Published on February 17, 2014
CHINA STUDIES H1 INTRODUCTORY LECTURE 2014
Setting Expectations Lecture-tutorial system Lecture: Talk Less, Learn More Understanding key perspectives Picking up of key content Tutorial: Active INTELLIGENT participation Questions & Answers Discussion of perspectives Assessment skills acquisition Application of content
Setting Expectations No textbook Lecture notes Tutorial pack No repeat of lectures/tutorials
Setting Expectations Always be prepared when attending lectures/tutorials Ensure that readings are done Good efforts in your daily work
Setting Expectations Follow daily news on China Straits Times People’s Daily (http://english.peopledaily.com.cn) China Daily Beijing Review CNN BBC South China Morning Post (www.scmp.com)
Syllabus Content 4 broad themes Culture and Society (Sociology/Philosophy) Authority and Governance (Political Science) Development and Challenges (Economics) China and the World (Foreign Policy)
Objectives The Concepts of “China” 1. China: civilisation vs. nation-state 2. China: unity vs. diversity 3. China: order vs. disorder (instability) 4. China: traditional vs. modern
Civilisation network of cities that emerge from pre-urban cultures, and are defined by the economic, political, military, diplomatic, social, and cultural interactions among them There is a tendency to use the term in a less strict way, to mean approximately the same thing as “culture” A culture that is complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such culture is generally hierarchical and urbanized distinguished by their means of subsistence, types of livelihood, settlement patterns, forms of government, social stratification, economic systems, literacy, and other cultural traits
Nation-State A concept developed since 1648 in Europe Constitution that justifies/legalises the existence and rights of a particular group/s of people within a geographical area “sovereign territorial unit” A nation-state can be homogenous or multinational The state is a political and geopolitical entity The nation is a cultural and/or ethnic one “Nation-state" implies that the two coincide geographically.
J1 H2 CSE Assessment Assessment Modes CA: 20% Mid Year: 20% (essays) Promo: 60% (essays + case studies)
Do You Know In April 2011, China was on the verge of having 1 million millionaires China now has the sixth largest population of millionaires in the world, far more than in India and Russia combined, and the number is growing at a rate of 15 percent a year.
Do You Know Millionaire Yang, made his first fortune by encouraging customers in southern China to replace their boring white mosquito nets with brightly colored and patterned ones. Three years after hatching this idea he was a rich man. Zeng Weili, an entrepreneur who rode around southern China on a bicycle in the mid 1980s selling shares for his company, created the Baoan Group, a conglomerate that controlled $675 million in assets in 1995.
Buying Car With Cash http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFW4GeNda40
Qin Dynasty 221 BC - 207 BC
Achievements Qin united whole China for the first time. Building roads and post offices to make interchange of labour, information, and resources. He also gave people freedom of choosing the place they live...which wasn't permitted for last thousand years. First standard currency that can be used through whole China. He made a powerful administration to govern and control currency(which was quite similar to national banks today). This fastened the rise of domestic commerce in China and united China as one economic community Written law is the one and only power that governs. He executed even his own son(who broke a law) to show everybody that even the emperor and loyal family are not above law.
Achievements Formulated language, written letters, numeric system, units for weights and measures...before Qin empire, there were more than 11 languages used Made the first encyclopaedia in the world. It was not just an academic achievement, but also a trial to make a standard of Chinese philosophy and value. Built the Great Wall and 400,000 professional army. It was Qin that made the standard of military system and strategy of ancient China. Qin also divided China into 13 states and each states into a 10 jurisdictions for governing purpose. Because this division was done with great foresight and understanding the status of each divisions...Qin's decision had not changed at all for next 700 years...and quite lot of it still last up to today He became the first emperor and made the first powerful central government that European kings in 16~18th century tried to build.
Han Dynasty 206 BC - 220 AD
Achievements The Han Dynasty begins in 206 B.C. The arts and sciences thrived to new heights. The Chinese people still refer to themselves as the Han people in recognition of China's achievements of this period. The Han emperors used the civil service examination to select officials. This examination stressed the teachings of Confucius. Promotion was based on merit. Under the Han China produced important works of history, medicine, philosophy, and politics. Trade routes were formed between China and Europe. The Silk Route dates from this time. During the Han dynasty, China invented paper, water clocks, sundials, and developed a seismograph.
Tang Dynasty 618 AD - 907 AD
Achievements Became the center of trade in the eastBecame the center of trade in the east The study of medicine, study of complex chemicals to create gunpowder, the use of wood block printing which led to the concept of printing The empire contributed greatly to art, social cultures, and foreign relations
Ming Dynasty 1368 AD - 1644 AD
Achievements Great reconstruction works of the new Capital Beijing and the refurbishing and extension of the Great Wall. China under the banner of the Mandate of Heaven and a Chinese Emperor embraced the Neo-Confucian philosophies of the past and gave tremendous support of the peasantry that in turn created an agrariancentered based society. During the Ming Dynasty incredible advances in the sciences and arts were achieved giving the Chinese great pride and self confidence with the knowledge that that they had created the most advanced civilization on earth. Long wars with the Mongols, repeated attacks on Chinese controlled Korea by the Japanese, and Japanese attacks on Chinese coastal cities greatly hurt the economy of the Ming.
Qing Dynasty 1644 AD - 1911 AD
Achievements The Qing Dynasty (also known as the Manchu Dynasty). The Manchus and Chinese dually worked in the same position, by appointment through the examination system, which became known as the Manchu-Chinese diarchy. However, the Manchus were exempt from the examination system because of the Manchu's dominance. The Qing preference for agriculture over trade. During the reign of Qianglong, the borders of China were expanded to their greatest extent ever. Strong economic prosperity, coupled with Qianlong's success in preserving the Inner-Asian empire (encompassing Xingjiang and Mongolia) The isolationist policy towards Europeans set by Emperor Qianlong proved to be a fatal mistake. During the 19th century and early 20th century, the Qing court was not prepared for conflicts with Europeans and Japanese. Compounding the problem was the lack of modern education as the empire's literati concentrated on the Imperial Examinations. Coupled with many natural disasters, faced with foreign economic competition and modernization with little knowledge of the outside world or scientific knowledge many died and faced starvation leading to social crisis.
Europe China 1500s – Religious and political tensions across Europe (Dark Age) • 1500s – Ming China (Superpower of the World) 1600s – Birth of nationstates and decline of Church’s power in Europe • 1600s – Collapse of Ming and Rise of Qing 1700s – Age of Enlightenment/Reason; Overseas exploration and expansion began • 1700s – Qing China (Superpower of the World) 1800s – Industrialisaion; overseas exploration and expansion gathered speed; competition among western powers • 1800s – Internal disorder, bad governance and weakening of Qing By 1900 – heighten period of imperialism • By 1900 – rapid and advance decay of Qing China
Decline of Qing China (100 Years of Humiliation) 1839 – First Opium War 1860 – Second Opium War 1894 – 1st Sino-Japanese War 1898 – Boxers’ Rebellion 1911 – Collapse of Qing Dynasty 1919 – May 4th Movement 1927 – KMT Govt in Nanjing 1930 – Manchuria Incident 1937 – 2nd Sino-Japanese War 1949 – Proclamation of the People’s Republic of China
Important Dates In China 1911 – Collapse of Qing Dynasty 1912 – Establisment of Kuomingtang (KMT) 1919 – May 4th Movement 1949 – Proclamation of the People’s Republic of China 1956-1957 - “Hundred Flowers” campaign 1957-1958 - “Anti-Rightist” campaign 1958-1961 - “Great Leap Forward” campaign 1966-1976 - Cultural Revolution 1978-1979 - “The Four Modernizations”
Video (15 min) 1. To Know What Is China
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