Crystal Fire Part II

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Information about Crystal Fire Part II

Published on July 29, 2008

Author: cookp

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Part 2 of 3 on the book, "Crystal Fire" by Michael Riordan & Lillian Hoddeson

The Road to Discovery http://people.clarkson.edu/~ekatz/scientists/brattain3.jpg http://www.ieee.org/portal/cms_docs_sscs/sscs/07Spring/HR-1stTransistor.jpg http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org/media/Gfu2CV9zswnp.jpg

At Bell Laboratories Brattain and Becker focus on vacuum tube replacement Cu/CuO x rectification European competition (Schottky) http://1ststagespringhill.org/blog/uploaded_images/eniac-706368.jpg

Brattain and Becker focus on vacuum tube replacement

Cu/CuO x rectification

European competition (Schottky)

Rectification Barrier Barrier

Bell Labs hires Shockley Main goal, according to Kelly is to develop electronic replacements to vacuum tubes Conceives idea whereby copper and copper oxide mesh can be used to regulate devices via rectification Devices constructed by Brattain, none worked http://www.nap.edu/html/biomems/photo/wshockley.GIF

Main goal, according to Kelly is to develop electronic replacements to vacuum tubes

Conceives idea whereby copper and copper oxide mesh can be used to regulate devices via rectification

Devices constructed by Brattain, none worked

Breakthrough with Silicon Russell Ohl Silicon sensitive to S-type radar waves Amazing behavior of silicon sample when exposed to light Brattain thought it was a trick, joked that electrical current must be created at an internal barrier http://www.ieee-virtual-museum.org/media/Gfu2CV9zswnp.jpg

Russell Ohl

Silicon sensitive to S-type radar waves

Amazing behavior of silicon sample when exposed to light

Brattain thought it was a trick, joked that electrical current must be created at an internal barrier

Silicon Rectifiers Silicon samples were erratic in behavior When manufactured, Find hot spot Tested, and only best would be used No consistent method to produce consistent results Later, du Pont produces 99.99% pure silicon Scientists begin doping this new material to produce P or N type material

Silicon samples were erratic in behavior

When manufactured,

Find hot spot

Tested, and only best would be used

No consistent method to produce consistent results

Later, du Pont produces 99.99% pure silicon

Scientists begin doping this new material to produce P or N type material

US enters World War II after Pearl Harbor attack Brattain begins work on magnetic detection of submarines Bardeen develops methods of mine avoidance for oceanic vessels Shockley focused upon statistical applications Convoy deployment Depth charge kill ratio X-type radar system implementation in B-29 bombers

Brattain begins work on magnetic detection of submarines

Bardeen develops methods of mine avoidance for oceanic vessels

Shockley focused upon statistical applications

Convoy deployment

Depth charge kill ratio

X-type radar system implementation in B-29 bombers

End of World War II Kelly shakes up Bell Labs Reorganizes Bell Labs Solid State Physics Group: Shockley & Morgan head group including Brattain Short time later, John Bardeen is hired into the group.

Kelly shakes up Bell Labs

Reorganizes Bell Labs

Solid State Physics Group: Shockley & Morgan head group including Brattain

Short time later, John Bardeen is hired into the group.

Field Effect Shockley’s Frustration After working on an idea based upon Ohl’s earlier work, Shockley develops Silicon based device Device fails, and subsequently Shockley abandons further investigation Bardeen suggests Surface state Work with Brattain leads to use of electrolytes around metal-semiconductor junction, with some success. Suggests field effect may be detected in germanium

Shockley’s Frustration

After working on an idea based upon Ohl’s earlier work, Shockley develops Silicon based device

Device fails, and subsequently Shockley abandons further investigation

Bardeen suggests Surface state

Work with Brattain leads to use of electrolytes around metal-semiconductor junction, with some success.

Suggests field effect may be detected in germanium

The Transistor is Born Brattain & Gibney observe field effect in silicon sample; amplified effect when electrolytes are used Bardeen suggests n-type germanium; discover method to raise minority carrier population in n-layer Increase frequency response by allowing direct metal-semiconductor slab contact, eliminating “gu”. Now able to amplify power & voltage at a high frequency response Shockley proposes applying voltage through “gu” at the p-n junction rather than point contacts; Brattain anxious to attempt, but gets the flu and experiment is forgotten. http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/transistor/function/images/bild11.gif

The Veil of Secrecy Descends Kelly clamps lid down tight at Bell labs General public would first hear about the device months later Pressure builds to protect patentable material Purdue group on the cusp of similar discovery

Kelly clamps lid down tight at Bell labs

General public would first hear about the device months later

Pressure builds to protect patentable material

Purdue group on the cusp of similar discovery

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