Published on February 25, 2014
Exploring personal values and beliefs and their impact on cross cultural relationships and conflict Cecily Rodriguez Office of Cultural & Linguistic Competence
Explore and identify our individual and collective cultures (Lifeways- Davis and Vakalahi) Define culture and its influence on relationships Identify potential sources of cross cultural conflict Introduce models of conflict resolution
Generalizing vs. Stereotyping Cultural generalization: Looking at tendencies of a majority of people in a cultural group, their values, beliefs, and tendency to engage in certain patterns of behavior, and making generalizations about individual behavior based on group patterns. Cultural Stereotype: Automatically applying generalizations to every person in the cultural group, or making generalizations about the group based on the behavior of only a few individuals. Generalizations of cultural norms and values
Recognizing the Lifeways of Your Culture We have similarities with others. We have differences that are unique to us. These differences may have little to do with our ethnicity, age, social class. Sometimes the origin of lifeways is unclear. Sometimes the rationale for lifeways is unclear. Molly Everett Davis & Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi, George Mason University, Department of Social Work
Lifeways are Reflected at ALL Levels of a Given Society Individuals Families Organizations Communities Societies Molly Everett Davis & Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi, George Mason University, Department of Social Work
Individual and family lifeways are manifested in all that you do everyday. Molly Everett Davis & Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi, George Mason University, Department of Social Work
Community Lifeways Think …. Lawn care standards Interaction with neighbors Colors of homes Snow storm shoveling behavior Death in the community Birth of a baby Violation of neighborhood standards Molly Everett Davis & Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi, George Mason University, Department of Social Work
Organizational Lifeways Molly Everett Davis & Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi, George Mason University, Department of Social Work
Lifeways Help us adapt or fit in with our environment Transmitted across generations Shared or unique Exist in multiple levels of systems Are affected by historical and life events Are developmental over time Reflected in behavior, customs, beliefs, traditions, rituals, traditions. Molly Everett Davis & Halaevalu F. O. Vakalahi, George Mason University, Department of Social Work
Conflict Resolution Strategies Pro-Active 11
The Emotional Bank Account It is a metaphor that describes how we build and lose trust in personal relationships. It is described by many as a powerful tool for the development of interpersonal relationships. Developed by Steven Covey in
Deposits Understanding the individual (what is important to them) Attention to little things Keeping commitments Clarifying expectations Personal integrity Apologizing sincerely
Withdrawals Mistakes Insensitivity Disappointments Disagreements Changes in plans
Sources of Cultural Conflict Differences in communication style Differences in cultural context Perceptions of privilege Microaggressions
Communication is the vehicle by which culture is expressed
High Context/Indirect Low Context/Direct Uses implied meanings which arise from the setting Focuses on literal meanings of words, independent of setting Everyone engages in both, depending on: • The relationships involved • The situation • The purpose of communication
Direct or Indirect? • Nonverbal messages/gestures are important • Statements may be taken at face value • Direct questions are not meant to offend • Status and identity may be communicated nonverbally • Face-saving and tact can be important • Roles and functions may be decoupled
In Communitarian Settings • People see themselves as part of a circle of relationships • Identity is as a member of a group • In conflict, response is chosen jointly In Individualistic Settings • People see themselves as independent and autonomous • Identity is individual • In conflict, response is individual
Encounters with Cultural Difference Pat on the Back Mr. K- Are you satisfied with the work of the division? Ms. W- Yes. When you put Mr. Y in charge everything turned around. Mr. K- I agree , the whole team is working very well now. Mr. W- Will you give Mr. Y some sort of recognition then? Mr. K- I hardly think so, we wouldn’t want to embarrass him. Cross Cultural Dialogues. Craig Sorti
Encounters with Cultural Difference Saturday Shift Mrs. J- Looks like we are going to have to be open this Saturday. Mr. W- I see. Mrs. J- Can you come in on Saturday for work? Mr. W- Yes, I think so. Mrs. J- That is great. Mr. W- Yes, Saturday is a special day. did you know? Mrs. J- How do you mean? Mr. W- It is my son’s birthday. Mrs. J- How nice, I hope you all enjoy it. Mr. W- Thank you for your understanding. Cross Cultural Dialogues. Craig Sorti
Microagressions Proposed by psychiatrist Chester M. Pierce, MD, in the 1970s. It is the idea that specific interactions between those of different cultures or genders can be interpreted as nonphysical aggression.
The Impact of Microaggressions Puts people in a psychological bind. “May feel insulted, but not know exactly why, and the perpetrator doesn't acknowledge that anything has happened because he is not aware he has been offensive.” In turn, that leaves the person of color to question what actually happened. “The result is confusion, anger and an overall sapping of energy” he says. Dr. Derald Wing Sue
DBHDS Virginia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services
Privilege is an institutional (rather than a personal) set of privileges. All of us who are white, by race have privilege, but there are degrees based on who we are. It has NOTHING to do with whether or not we are “good” people. We cannot get them or give them away. Frances E. Kendall, Ph.D.
Color Blindness The idea that a person does not see color Denies the central importance of racial differences in the psychological experience of people of color (racism and discrimination) Dr. Derald Wing Sue Allows whites to ignore how their “whiteness” may impact the interpersonal dynamics.
Conflict Resolution Strategies 27
S- Stating the conflicting view A- agreeing that a conflict exists without making any judgment. L- Listening for and learning the difference A- Advising one another M- minimizing areas of disagreement. Seek agreement in as many aspects of the conflict as possible, thereby minimizing the areas where there is disagreement. Dr. Iqbal Unus, International Institute of Islamic Thought
Know yourself and your own culture Learn others expectations Check your assumptions When in Rome…ask questions Consider the Platinum rule"Treat others in the way they like to be treated." Consider that all conflict is multicultural In other words….to prevent & resolve conflict…
References Davis, Molly Everest, Vakalahi, H. (2010) , George Mason University, Department of Social Work, The Cultural Competence Continuum. Retrieved from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/28192558/Cultural-Competence-Lifeways-Continuum DeAngelis, Tori. Unmasking Racial Microagressions. Journal of American Psychology. February 2009, Vol. 40, No. 2. page 42. Ford, J. ( 2001). Cross cultural conflict resolution in teams. Retrieved from www.mediate.com/articles/ford5.cfm. International Federation of University Women (2001). Workshop on conflict resolution [:] Facilitator’s guide. Retrieved from www.ifuw.org/training/pdf/conflict-facilitator-2001.pdf. Ivey, Allen E. Bradford Ivey, Mary, Zalaquett, Carlos. 2009) University of South Florida, Tampa. Intentional Interviewing and Counseling. Retrieved from www.coedu.usf.edu/zalaquett/ LeBaron, M.(2003). Bridging cultural conflicts: A new approach for a changing world . San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass. Managing conflict: A guide for watershed Partnerships. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.ctic.purdue.edu/kyw/brochures/manageconflict.html. McIntosh, Peggy. (1988) Unpacking the White Privilege Knapsack. Retrieved from http://www.racialequitytools.org/resourcefiles/mcintosh.pdf. Ting-Toomey, S. (1994). Managing intercultural conflicts effectively. Retrieved from www.ohrd.wisc.edu/home/Portals/0/ManagingInterculturalConflicts.pdf Webne-Behrman, H (1998). The practice of facilitation: Managing group process and solving problems. Westport Connecticut: Quorum Books. Worrell, T. (2009). Managing cultural collisions. Retrieved from
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