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Information about Crohistartsci

Published on April 22, 2008

Author: Teodora


Croatia a land of thousand islands:  Croatia a land of thousand islands An overview of its history, culture and natural beauty By Zdeslav Hrepic Kansas State University OVERVIEW:  OVERVIEW General facts and Geography What we are proud of… History and Language Art and Architecture World heritage in Croatia (UNESCO’s list) Landscape Music and Dances CROATIA IS:  CROATIA IS On the cross roads between Central Europe and the Mediterranean GENERAL FACTS:  GENERAL FACTS Official name: REPUBLIC OF CROATIA Official language: CROATIAN Alphabet: LATIN POPULATION:  POPULATION 4,437,460 (2001. Census) Ethnic composition: 89,63% Croats 4,54% Serbs 0,47% Bosnians 0,44% Italians 0,37 Hungarians 6,55% others Religions: 87,83% Roman Catholic 1,28% Islam 0,91% Orthodox 0,43% Protestant 3, 9% Atheists 2.99% Agnostics 2, 2% Atheists CAPITAL - ZAGREB:  CAPITAL - ZAGREB Church of St. Mark Old town and Cathedral COAT OF ARMS AND FLAG:  COAT OF ARMS AND FLAG ~ 7 ct. ~ 16 ct. today ECONOMY - TOURISM:  ECONOMY - TOURISM ECONOMY - SHIPBUILDING:  ECONOMY - SHIPBUILDING In the second half of the 1980-ties the Croatian shipbuilding industry was at the third place in the world, (after Japan and South Korea). Made in Split, Croatia ECONOMY - AGRICULTURE:  ECONOMY - AGRICULTURE SOUTH CROATIA ECONOMY - AGRICULTURE:  ECONOMY - AGRICULTURE NORTH CROATIA RELIEF:  RELIEF ARCHIPELAGO:  ARCHIPELAGO 1,185 islands and rocks 66 inhabited One of 10 nations in the world with more than 1000 islands Total Coastline length 5,835 km (Islands 70% - Mainland 30 %) CROATIAN ARCHIPELAGO:  CROATIAN ARCHIPELAGO According to American journal "Cruising World", together with the Caribbean, among the best sailing areas in the world. BEACHES:  BEACHES BEACHES:  BEACHES LIGHTHOUSES:  LIGHTHOUSES 66 big stone lighthouses from 19 ct. FALKUSA:  FALKUSA Croatian fisherman boat (18 ct.) WHAT WE ARE PROUD OF…:  WHAT WE ARE PROUD OF… SPORT - GORAN IVANISEVIC:  SPORT - GORAN IVANISEVIC ..and welcome in his hometown - Split Winner WIMBLEDON CHAMPION 2001 NBA PLAYERS FROM CROATIA:  NBA PLAYERS FROM CROATIA Drazen Petrovic Radja vs. Rodman Toni Kukoc Zan Tabak Basketball team from Split - several times European champions. NATIONAL SOCCER TEAM:  NATIONAL SOCCER TEAM Note: Croatia has less people than Brazil or Germany has registered soccer players and is a bit smaller in size than West Virginia! C R O A T I A The Third Best Team in the World Davor Suker won the Golden Boot for scoring the most Goals (France 1998) DALMATIAN DOG–NATIVE CROATIAN:  DALMATIAN DOG–NATIVE CROATIAN 101 DALMATIAN Dalmatia - the coastal part of Croatia Recognized as Croatian autochthonous breed (FCI-153) Croatian Mascot - 2000 Olympic games Sydney CROATIA - HOMELAND OF CRAVATS:  CROATIA - HOMELAND OF CRAVATS Every day worn by the 600 million men around the world. French - la Cravate German- die Krawatte English – Cravat Italian - Cravatta Spanish - Corbata Portuguese - Gravata Irish - Carabhat Swedish - Kravatt Finnish - Kravatti Flemish - Krawaat Polish - Krawat Ukrainian - Kravatka Hungarian – Kravat Croatian - Kravata CROATIA:  CROATIA A tradition introduced by Croatian soldiers who wore a small neckerchief of silk or cloth, tied in a knot around their necks. Accepted in Europe during 1618-1648 when two regiments of Croatian soldiers were serving Luis XIV. After “la Cravate” become popular at French court, fashion spread fast further. HOMELAND OF CRAVATS OLDEST UNIVERSITIES:  OLDEST UNIVERSITIES Bologna 1219 Padova 1220 Paris 1220 Oxford 1249 Lisabon 1290 Rome 1303 Cambridge 1318 Florence 1321 Praha 1348 Krakow 1364 Vienna 1365 Heidelberg 1385 ZADAR 1396 and ZAGREB 1669 ZADAR 1396 Rostock 1419 Glasgow 1453 Copenhagen 1479 Mainz 1494 Edinburgh 1582 Dublin 1591 Lwow 1661 ZAGREB 1669 Göttingen 1736 Erlangen 1743, Moscow 1775 Berlin 1809 Saint Petersburg 1819 London 1825 Helsinki 1826 Kiev 1834 Athens 1834 Tokyo 1881 Constantinople 1900 … INVENTORS - PARASHUTE:  INVENTORS - PARASHUTE Faust Vrancic (1551-1617) from Sibenik invented and constructed a parashute and also performed a first jumps in order to test it. Wrote famous book on mechanics Machinae novae (61 constructions, Venice, 1595) - soon translated from Latin into Italian, Spanish, French and German A sketch of his well known Homo volans (parachutist) appearing in Machinae novae - often wrongly attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. INVENTORS - PEN:  INVENTORS - PEN Slavoljub Eduard Penkala (1871-1922) from Zagreb invented a mechanical ball pen which is bearing his name and now it is in everyday use. NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943) :  NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943) Born in Croatia (at that time within Austro-Hungary) The father of alternating current technology, production and transmission of electrical energy as we know it today. Great contribution in high frequency technology and wireless communications More than 700 patents (manuscripts still top secret of US ministry of defense) Refused to receive the Nobel prize which he had to share with T.A. Edison. The unit for magnetic induction named after him The Inventor Who Changed the World NIKOLA TESLA:  NIKOLA TESLA When his mother died, in 1892, he paid a visit to Zagreb, Croatian capital, where he gave a lecture about alternating current. On that occasion he said: Tesla’s monument, carved by Croatian sculptor Frano Krsinic, near Tesla's hydro power plant on Niagara Falls. “I am equally proud of my Croatian motherland and Serbian descent”. N. Tesla “As a son of my homeland I feel it is my duty to help the city of Zagreb in every respect with my advice and work” and suggested to build alternating current power plant. TWO CROATIAN SCIENTISTS:  TWO CROATIAN SCIENTISTS Rudjer Boskovic (1711-1787), name of the mountain on the visible side. (forerunner of modern physics for two centuries – theory of atomic forces) ON THE MAP OF THE MOON Andrija Mohorovicic (1857-1936) name of the mountain on the dark side (discovered discontinuity in Earth crust named after him - Moho-layer or Moho-discontinuity. CROATS – NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS:  CROATS – NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS Lavoslav Ruzicka, of a Croat/Czech origin. Born in Vukovar, Croatia. Studied in Zagreb. For discoveries in organic chemistry 1939. Ivo Andric, A Croat born in Dolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Studied in Zagreb. For literature, 1961. Vladimir Prelog, a Croat born in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Studied in Zagreb. For discoveries in organic chemistry, 1975. FIRST PUBLIC THEATER IN EUROPE:  FIRST PUBLIC THEATER IN EUROPE In 1612 a theatre was built on the first floor of an existing building (from 13th century). 1612 - ON ISLAND HVAR FIRST PUBLIC THEATER IN EUROPE:  FIRST PUBLIC THEATER IN EUROPE Built by the efforts and contributions of all the members of the community, regardless of class. OPERA:  OPERA Three Slavic nations who have national operas: Russians: (M. I. Glinka in 1836, 1842), Croats: Vatroslav Lisinski composed the first Croatian national opera "Ljubav i zloba" ("Love and malice") in 1846. Czechs: (B. Smetana in 1862), The most famous Croatian opera: Ero s onoga svijeta, by Jakov Gotovac (1895-1982) It has been translated into 9 languages and performed in about 80 countries. LEGACY – THE VINODOL CODE:  LEGACY – THE VINODOL CODE One of the earliest and most important Croatian legal documents is The Vinodol Code, very different from the Roman law, written in the Glagolitic alphabet in 1288. considered to be one of the most important documents of medieval Europe. Among the Slav Codes only the Rus Code “Pravda” is slightly older (1282). It was unique in Europe by determining protection and integrity of women. Introduces the institution of witnesses. CITY OF DUBROVNIK:  CITY OF DUBROVNIK 1317 - the first European pharmacy that has been working continuously till these days was opened there in in Franciscan monastery. The first hospital (Domus Christi) in Dubrovnik was opened in 1347. PEARL OF CROATIAN CULTURE CITY OF DUBROVNIK:  In 1296 Dubrovnik had a sewer system. In 1377 Dubrovnik had the first quarantene in Europe. An organized production of soap started in 1417. The first orphanage was founded in 1432. CITY OF DUBROVNIK CITY OF DUBROVNIK:  Dubrovnik have the oldest arboretum in Europe - Trsteno, founded in 1498, with many rare plants. CITY OF DUBROVNIK CITY OF DUBROVNIK:  CITY OF DUBROVNIK After Croatia joined in union with Hungary (1102) the Republic of Dubrovnik left the only really free part of Croatia and kept it’s freedom until Napoleon. Upon arrival in 7th ct., Croatians founded the city on remainings of Roman settlement Ragusa. The city walls were built between the 8th and 16th centuries. CITY OF DUBROVNIK:  Ivan Gundulic (1589-1638) from Dubrovnik, one of the greatest Croatian poets wrote in Croatian language the well known patriotic verses devoted to Liberty: Oh beautiful, oh dear, oh sweet liberty, the gift that Almighty God gave us… Neither all the silver and gold, nor all the human lives can be payment to your pure beauty! Flag of the Republic of Dubrovnik: The word LIBERTAS (Liberty) CITY OF DUBROVNIK CITY OF DUBROVNIK:  CITY OF DUBROVNIK One of 8 books of Dubrovnik statute from 1272 contains exclusively regulations concerning Maritime Law, which is the oldest such document in the world. Slave trade in the Republic of Dubrovnik was forbidden in 1418 (in the British Empire in 1833). Dubrovnik's 1395 Insurance Law is the oldest in Europe. It had all aspects of contemporary maritime insurance. This law is three centuries older than Lloyd's insurance, London, which dates from the end of 17th century. CITY OF DUBROVNIK:  Republic of Dubrovnik built big fleet of sailing ships. In 16th century, years of biggest prosperity of Republic of Dubrovnik, their mercantile marine had 170-200 ships. Besides that, Dubrovnik had big armament navy. CITY OF DUBROVNIK "Dubrovnik Nava" 16 ct. HISTORY - ORIGINS:  HISTORY - ORIGINS The earliest mention of the Croatian name as Horovathos (Horvat = Croat) - on two stone inscriptions in Greek language, from around the 200 A.D., found by the Black Sea (more precisely in the seaport Tanais on the Azov sea, Krim). "Horoathos archon Tanaiton" (= Croat Mayor of Tanais) and "Synodos Horouathon“ (=Convention of Croats). Both tablets are held in the archeological museum in St Petersburg, Russia. INVITATION BY EMPEROR:  INVITATION BY EMPEROR Emperor Heraclius invites the Croats to settle in the Roman provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia (as unable to defend the regions from the Avars) This invitation was issued between 610 A.D. and 641 A.D., perhaps during the siege of Byzantium in 626. The migration was mostly complete by 678 when the Croatians sent a delegation to the Court of Constantinople. Rome established contact with the Croatians at the same time and converted the tribes to Christianity through a treaty with Pope Agatho in 680, making Croatia one of the world's oldest Christian nations. HERACLIUS 800 A.D.:  800 A.D. A loose confederation of duchies ruled by Bans (Viceroys), began to take the shape of a unified state between 800 and 925. UPON ARIVAL IN TODAYS HOMELAND:  UPON ARIVAL IN TODAYS HOMELAND The earliest known Croatian duke was Borna, who ruled from around 812 to 821. Duke Trpimir ruled from 845 to 864. In 852 he issued the oldest known governmental document in the Latin script, where the Croatian name was mentioned (dux Chroatorum) In a letter from Pope John VIII to Prince Branimir, dated June 7th of 879 A.D., Croatia is mentioned as an independent, sovereign nation. Figure of a Croatian Dignitary” (11th century) from Biskupija near Knin KING TOMISLAV:  KING TOMISLAV Among all Slavic nations Croatians first had kingdom (925 AD Duvno) The Emperor of Byzantium, Constantine Porphyrognet (913-959) recorded (about 950.) that during King Tomislav's reign Croatia could raise overnight 100,000 armed soldiers and 60,000 horsemen Tomislav - first Croatian King (910 –928) 10 c. NAVAL POWER:  10 c. NAVAL POWER 80 saginas (oared ships) with 40 fighters in addition to the crew and 100 konduras (oared ships smaller than saginas) with 10 to 20 fighters in addition to the crew. This was a force of about marine 5000 fighters, very respectable for that period. In same document he also recorded the information about the naval power of Croatians numbering: Sagina 10 –11 ct. 1000 A.D.:  1000 A.D. LANGUAGE AND SCRIPT :  LANGUAGE AND SCRIPT Two national Scripts: Croatian Glagolitic older than a thousand years. The Our glagolitic books (written and printed) and other glagolitic monuments are scattered in many national libraries and museums in the world, in as many as 21 countries, in about 50 cities outside Croatia: and Croatian Cyrilic. The Croats, using the Glagolitic alphabet, were the only nation in Europe who was given a special permission by Pope (Innocent IV in 1248) to use their own language and this script in Liturgy. CROATIAN GLAGOLITIC SCRIPT:  CROATIAN GLAGOLITIC SCRIPT Missal from Vrbnik (15 st) Angular and Round font THE BASKA TABLET:  THE BASKA TABLET An inscription written in the Croatian Glagolitic alphabet is a stone tablet - dating from the end of 11th century Found near the town of Baska on the island of Krk. It contains about 400 Glagolitic characters (dimensions of the tablet: 2x1 sq.m, 800 kg). precious stone of Croatian literacy KING ZVONIMIR:  KING ZVONIMIR Of particular interest is the third line of the Baska tablet, which mentions the Croatian King Zvonimir. Z'V'NIM(I)R‘ KRAL‘ HR'VAT'SK'[I] FIRST BOOKS PRINTED IN CROATIAN :  FIRST BOOKS PRINTED IN CROATIAN In Glagolitic Script: 1483 “Missal” (440 pp, 19x26 cm) 28 years after Gutenberg's Bible 6 years after the first printed book in Paris and Venice 1 year before Stockholm, 58 years before Berlin and 70 years before Moscow. The Croatian Glagolitic Script was the fifth to appear in the history of European printing, very soon after the Latin, Gothic, Greek and Hebrew scripts. In the Latin Script: 1495 “Lectionary of Bernardin of Split”, (published in Venice). MAIN HISTORICAL PERIODS :  MAIN HISTORICAL PERIODS The arrival of the Croats to the Roman provincies Dalmatia and Pannonia – the Beginning of the 7th century The period of Croatian dukes and kings of native birth (~ 800 - 1102), Croatia sharing with Hungary a new state under common Hungarian and Croatian kings (1102-1526), Croatia ruled by the Habsburgs, as a member of the Habsburg crown (1527-1918), parts of Croatia under Venice, Turkish ottoman empire and France, Croatia – part of kingdom of Yugoslavia and later republic within communist Yugoslavia ruled by Croatian Josip Broz Tito (1918-1991), Internationally recognized Republic of Croatia (January 1992). ART - ANCIENT CULTURES:  ART - ANCIENT CULTURES Remains from locality of Pećani near Sibenik The Copper Age - Vucedol culture near Vukovar, Croatia (2500 BC) ANCIENT GREECE HERITAGE :  ANCIENT GREECE HERITAGE Issa (Vis) –Afrodita’s bronze head with silver eyes Tragurion (Trogir) - Cairos Pottery and floor Issa (Vis) ROMAN HERITAGE – ARENA IN PULA:  ROMAN HERITAGE – ARENA IN PULA built in the 1st century AD during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian, at the same time as the Colosseum in Rome the Amphitheatre could seat 20.000 spectators. In the Middle Ages it was the site of knight tournaments and fairs. ROMAN HERITAGE:  ROMAN HERITAGE DIOCLETIAN PALACE IN SPLIT Peristyle – main square Diocletians Aquaduct Still in use after 1700 years CROATIAN ART – BEGININGS:  CROATIAN ART – BEGININGS An important monument with the interlace pattern which contains the name of Duke Branimir (9th century) Represented by a rich ornamentation in interlace pattern CROATIAN PRE-ROMANESQUE ART:  CROATIAN PRE-ROMANESQUE ART baptismal font of Duke Viseslav from Nin (around 800 AD), with a interlace cross. PRE-ROMANESQUE ART 9-11c:  PRE-ROMANESQUE ART 9-11c A ciboria from Biskupija (11th century) in Split Museum Choir screen panel from Split, containing pentagram and interlace patterns, 11th century. 9 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE:  9 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE Chapel of Holy Cross in Nin built around 800 AD a typical Pre-Romanesque church in Dalmatia About 150 Pre-Romanesque Croatian churches (9th to 11th century), built mostly along the coast. About 15 of them are still well preserved (some were completely destroyed during the aggression on Croatia in 1991-1995). 9 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE:  9 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE Church of St. Donatus (9th century), in Zadar the largest Pre-Romanesque building in Croatia one of the most important monuments of the Pre-Romanesque architecture in Europe one of the most impressive churches of the Carolingian centralized type in Europe 11 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE:  11 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE St. Nicolas (11th century) - Split Church of St. Nicholas near Nin (11th century); the octagonal tower was added in the 16th century to protect from the Turks 12-13ct. ROMANESQUE:  Stomorica – remains of church 12-13ct. ROMANESQUE CHURCH ARHITECTURE 12-13ct. ROMANESQUE:  12-13ct. ROMANESQUE St. Krsevan in Zadar St. Anastasia [Sveta Stosija] Cathedral in Zadar CHURCH ARHITECTURE 15-16 ct. RENAISSANCE:  St. Jakob -Sibenik – cathedral 15 c. Hvar – cathedral 15/16 c. 15-16 ct. RENAISSANCE CHURCH ARHITECTURE SCULPTRY – IVAN MESTROVIC:  SCULPTRY – IVAN MESTROVIC INDIAN WITH BOW 1926 GRANT PARK CHICAGO, USA CROATIAN HISTORY 1932 SPLIT, CROATIA CROATIAN NAIVE ART:  CROATIAN NAIVE ART Ivan Lackovic Croata “WINTER” Ivan Rabuzin “FULLNESS OF THE EARTH” Today quite widespread and highly esteemed. First introduced by Croatian painter Krsto Hegedusic (1901-1971). CROATIAN NAIVE ART:  CROATIAN NAIVE ART Ivica Fister “OUR ETERNAL LIGHT” Ivan Rabuzin “DAWN” LACE – ISLAND PAG:  LACE – ISLAND PAG LACE - LEPOGLAVA :  LACE - LEPOGLAVA Another lace, from island Hvar, is unique as made of threads of Aloe Vera leaf quickly while thread is still wet and flexible CROATIA IN UN:  CROATIA IN UN Vineyards near Primosten – an glory to human labor CROATIA IN UN:  CROATIA IN UN This photo of a victim of the fascist terror is exhibited in the building of UN in New York. Shows Stjepan Filipovic (1916 -1942), a Croatian antifascist born in Opuzen, in Dalmatian part of Croatia, in the moment before he was hanged in publicly in the city of Valjevo in Serbia by Serbian chetniks and German fascists. SCULPTURY - CROATIA IN UN:  SCULPTURY - CROATIA IN UN A sculpture was created by Croatian sculptor Antun Augustincic (1900-1979). It is situated in front of the UN main building in New York. The basement of the monument is made of the marble from the Croatian island of Brac (White house also built of it). The Horsewoman (the Monument of Peace) one of the symbols of the United Nations UN - WORLD HERITAGE:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE DIOCLETIAN PALACE IN SPLIT Peristyle - the center of the Diocletian's Palace UN - WORLD HERITAGE:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE GAIUS AURELIUS VALERIUS DIOCLETANIUS (c 243-316) - born near the Salona, then capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia. He was pronounced emperor on November 20, 284 AD. DIOCLETIAN PALACE IN SPLIT CATHEDRAL IN SPLIT:  CATHEDRAL IN SPLIT THE OLDEST IN THE WORLD Slide81:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE OLD CITY OF DUBROVNIK Bernard Shaw: Those who seek paradise on Earth should come to Dubrovnik and see Dubrovnik. Slide82:  City walls 8-16 ct. UN - WORLD HERITAGE OLD CITY OF DUBROVNIK UN - WORLD HERITAGE:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE NATIONAL PARK PLITVICE LAKES The living process of formation and growth of travertine cascade barriers UN - WORLD HERITAGE:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE NATIONAL PARK PLITVICE LAKES The brown bear - the largest mammal in this part of the world Slide85:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE ROMANESQUE TOWN TROGIR Slide86:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE ROMANESQUE TOWN TROGIR Portal and choral seats of Trogir Cathedral UN - WORLD HERITAGE:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE Euphrasius Basilica in Porec, Istria, built in the 6th century. Very important remain of Byzantine art in Croatia BASILICA OF EUPHRASIUS IN POREC UN - WORLD HERITAGE:  UN - WORLD HERITAGE Following the design of Juraj Dalmatinac (1441). East end of Cathedral CATHEDRAL IN SIBENIK UN - WORLD HERITAGE:  Baptistery UN - WORLD HERITAGE CATHEDRAL IN SIBENIK

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