Critically Analyzing Research Resources

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Published on October 15, 2008

Author: Oxfordlibrary

Source: slideshare.net

Critically Analyzing Research Resources Professional Practices I October 2008

Outline of Today’s Lecture Why do we do this? Dental Hygienists and Research Evidence-Based Practice What is a Research Article Parts of a Research Article Websites

Why do we do this?

Dental Hygienists and Research

Evidence-Based Practice

What is a Research Article

Parts of a Research Article

Websites

Principle of Least Effort In our usual day-to-day lives, we will try to solve problems and make decisions in such a way to minimize the total work we have to do We need to do this because we don’t have time , the money, or the interest Companies, organizations and workers need to recognize this when dealing with the public

In our usual day-to-day lives, we will try to solve problems and make decisions in such a way to minimize the total work we have to do

We need to do this because we don’t have time , the money, or the interest

Companies, organizations and workers need to recognize this when dealing with the public

Science/Academic Research When you do real research, the goal is not speed, but accuracy A different, more sophisticated and rigorous approach is required This takes time and effort you would never usually do

When you do real research, the goal is not speed, but accuracy

A different, more sophisticated and rigorous approach is required

This takes time and effort you would never usually do

Dental Hygienists and Research Because DH was considered women’s occupational work, it was not treated seriously until the 1990s As professional organizations build up (CDHA), some people start becoming actively involved But, the number of RDH who do research is extremely low, and not much better for reading it

Because DH was considered women’s occupational work, it was not treated seriously until the 1990s

As professional organizations build up (CDHA), some people start becoming actively involved

But, the number of RDH who do research is extremely low, and not much better for reading it

Canadian RDHs who do Research Sandra Cobban, Associate Professor, Dental Hygiene Program, University of Alberta Salme Lavigne, Associate Professor and Director School of Dental Hygiene, University of Manitoba Marilyn Goulding, Niagara College Joanne Clovis, Associate Professor, School of Dental Hygiene, Dalhousie University

Trying to promote research Cobban and Clovis have written about the need for RDHs to use research and become researchers So far results are disappointing But the CDHA and other bodies are now on the verge of implementing Evidenced Based Practice

Cobban and Clovis have written about the need for RDHs to use research and become researchers

So far results are disappointing

But the CDHA and other bodies are now on the verge of implementing Evidenced Based Practice

Evidenced Based Practice A way for professionals (especially medical) to make decisions by looking at evidence and rate it by how scientifically sound it is Evidence comes from scientific literature and clinical practice Want to stop using rules of thumb , “the way it was always done”

A way for professionals (especially medical) to make decisions by looking at evidence and rate it by how scientifically sound it is

Evidence comes from scientific literature and clinical practice

Want to stop using rules of thumb , “the way it was always done”

How does EBD help Research shows what are the best or newest ways of doing treatments, using medications, dealing with diseases, etc. Helps you avoid making the wrong decisions!

Research shows what are the best or newest ways of doing treatments, using medications, dealing with diseases, etc.

Helps you avoid making the wrong decisions!

Focal Infection Theory Good example of how research changes A very popular theory in the 1920s and 30s, thought that many diseases originated in the mouth Millions of healthy teeth were extracted, until the theory was discredited Since the 1990s, new research has been showing oral-systemic connections Where will this go?

Good example of how research changes

A very popular theory in the 1920s and 30s, thought that many diseases originated in the mouth

Millions of healthy teeth were extracted, until the theory was discredited

Since the 1990s, new research has been showing oral-systemic connections

Where will this go?

Will RDHs accept EBP? Obstacles include – not educated enough, can’t access material, hard to communicate with colleagues, too willing to defer to the dentist, demand for profit for business Being in independent practice poses new challenges, and new demands

Obstacles include – not educated enough, can’t access material, hard to communicate with colleagues, too willing to defer to the dentist, demand for profit for business

Being in independent practice poses new challenges, and new demands

The problems in finding resources There is a huge amount of material It is growing fast Much of it is useless

There is a huge amount of material

It is growing fast

Much of it is useless

How much is there? About 500 dental journals are published each year About 43 000 dental-related articles are published each year Our rate of published literature is doubling every ten years

About 500 dental journals are published each year

About 43 000 dental-related articles are published each year

Our rate of published literature is doubling every ten years

Any good news…a little For dental hygienists, there are just a few scientific journals exclusively for them Also a few other magazines for dental hygienists These will be your core reading materials for the rest of your career

For dental hygienists, there are just a few scientific journals exclusively for them

Also a few other magazines for dental hygienists

These will be your core reading materials for the rest of your career

Other Academic Journals Journal of the Canadian Dental Association British Dental Journal Journal of Dental Research Canadian Medical Association Journal New England Journal of Medicine Journal of the American Medical Association

Journal of the Canadian Dental Association

British Dental Journal

Journal of Dental Research

Canadian Medical Association Journal

New England Journal of Medicine

Journal of the American Medical Association

What is a Scientific Paper? It shall be this: New True Important

It shall be this:

New

True

Important

New It offers some information that is previously unknown Can be a very tiny bit of knowledge (and usually is) Originality is important – is the paper addressing the issue in a new way, using new methods and new technology

It offers some information that is previously unknown

Can be a very tiny bit of knowledge (and usually is)

Originality is important – is the paper addressing the issue in a new way, using new methods and new technology

True Are the conclusions coming from reliable observations combined with sound logic Can this experiment be done again with the result being the same conclusion

Are the conclusions coming from reliable observations combined with sound logic

Can this experiment be done again with the result being the same conclusion

Important Highly subjective The key is will this article be useful for further research Up to ¼ of all scholarly articles will not be referenced again Citation analysis is one way to go – some journals do better than others

Highly subjective

The key is will this article be useful for further research

Up to ¼ of all scholarly articles will not be referenced again

Citation analysis is one way to go – some journals do better than others

Articles have a structure Title should be informative, concise and graceful trend is to present the conclusion in the title

Title

should be informative, concise and graceful

trend is to present the conclusion in the title

Author Some authors are better, more famous, come with baggage Should have their address for correspondence, questions, feedback A lot of articles have multiple authors – who is responsible for what

Some authors are better, more famous, come with baggage

Should have their address for correspondence, questions, feedback

A lot of articles have multiple authors – who is responsible for what

Date of Submission and Acceptance Was done mostly as a way to give credit to authors that they made the discovery first When articles used to be just printed, it could be a long time for them to be ready Now with online editions, articles come faster

Was done mostly as a way to give credit to authors that they made the discovery first

When articles used to be just printed, it could be a long time for them to be ready

Now with online editions, articles come faster

Abstract or summary An abstract should tell the reader why a study was done, what was done, what was found, and what was concluded A Summary focuses on the principle findings and conclusions Abstracts are becoming more structured

An abstract should tell the reader why a study was done, what was done, what was found, and what was concluded

A Summary focuses on the principle findings and conclusions

Abstracts are becoming more structured

Introduction States what the problem is, what we already know about it, and why we should care Often the conclusion of the article can be found here too

States what the problem is, what we already know about it, and why we should care

Often the conclusion of the article can be found here too

Materials and methods This will give the reader enough information they need to repeat the experiment What was the strategy behind the research, what problems they had to deal with If a paper’s conclusions are seen to be wrong, the usual cause is poor methods

This will give the reader enough information they need to repeat the experiment

What was the strategy behind the research, what problems they had to deal with

If a paper’s conclusions are seen to be wrong, the usual cause is poor methods

Results Presents the findings Often includes data, figures and tables

Presents the findings

Often includes data, figures and tables

Discussion This is where they ‘sell’ the paper Uses the results and combines with other research to develop conclusions

This is where they ‘sell’ the paper

Uses the results and combines with other research to develop conclusions

References Footnotes, endnotes, done in various styles Allows the reader to track down other research Best way for finding material

Footnotes, endnotes, done in various styles

Allows the reader to track down other research

Best way for finding material

Other Types of Articles Case Studies examining a particular case or small number of cases Usually for something new or different Review of the Field Article just looks at what has been previously published Very useful for scholars

Case Studies

examining a particular case or small number of cases

Usually for something new or different

Review of the Field

Article just looks at what has been previously published

Very useful for scholars

Biases in paper Who is paying for the study? This is a huge issue Also be aware of national, ethnic, and personal biases ‘ Rush to publish’ can also effect the paper’s quality

Who is paying for the study? This is a huge issue

Also be aware of national, ethnic, and personal biases

‘ Rush to publish’ can also effect the paper’s quality

Non-Academic Journals RDH, Hygienetown, JPH, Oral Health Mix of articles, some with research Good for reviewing information

RDH, Hygienetown, JPH, Oral Health

Mix of articles, some with research

Good for reviewing information

Using the Internet as a source Dental Hygienists’ don’t use it enough – yes , you read that right Difficulty in finding the right sources is the main problem – can you trust the source or not? Certain websites are just the online version of print material

Dental Hygienists’ don’t use it enough – yes , you read that right

Difficulty in finding the right sources is the main problem – can you trust the source or not?

Certain websites are just the online version of print material

How to judge web pages Author – who created the site Accuracy – does it provide references, peer-review process Currency – is the pages updated, revised, have a date Objectivity – is this real content or advertising Coverage – when it comes from a print source, does it have all the same material Purpose – why does this site exist – educate, sell, entertain

Author – who created the site

Accuracy – does it provide references, peer-review process

Currency – is the pages updated, revised, have a date

Objectivity – is this real content or advertising

Coverage – when it comes from a print source, does it have all the same material

Purpose – why does this site exist – educate, sell, entertain

Why can’t Google find me an article Search engines like Google don’t tell you what is the best site, just the most popular Google Scholar is better Some journals have free material, others you need to pay for

Search engines like Google don’t tell you what is the best site, just the most popular

Google Scholar is better

Some journals have free material, others you need to pay for

Further Resources Critical Thinking: Understanding and Evaluating Dental Research , by D.M. Brunette (RK 80 .B78 1996) “ Research Fundamentals,” by S. Cobban and J. Clovis, CJDH 40:4 (July-August, 2006) “ Knowledge Sources Used by Alberta Dental Hygienists: A Pilot Study, by S. Cobban and J. Profetto-McGarth, CJDH 41:4 (July-August, 2007)

Critical Thinking: Understanding and Evaluating Dental Research , by D.M. Brunette (RK 80 .B78 1996)

“ Research Fundamentals,” by S. Cobban and J. Clovis, CJDH 40:4 (July-August, 2006)

“ Knowledge Sources Used by Alberta Dental Hygienists: A Pilot Study, by S. Cobban and J. Profetto-McGarth, CJDH 41:4 (July-August, 2007)

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