

To make computer system convenient to use

To use computer hardware in an efficient manner

It decides

How to do?

What to do?

When to do?

Processor Management : maximum utilization of CPU through multiprogramming. Memory Management : organizing the memory such as to store maximum data. Contiguous storage allocation Non Contiguous storage allocation File Management : function is to facilitate easy creation, storage and access of files in order to enable sharing of files between programs and their protection against illegal access. Device Management : concerned with maximum utilisation of the I/O devices attached to the computer. Functions of Operating System

Processor Management : maximum utilization of CPU through multiprogramming.

Memory Management : organizing the memory such as to store maximum data.

Contiguous storage allocation

Non Contiguous storage allocation

File Management : function is to facilitate easy creation, storage and access of files in order to enable sharing of files between programs and their protection against illegal access.

Device Management : concerned with maximum utilisation of the I/O devices attached to the computer.

Types of Operating System Single User : Allows only one user to run programs at a time. E.g. DOS. Multi-user (Distributed) : Allow two or more users to run programs at the same time. E.g. Unix, DOS. Multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU. E.g. Unix, Windows XP, OS/2, Solaris. Multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. E.g. Windows XP, Unix, OS/2, Amiga, MultiFinder. Interactive (GUI) : These OS are interactive in nature. I.e they provide GUI interface to facilitate easy interaction to the user. Eg. Windows Time Sharing : uses time sharing technique. I.e. each active user is given a fair share of CPU time. Real Time : Responds to input instantly. General purpose operating system like DOS and Unix are not real-time. E.g. CMX-RTX, CMX-TINY

Single User : Allows only one user to run programs at a time. E.g. DOS.

Multi-user (Distributed) : Allow two or more users to run programs at the same time. E.g. Unix, DOS.

Multiprocessing : Supports running a program on more than one CPU. E.g. Unix, Windows XP, OS/2, Solaris.

Multitasking : Allows more than one program to run concurrently. E.g. Windows XP, Unix, OS/2, Amiga, MultiFinder.

Interactive (GUI) : These OS are interactive in nature. I.e they provide GUI interface to facilitate easy interaction to the user. Eg. Windows

Time Sharing : uses time sharing technique. I.e. each active user is given a fair share of CPU time.

Real Time : Responds to input instantly. General purpose operating system like DOS and Unix are not real-time. E.g. CMX-RTX, CMX-TINY

Commonly used OS Linux : example of: free software Open Source development ( I.e. freely openly use it, modify it an redistribute it ) First released in September 1991. Can download from www.linux.org Windows : introduced by Microsoft in 1985. Provides GUI. Bharat Operating System Solutions (BOSS) Linux : It is a Linux based OS developed by C-DAC, Chennai. Applications have been localised to enable the use of Indian languages. Bharateeya Open Ofice consists of Writer, Calc, impress, Draw Solaris :free unix-based O.S. intoduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as a successor to Sun OS. Unix : developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Multitasking and multi-user OS.

Linux : example of:

free software

Open Source development ( I.e. freely openly use it, modify it an redistribute it )

First released in September 1991.

Can download from www.linux.org

Windows : introduced by Microsoft in 1985. Provides GUI.

Bharat Operating System Solutions (BOSS) Linux : It is a Linux based OS developed by C-DAC, Chennai. Applications have been localised to enable the use of Indian languages. Bharateeya Open Ofice consists of Writer, Calc, impress, Draw

Solaris :free unix-based O.S. intoduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as a successor to Sun OS.

Unix : developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Multitasking and multi-user OS.

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