Crm by senthil

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Information about Crm by senthil

Published on November 26, 2008

Author: senthil.G

Source: slideshare.net

CRM An Introduction Bryan Neville Aviation Safety Inspector Salt Lake City FSDO

CRM The application of personal and team management concepts to enhance the safe operation of aircraft, both on the ground and in the air. CRM includes not only the pilots, but the entire aircrew, ground crew, and all others who work together to operate the aircraft safely.

The application of personal and team management concepts to enhance the safe operation of aircraft, both on the ground and in the air.

CRM includes not only the pilots, but the entire aircrew, ground crew, and all others who work together to operate the aircraft safely.

TCRM Total Company Resource Management Management needs to be sensitive to and participate in human factors training for everyone involved with the operation of aircraft. CRM principles need to become part of the company philosophy.

Total Company Resource Management

Management needs to be sensitive to and participate in human factors training for everyone involved with the operation of aircraft.

CRM principles need to become part of the company philosophy.

Basic Concepts of CRM Lasting Behavior Changes Take Time Crewmembers are teams, not a collection of competent individuals Behavior should foster crew effectiveness There must be opportunities to practice CRM is a normal behavior CRM is not just an emergency procedure

Lasting Behavior Changes Take Time

Crewmembers are teams, not a collection of competent individuals

Behavior should foster crew effectiveness

There must be opportunities to practice

CRM is a normal behavior

CRM is not just an emergency procedure

What is right, not who is right! Understand why people do what they do. Predict your performance. Control your performance.

Understand why people do what they do.

Predict your performance.

Control your performance.

CRM Training Includes: Team Building Self Assessment Information Transfer Problem Solving (Conflict Resolution) Decision Making Maintaining Situational Awareness Use of Automated Systems

Team Building

Self Assessment

Information Transfer

Problem Solving (Conflict Resolution)

Decision Making

Maintaining Situational Awareness

Use of Automated Systems

Risk Factors The People Pilots Mechanics Management Air Traffic Control The Aircraft The Environment The Situation

The People

Pilots

Mechanics

Management

Air Traffic Control

The Aircraft

The Environment

The Situation

High Risk Situations Taking off with a known problem Controlled flight into terrain Unstabilized approach Deviation from Standard Operating Procedure Weather Complacency

Taking off with a known problem

Controlled flight into terrain

Unstabilized approach

Deviation from Standard Operating Procedure

Weather

Complacency

Pilot Workload

Percent of Accidents Load, Taxi, Unload Takeoff Initial Climb Climb Cruise Descent Initial Approach Final Approach Landing 3.1% 12.2% 9.4% 6.4% 5.5% 7.6% 7.2% 22.9% 25.7%

Load, Taxi, Unload

Takeoff

Initial Climb

Climb

Cruise

Descent

Initial Approach

Final Approach

Landing

3.1%

12.2%

9.4%

6.4%

5.5%

7.6%

7.2%

22.9%

25.7%

Managing Risk Supervision - Type, Quality, Quantity Planning - Requires time Crew Selection - Experience and Composition Crew Fitness - Physical & Mental State Environment - Physical Environment; Organizational Culture Complexity - Mission, Job Task, Work Function

Supervision - Type, Quality, Quantity

Planning - Requires time

Crew Selection - Experience and Composition

Crew Fitness - Physical & Mental State

Environment - Physical Environment; Organizational Culture

Complexity - Mission, Job Task, Work Function

The Accident Sequence Underlying Cause = Basic Cause = Immediate Cause = Safety Defenses = Consequences = Management System Individual Countermeasures Accident, Incident, Close Call

Underlying Cause =

Basic Cause =

Immediate Cause =

Safety Defenses =

Consequences =

Management

System

Individual

Countermeasures

Accident, Incident, Close Call

Management Planning : Defines organizational goals, and strategies for achieving those goals. Organizing : Company structure Directing : Motivating, directing, selecting Controlling : Ensuring things are going as they should, including periodic evaluation Staffing : Sufficient qualified individuals

Planning : Defines organizational goals, and strategies for achieving those goals.

Organizing : Company structure

Directing : Motivating, directing, selecting

Controlling : Ensuring things are going as they should, including periodic evaluation

Staffing : Sufficient qualified individuals

Operating System Task arrangement, demands on people, communications, time aspects Material design, equipment, supplies Work environment, sociological environment, weather, material assets Training: Initial, Update, Remedial People selection and motivation

Task arrangement, demands on people, communications, time aspects

Material design, equipment, supplies

Work environment, sociological environment, weather, material assets

Training: Initial, Update, Remedial

People selection and motivation

Individual Didn’t follow instructions Blundered ahead without knowing how Bypassed/ignored a rule or procedure Failed to use protective equipment Didn’t think ahead to consequences Used the wrong equipment (continued on next slide)

Didn’t follow instructions

Blundered ahead without knowing how

Bypassed/ignored a rule or procedure

Failed to use protective equipment

Didn’t think ahead to consequences

Used the wrong equipment

(continued on next slide)

Individual ( continued ) Used equipment that needed repair Didn’t look Didn’t listen Didn’t recognize limitations Failed to use safeguards Didn’t pay attention

Used equipment that needed repair

Didn’t look

Didn’t listen

Didn’t recognize limitations

Failed to use safeguards

Didn’t pay attention

Overconfidence That funny feeling you get just before you know you’re wrong! Generally verbalized on the cockpit voice recorder with the words “Oh, s---!”)

That funny feeling you get just before you know you’re wrong!

Generally verbalized on the cockpit voice recorder with the words “Oh, s---!”)

Evidence of a Bad Attitude When the Captain calls the First Officer . . . Self-Loading Baggage

When the Captain calls the First Officer . . .

Self-Loading Baggage

Basic Bad Attitudes Anti-Authority - No one tells me what to do! Impulsiveness - Do something quickly, anything Invulnerability - It won’t happen to me Macho - I can do it! Resignation - What’s the use

Anti-Authority - No one tells me what to do!

Impulsiveness - Do something quickly, anything

Invulnerability - It won’t happen to me

Macho - I can do it!

Resignation - What’s the use

How Assertive Should You Be?

Countermeasures Specifically targeted against the first three dominoes in the accident sequence (management, systems, individuals) Designed to trap latent errors If these work, the accident never occurs BUT, the latent error may still exist!

Specifically targeted against the first three dominoes in the accident sequence (management, systems, individuals)

Designed to trap latent errors

If these work, the accident never occurs

BUT, the latent error may still exist!

Situational Awareness The ability to identify, process, and comprehend the critical elements of information about what is happening at a given point in time. Knowing what is going on around you!

The ability to identify, process, and comprehend the critical elements of information about what is happening at a given point in time.

Knowing what is going on around you!

Factors Leading to Loss of Situational Awareness Repetition Stress Demands from Management Demands from PIC Get There-itis Proximity Rule Peer Pressure Sophisticated Aircraft Syndrome New Situations Critical Areas

Repetition

Stress

Demands from Management

Demands from PIC

Get There-itis

Proximity Rule

Peer Pressure

Sophisticated Aircraft Syndrome

New Situations

Critical Areas

Outward Signs of Loss of Situational Awareness Distraction Complacency Unresolved Discrepancies Confusion Poor Communication Improper Procedures Fixation No One Flying the Aircraft

Distraction

Complacency

Unresolved Discrepancies

Confusion

Poor Communication

Improper Procedures

Fixation

No One Flying the Aircraft

Factors Affecting Information Processing Input Temperature Noise Lighting Distractions Attention Workload Physical Condition Performance Temperature Vibration Distractions Attention Workload Physical Condition Processing -- Anxiety -- Fear -- Fatigue -- Stress -- Conflict -- Attitudes

Input

Temperature

Noise

Lighting

Distractions

Attention

Workload

Physical Condition

Performance

Temperature

Vibration

Distractions

Attention

Workload

Physical Condition

Decision Making Methods Minimizing Superficial search for an answer Moralizing Decisions based on perceived moral obligation Muddling Putting out fires; looks at symptoms Scanning Classifies as important or unimportant Denial Denies that problem exists Optimizing Considers all choices; weighs consequences

Minimizing

Superficial search for an answer

Moralizing

Decisions based on perceived moral obligation

Muddling

Putting out fires; looks at symptoms

Scanning

Classifies as important or unimportant

Denial

Denies that problem exists

Optimizing

Considers all choices; weighs consequences

Sources of Stress Conflicts with other people Threats to self-esteem Confused priorities Confused philosophies Conflicting demands Poor communication Time zone changes Loss of someone or something we care for Deadline pressure Unstable home life Travel Fatigue Financial concerns Inner conflicts Illness/Health concerns A life change An important event Conflicting expectations

Conflicts with other people

Threats to self-esteem

Confused priorities

Confused philosophies

Conflicting demands

Poor communication

Time zone changes

Loss of someone or something we care for

Deadline pressure

Unstable home life

Travel

Fatigue

Financial concerns

Inner conflicts

Illness/Health concerns

A life change

An important event

Conflicting expectations

First, Read the Sentence in the Box Below Now count the Fs in the sentence. Count them once and do not go back and count them again. Write down the number.

Now count the Fs in the sentence. Count them once and do not go back and count them again. Write down the number.



Tips for Managing Stress Discussions Among Crew Review Procedures Follow the Checklist Constant Cross Check Rehearse Plan Review Relax Self-talk Stringent Standards Play What-if Games Physical Condition Get Adequate Rest Nutritional Factors

Discussions Among Crew

Review Procedures

Follow the Checklist

Constant Cross Check

Rehearse

Plan

Review

Relax

Self-talk

Stringent Standards

Play What-if Games

Physical Condition

Get Adequate Rest

Nutritional Factors

Elements of a Good Briefing Establishes open communications Is interactive Establishes “Team Concept” Covers pertinent issues Identifies potential problems Provides guidelines for action Sets expectations Establishes guidelines for operation of automated systems Specifies duties and responsibilities

Establishes open communications

Is interactive

Establishes “Team Concept”

Covers pertinent issues

Identifies potential problems

Provides guidelines for action

Sets expectations

Establishes guidelines for operation of automated systems

Specifies duties and responsibilities

Conclusion Take these basic ideas and incorporate them into your company philosophy. Safety can’t wait!

Take these basic ideas and incorporate them into your company philosophy.

Safety can’t wait!

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