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Crystal Fire

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Information about Crystal Fire

Published on July 29, 2008

Author: cookp

Source: slideshare.net

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Part 1 of 3
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Crystal Fire The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age Riordan & Hoddeson

The Beginnings of a Physics Revolution 1870’s Crooke discovers “cathode rays”

1870’s

Crooke discovers “cathode rays”

1895 R öntgen experiments with cathode rays Curious beam penetrated cardboard…as well as soft tissue!

R öntgen experiments with cathode rays

Curious beam penetrated cardboard…as well as soft tissue!

1899 Thomson discovers the electron (corpuscle) in his experimentation with cathode ray tubes Electrons are particles , 1/1000 th as massive as a hydrogen ion

Thomson discovers the electron (corpuscle) in his experimentation with cathode ray tubes

Electrons are particles , 1/1000 th as massive as a hydrogen ion

1900 Max Planck proposed quantization of energy to help explain blackbody radiation Energy is emitted in discrete bundles or packets and can be determined by E = hf

Max Planck proposed quantization of energy to help explain blackbody radiation

Energy is emitted in discrete bundles or packets and can be determined by

E = hf

1905 Einstein & the Photoelectric Effect Proposed that light must behave as proposed by Planck

Einstein & the Photoelectric Effect

Proposed that light must behave as proposed by Planck

1909 Rutherford performs gold foil experiment “ It was almost as if you fired a fifteen-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you!” But this new model came with a new problem…

Rutherford performs gold foil experiment

“ It was almost as if you fired a fifteen-inch shell at a piece of tissue paper and it came back and hit you!”

But this new model came with a new problem…

Proposed solution by Bohr 1913 Electrons occupy orbitals of quantized energy. Sommerfeld proposed the possiblitiy of elliptical orbitals and quantized angular momentum

Electrons occupy orbitals of quantized energy.

Sommerfeld proposed the possiblitiy of elliptical orbitals and quantized angular momentum

1924 Wolfgang Pauli proposed that electrons could have spin (either + or -) Helped explain the size and structure of atoms

Wolfgang Pauli proposed that electrons could have spin (either + or -)

Helped explain the size and structure of atoms

1923 de Broglie proposes wave particle duality of matter; In America, Davisson and Germer discover wavelike behavior from electrons rebounding from a nickel crystal (1927)

de Broglie proposes wave particle duality of matter;

In America, Davisson and Germer discover wavelike behavior from electrons rebounding from a nickel crystal (1927)

The Wave Function Schr ödinger’s wave function mathematics shed light on Davisson and Germer’s experimentation, further solidifying the wave like behavior of matter

Schr ödinger’s wave function mathematics shed light on Davisson and Germer’s experimentation, further solidifying the wave like behavior of matter

In less than 30 years… Quantum physics was born The model of the atom changed drastically Matter and light are both proposed to behave like waves and particles

Quantum physics was born

The model of the atom changed drastically

Matter and light are both proposed to behave like waves and particles

John Bardeen Born in Wisconsin (1908) Unusually bright, “John is the concentrated essence of brain”, wrote his mother Fascinated with crystal radios

Born in Wisconsin (1908)

Unusually bright, “John is the concentrated essence of brain”, wrote his mother

Fascinated with crystal radios

A Simple Crystal Radio

John Bardeen Mother died of breast cancer early in his life Finished University High at the age of 14. Took additional year of studies in physics and mathematics at Madison Central High School

Mother died of breast cancer early in his life

Finished University High at the age of 14.

Took additional year of studies in physics and mathematics at Madison Central High School

Walter Brattain Born in China (1902) Spent most of childhood in Washington Outdoorsman and sharpshooter Educated at the Moran School

Born in China (1902)

Spent most of childhood in Washington

Outdoorsman and sharpshooter

Educated at the Moran School

William Shockley Born in Europe (1910) Temperamental child Educated at the Palo Alto Military Academy Finished High School at Hollywood High

Born in Europe (1910)

Temperamental child

Educated at the Palo Alto Military Academy

Finished High School at Hollywood High

Bell Laboratories

Bell Labs Solid State Physics Group Charged with developing a solid state switch/amplifier Prior designs by Shockley proved utter failures Frustrated Shockley assigns task to Bardeen and Brattain

Charged with developing a solid state switch/amplifier

Prior designs by Shockley proved utter failures

Frustrated Shockley assigns task to Bardeen and Brattain

Point-Contact Transistor

Little-recognized Breakthrough First article published July 1 st , 1948 by the New York Times…on page 46!

First article published July 1 st , 1948 by the New York Times…on page 46!

Shockley’s Idea of a Junction Transistor

Divisive Discovery Bardeen left Bell Labs in 1951 Brattain was reassigned within Bell Labs Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956

Bardeen left Bell Labs in 1951

Brattain was reassigned within Bell Labs

Bardeen, Brattain, and Shockley received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956

Construct a Point-Contact Transistor

Next…The Road to Discovery

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