Published on April 30, 2014
Critical Discourse Analysis: Media & News Presented by: Mazhar Iqbal Ranjha Ph. D English ID. 13009094005
Points to be discussed Discourse Discourse Analysis (DA) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) Difference between DA and CDA (Broad) Aims of CDA Ideology Conclusion
Text • M.A.K. Halliday: … a semantic unit containing specific textual components, which makes it ‘internally cohesive’ and functioning ‘as a whole as the relevant environment for the operation of the theme and information system’. 4
Discourse • Widdowson 1978: • ‘discourse’ is made up of sentences having the properties of cohesion & coherence! It investigates the supra-sentential structure of any stretch of language, spoken or written. 5
Defining Discourse Analysis • Actual practices of talking and writing ( Woodilla, 1998) • To explore the relationship between discourse and reality (Foucault, 1965) • How texts are made meaningful through production, dissemination, and consumption, and how do they contribute to the constitution of social reality by making meaning ( Phillip & Brown, 1993) 6
Discourse Analysis 1) Speech Act Theory focuses on communicative acts performed through speech. 2) Interactional Sociolinguistics focuses on the social and linguistic meaning created during interaction. 3) The Ethnography of Communication focuses on language and communication as cultural behavior. 7
Discourse Analysis 4) Pragmatics focuses on the meaning of individual utterances in hypothetical contexts. 5) Conversation Analysis focuses on how sequential structures in conversation provide a basis through which social order is constructed. 6) Variation Theory focuses on structural categories in texts and how form and meaning in clauses help to define text. (Schiffrin,1994) 8
• The words of those in power are taken as "self-evident truths" and the words of those not in power are dismissed as irrelevant, inappropriate, or without substance (van Dijk, 2000). 9
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) • …to figure out the real meaning behind the spoken and written word… for the betterment of the human family. • how unmasking the written word can bring about a different perspective and deeper understanding of whose interest is being served 10
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS Lack of concern with explanation (how discourse and discursive practices are social shaped / their social effects) Descriptive analysis> local explanatory CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS CDA pays attention to: ideational meanings , Assumptions about social relations underlying interactional practices (naturalized implicit propositions in discourse > positioning of people as social subjects) Critical Analysis > global explanatory 11
CDA • It is a function that operates vertically in relation to these various units which enables one to say of a series of signs whether or not they are present in it (Foucault, 1972, p. 86) (A. Shahzad’s) • ...simultaneously a piece of text, an instance of discursive practice and an instance of social practice (Fairclough, 1992, p. 4). (A. Naveed’s) • CDA should deal primarily with the discourse dimensions of power abuse, and the injustice and inequality that result from it (Ven Dijk) . (Jabir’s)
CDA • Our words are never neutral (Fiske, 1994)! •No text is independent of its cultural context (N. G. Dalia, 2012) 13
Aims of Critical Discourse Analysis Van Dijk (1995) Problem or issue oriented rather than paradigm oriented CDA is not a school, field or discipline but a critical approach, position or stance of studying text or talk Inter- or multidisciplinary focusing on the relations between discourse and society (social cognition, politics and culture)
Aims of CDA Broad spectrum of critical studies in human and social sciences Pay attention to all levels and dimensions of discourse Not only to verbal but other semiotic dimensions of communication (Group) relations of power, dominance and inequality in society
Aims of CDA Social relations of gender, race, class, ethnicity, age, religion, nationality, etc. Uncover discursive means of mental control and social influence Formulate or sustain an over all perspective of solidarity with dominated groups Disclose, reveal and uncover what is implicit or hidden…… Underlying ideologies
Ideology Term “Ideology” coined by Antonie Destt de Tracey after French Revolution Ideology is ground of all sciences (McLellan, 1986) Ideology is a cultural system of ideas about social and linguistic relationship, together with their loading of moral and political interest (Irvine, 1989)
Ideology The notion of ideology is presented- involving cognitive and social psychology, sociology, and discourse analysis (Van Dijk, 2004) Ideology is a set of belief system that constitutes a person’s belief, value, goals and anticipation (Van Dijk, 2004)
For media The ideology may be Government supporting, Anti-government, Impartiality Attract public attention for high rating, Business Educate the masses, etc.
Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts By: Vensa Laban Ref: Laban, V. (2007). Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts. Medijska Istrazivanja/Media Research, 13(2).
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts Introduction Lead in The closure Lead out
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts Lead in A hybrid news genre because of close connection with the content of journalistic text The first sentence creates the viewer’s first impression of the story (Tompkins, 2002) It has basic information about the event but do not answer all journalistic questions “Last night two men paid this year’s first blood tax on Styrian roads. ……They died under a truck ….”
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts Lead in…… Visual image 10 to 15 seconds Accessed voices Photographs and sounds Visualized means Anchor reads without visual image Anchor reads with graphic image Moving images for authentication
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts Discursive strategies: Reformation of journalist questions, Use of interrogative questions, Announcement of up coming event, Use of unfinished sentences Reformation of the part of the answer Use of the original questions, pre-recorded with answers
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts The closure Bring the text to an end Look back at the contents or present their opinions Meaningful sounds
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts Functions in SDNB Announcement of future developments Main stress or summary Additional information about similar events Information about unanswered questions Interpretation of the event Direct address with an instruction, warning or admonish Emphasized on the identification of the text
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts Introduction Lead out Wrap up or tag line Two or three sentences immediately after the closure of the text Separate from the main news To make it more authentic and remove any doubts
Article 1: Television Reports in Slovenian Daily News Broadcasts Strategies Communicate the latest information Communicate additional information Communicating remarks Announcement of thematically related themes
CDA and News: Approaches to the analysis of media discourse By: Adel Refaat Mehfouz Ref: Mahfouz, A. R. (2013). A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF THE POLICE NEWS STORY FRAMING IN TWO EGYPTIAN NEWSPAPERS BEFORE JANUARY 25 REVOLUTION. European Scientific Journal, 9(8).
Article 2: CDA and News: Approaches to the analysis of media discourse Introduction Analysis of public text-media discourse Media may not have the power to dominate what people think or act but has power to influence how people think about and response to the information it provided Fairclough’s three dimensional frame work: Text-Discourse practice-Socio-cultural practice
Article 2: CDA and News: Approaches to the analysis of media discourse Introduction A school forbids students to bring their lunch boxes from home Students can buy healthy lunch boxes from school It claims that lunch boxes brought from home do not contain required nourishing material
Article 2: CDA and News: Approaches to the analysis of media discourse Chicago Tribune news • Chicago school bans some lunches from the school • Comments: Dozens of hands flew up in the air “We should bring our own lunch” CNN • Should school rule kinds’ lunch
Article 2: CDA and News: Approaches to the analysis of media discourse School clarification “Dear Parents of Little Village Academy:…..”
A CDA of the Police News story framing in two Egyptian Newspapers By: Siyuan Wu www.personal.psu.edu Retrieved at: https://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&es rc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&sqi=2& ved=0CCkQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.person al.psu.edu%2Fsww5203%2Fblogs%2Fsiyuans_e- portfolio%2FSiyuan%2520Wu.- Final%2520project%2520of%2520APLNG_581.pdf &ei=K2ZbU_KEDuWQ7Aac5IF4&usg=AFQjCNFl8OF h-sLKKiZNcBrXdwOYZS3XBw&sig2=46MWrSak- YBe0RzQP5YHpQ
Article 3: A CDA of the Police News story framing in two Egyptian Newspapers Introduction Linguistic structure of framing a story by two political influential newspapers Al-Dostor and AL-Gomhuria Explore the scope and nature of their ideologies A story of a woman who was killed in the result of a scuffle with the police
Article 3: A CDA of the Police News story framing in two Egyptian Newspapers AL-Gomhuria The Head line Riots at Samalout after an officer caused the death of a woman The Lead Minia’s Samalout has witnessed yesterday riots that caused the blocking of Cairo-Aswangeen road after the death of a 36-year old woman named Mervat Abdul-Fattah Abdul Al-Dostor The Head line Dozens of Minia residents set fire to a police vehicle after a pregnant woman killed by Samalout Police officer The Lead The furious residents blocked…. To revenge….
Article 3: A CDA of the Police News story framing in two Egyptian Newspapers AL-Gomhuria The Head line One officer and three soldiers wounded in Sinai The Lead One central security forces officers were short yesterday in riots at Al- Hassana, North Sinai ….. 4 from the crowed injured as well Al-Dostor The Head line Hundreds of Bedouin rally, set fire to tries at “Naga Shabana” One Bedouin killed, another injured in armed confrontation with police troops in Central Sinai The Lead Armed confrontation between the nomads of Sinai and Ministry of Interior newly erupted and resulted in killing one and injuring another during police chasing at central Sinai last Monday evening
Article 3: A CDA of the Police News story framing in two Egyptian Newspapers AL-Gomhuria The Head line Unidentified men fired on Shebeen train The Lead Unidentified men opened fire at Shebeen Al-Kanter_Cairo train and wounded a passenger on passing by Tahnoub village. They tried to stop the train and rob the passengers ….. Al-Dostor The Head line Men armed with klashenkof attacked Qlyyoubia train, steal passangers’ belongings The Lead The number of attackers ---- with quick firing automatic rifles ----- raised number of injuries ….
Conclusion Have discussed media discourse Discursive practice How media influence the thinking of the audience Issues and ideology behind the discourse “Journalism itself is inadequate to tell the story …. It is not a reality, but aversion of reality……” (Times’ Public Editor Okrent, 2005)
Thanks for Patience
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