Creativity in Oil and Gas Exploration - A quotation approach

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Information about Creativity in Oil and Gas Exploration - A quotation approach

Published on December 28, 2008

Author: gagegage

Source: slideshare.net

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A compilation of Quotations designed to help geoscientists with their exploration problems.

http://startexp.com 1 Creativity in Exploration A Quotation Database Approach compiled by Walter H. Pierce 2nd Edition 2007 Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 2 A Database Quotation Approach to Creativity in Exploration Objective: I created this report and compilation for two reasons. • I found it to be extraordinarily interesting. • I hoped that it would help others. The following 2007 compilation of quotations was initiated while working at Amoco as an exploration geologist. As I began to collect the quotes, I began to see value in them as a sort of remote interview of other workers, perhaps more creative than you and I, who had made observations on their attempts or success in creative work. This work represents a database analysis and classification of these quotations into a series of phases of the creative process, which I have interpreted from the quotations. I make no claim that the phases are precisely sequential. The sequence in actual cases may differ, sometimes skipping phase, sometimes overlapping and reversing sequence. My attempt at sequencing phases has only been used to organize the quotations into a compilation that can be useful to those seeking a way through creative problem solving. Eventually I began putting the quotations in an Access database. From there I developed a “Form” in Microsoft Access which enabled me to begin classifying the quotes. Figure 1, Access Form designed to aid the classification process. Working with this form is a little like spinning two Rolodex files simultaneously. The main difference is that the two tables are joined in the database so one can classify the quotations on the right with the categories on the left. Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 3 The Access “Form” works like two stacks of cards. Imagine that you have over 700 3 by 5 cards in one stack. In the second stack you begin a classification system. You study each quotation and you attempt to judge what phase in the creative process the quotation represents. So, inherent in the classification system is the concept that creativity is step by step process and that the steps are different from one another. Working with both stacks you begin by adding to the second stack of cards categories which you believe may be natural and progressive groupings of the quotations in the first stack. By using the Access “Form” one gradually builds a sequential set of quotations in the first stack, classified by a sequential set of categories in the second stack. After a bit of practice I found that working with he “Form” which I had created made the task a bit easier, especially because I would often change my mind about the categories and have to redo the classification. I know it is probably a bit difficult to picture the process without working with the data and “Form” yourself. If this sort of process interests you, I would be happy to send you the database of quotations and the “Form”. You will find my email address in the footer of this report. I would only ask one thing in return, and that is a promise on your part to search for and provide to me a new quotation that you believe augments the value of what your receive from me. As I went through this exercise, I found that there were quotes that did not fit my preconceived notions of what typical creative steps would be. As a consequence I was led to invent new steps (at least new for me). I feel that actually applying words to these new steps may help some of us in our own creative endeavors. The outcome of this process is a classification system portrayed by the title page of this compilation. On the title page you see a list of quote classes. In general as one moves down the classification one goes from quotations that represent the creative process as more advanced stages. I have made a symbolic line to the right of the quotation categories on the front page with “wiggles” to make the point that the step wise treatment should not be thought of as a rigid process. My hope is that the user of this compilation could attempt to place themselves in the context of their creative work, choose the category that most nearly matches their position and then read the quotations which in my interpretation may be helpful. The compilation is set up in pdf format with book marks so you can jump from one position in the creative process to another. The following list (Table 1) is a set of “type” examples of quotations which illustrate the steps or phases that the quotations have led me to interpret. It is a personal classification that hopefully can help others. Several steps or phases will be familiar to workers in the field of psychology. Forgive me for changing nomenclature, but these are the words which seem to help me. There are some additional new steps or phases that I believe are important to recognize. For example “problem observation”, “muddle”, and “obvious now” are phases that in my opinion are extremely important to recognize by managers. After you read through the type quotations use the bookmarks to pick a group of quotations that interests you. For example, pick “block busting” to study what other workers have said about this phase of the creative process. The Scientific Method requires creativity. In Figure two below I have attempted to correlate the creative steps or phases to the scientific method. In this figure lines suggesting where in the steps of the Scientific Method each of the Creativity steps or phases is important can be represented for one cycle of the Scientific Method. In actuality each scientific cycle is unique and the importance and duration through the cycle of the creative phases changes for each cycle. The Diagram is only a model. The meat of his short report is the compilation of quotations. My hope is that by attempting to find a large number of respected workers this body of text could be helpful. I do not want to claim anything special about the classification system. I have tried to make it useful to me in hopes it would be useful to others. Someone else would not doubt have differed in classification and choice of terminology. There is an active “Access” database behind this report. I would welcome the opportunity to send the database to interested workers. I would only ask in exchange for the Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 4 database that the individual requesting the database provide in advance a quotation which they believe in not included here, and which the individual genuinely believes can be helpful to workers in their endeavors at creative problem solving. Figure 2. Schematic diagram which attempts to relate or correlate sequentially how phases or steps in the creative process relate to the Scientific Method. Lines represent the timing of the creative phases and durational importance. Time moves forward to the bottom of the diagram. My request is particularly directed toward geoscientists and specifically petroleum geologists to find quotations, perhaps not in the literature, from respected hydrocarbon finders. Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 5 Table 1 Type Quotations of Creative Phases Desire To make a great dream come true, you must first have a great dream.” Dr. Hans Selye Problem Observation Tranio is advising his master Lucentio on the best was to go about his programme of self improvement The jewel that we find, we stoop and take't Because we see it: but what we do not see We tread upon, and never think of it, Shakespeare Problem Recognition As subsurface explorationists, we are always keying off someone's dry hole. It should not make the prospect any less attractive because it happens to be your own dry hole. Jack Elam (Geologist) Problem Definition “A problem well stated is half solved.” John Dewey Preparation In the field of observation, chance only favors those minds which have been prepared. Louis Pasteur Investigation Oil and gas are not found by flashes of genius but are a product of rigorous observations and tenacious, dogged, often dreary intensive work and study. B. W. Beebe (Geologist) Judgement Invention consists in avoiding the constructing of useless combinations and in constructing the useful combinations which are in the infinite minority. To invent is to discern, to chose. Jules Henri Poincare (l854-l912) Synthesis “Everything of importance has already been seen by someone who did not discover it.” Whitehead Hypothesis Formation If therefore there are any advantages in any field in being armed with a full panoply of working hypotheses and in habitually employing them, it is doubtless the field of the geologist. T. C. Chamberlin (Geologist/Astronomer) Fear / Risk Adversive There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things, because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old condition, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new. N. Machiavelli, Il. Principe (l513) Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 6 Blockbusting “The most useful piece of learning for the uses of life is to unlearn what is untrue.” Antistenes Muddle The state of Imaginative muddled suspense which precedes successful inductive generalization. Alfred North Whitehead Eureka Moment I can remember the very spot in the road, whilst in my carriage, when to my joy the solution occurred to me. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, l887 Obvious Now It is characteristic of insight solutions and new ideas, that they should be obvious after they have been found. In itself this shows how insufficient logic is in practice, otherwise such simple solutions must have occurred much earlier. Edward De Bono Clear Communication Bad terminology is the enemy of good thinking. Warren F. Buffett Testing and Verification The demolition of hypotheses, instead to testifying to the futility of research, is the method and condition of progress.” G. K.Gilbert (Geologist/Astronomer) Utilization The oil finders do something else. They sell themselves on their interpretations and in turn sell their ideas to others capable of completing the discovery process. The loss of a good idea through poor salesmanship may postpone indefinitely the discovery of an important oil or gas field or new producing province. Salesmanship is the all-important follow-through. Ira Cram, l945 Problem Finding or Failing (Restarting) Biggest job we have is to teach a newly hired employee how to fail intelligently. Charles Kettering GM Research Director Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 7 Database of Quotations relating to Creativity in Exploration compiled and arranged by Walter H. Pierce Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 8 Desire To make a great dream come true, you must first have a great dream.quot; Dr. Hans Selye Desire I must create a system or be enslaved by another man's. I will not reason and compare; My business is to create. William Blake Desire Flaming enthusiasm, backed by horse sense and persistence, is the quality that most frequently makes for success . -Dale Carnegie Desire The thing that gives people courage is an idea. George Clemenceau Desire I'm always thinking about creating. My future starts when I wake up every morning. Every day I find something creative to do with my life. Miles Davis Desire What moves men of genius, or rather what inspires their work, is not new ideas, but their obsession with the idea that what has already been said is still not enough. Eugene Delacroix Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 9 Desire The whole difference between construction and creation is exactly this: that a thing constructed can only be loved after it is constructed; but a thing created is loved before it exists. Charles Dickens Desire Human beings have been and remain uniquely creative because they are able to integrate the pessimism of intelligence with the optimism of will Rene Dubos Desire Our inventions mirror our secret wishes. Lawrence Durrell Desire Most people say that it is the intellect which makes a great scientist. They are wrong: it is the character. Albert Einstein Desire To accomplish great things, we must not only act, but also dream: not only plan, but also believe. Anatole France Desire Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Goethe Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 10 Desire It seems safe to say that significant discovery, really creative thinking, does not occur with regard to problems about which the thinker is lukewarm. Mary Henle Desire quot;Work usually follows will.quot; William James Desire quot;the transistor, the laser, the magnetic disk, the PC were not demands articulated by the customer. Rolf Landauer, an IBM Fellow at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center Desire All men dream, but not equally. Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds Awake to find that it was vanity, But the dreamers of day are dangerous men, That they may act their dreams with open eyes to make it possible. T. E. Lawrence Desire There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things, because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old condition, and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under the new. N. Machiavelli, Il. Principe (l513) Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 11 Desire The artist produces for the liberation of his soul. It is his nature to create as it is the nature of water to run down the hill. W. Somerset Maugham Desire Better to fail in originality than to succeed in imitation. Herman Melville Desire Creativity is what cannot wait, cannot stop, cannot backstep: faster or slower, it always goes ahead -- through, alongside, above, regardless of crises or systems. Joese Roderigues Miguels Desire For I really do not study or aim at any originality. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Desire Anybody who aspires to be creative should consciously seek to be creative. The best way to become more creative is to practice creativity--actually to reach out for creative problems, rather than to deal only with those which are thrust upon us. Alex Osborn Applied Imagination Desire I believe that the architects of science are simply more curious, more iconoclastic, more persistent, readier to make detours, and more willing to tackle bigger and more fundamental problems. More important, they possess intellectual courage, daring. They work at the edge of their competence; their reach exceeds their grasp. They stretch themselves, they stretch science. Root-Bernstein's character Imp in Discovering Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 12 Desire Salk's advice: quot;Do what makes your heart leap!quot; Coined by Root-Bernstein's character: Imp in Discovering. From Jonas Salk Desire No profit grows where there is no pleasure taken, in short, study what thou dost affect.quot; William Shakespeare Desire The love people feel for their work has a great deal to do with the creativity of their performances. Robert J. Sternberg Desire To be what we are, and to become what we are capable of becoming, is the only end in life. Robert Louis Stevenson Desire quot;If one advances in the direction of his dreams, one will meet with success unexpected in common hours.quot; Henry David Thoreau The Creative Spirit Goldman, Kaufman, Ray Desire Any activity becomes creative when the doer cares about doing it right, or better. John Updike Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 13 Desire Most forms of human creativity have one aspect in common: the attempt to give some sense to the various impressions, emotions, experiences, and actions that fill our lives, and thereby to give some meaning and value to our existence..... The crisis of our time in the Western world is that the search for meaning has become meaningless for many of us. Victor Weisskopf The Privilege of Being a Physicist, l989 Problem Observation Tranio is advising his master Lucentio on the best was to go about his programme of self-improvement The jewel that we find, we stoop and take't Because we see it: but what we do not see We tread upon, and never think of it, Shakespeare Measure for Measure Problem Observation I think almost everybody has it in his or her capacity to do something creative, without necessarily being able to explain how it's done. Society just doesn't give most people the chance to do this......What we have to do, generally (for a living), is not the sort of thing the utilizes our brain function to the fullest. Isaac Asimov Problem Observation The true worth or a researcher lies in pursuing what he did not seek in his experiment as well as what he sought. Claude Bernard (1813-1878) Problem Observation You can observe a lot by watching. Yogi Berra Problem Observation Like much play, creativity is often open-ended, with no particular goal or aim. Margaret A. Boden The Creative Mind, Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 14 Problem Observation Curiosity about life in all of its aspects, I think, is still the secret of great creative people. --Leo Burnett Problem Observation quot;Great ideas come into the world as quietly as doves. Perhaps then, if we listen attentively, we shall hear among the uproar of empires and nations a faint fluttering of wings, the gentle stirrings of life and hope.quot; -- Albert Camus Problem Observation Where there is an open mind, there will always be a frontier. - Charles F. Kettering Problem Observation I roamed the countryside searching for answers to things I did not understand. Why shells existed on the tops of mountains. How the various circles of water form around the spot which has been struck by a stone, and why a bird sustains itself in the air. These questions and other strange phenomena engaged my thought throughout my life. Leonardo da Vinci Problem Observation I had, ... during many years, followed a golden rule, namely that whenever a published fact, a new observation or thought came across me, which was opposed by my general results, to make a memorandum of it without fail and a once; for I had found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from memory than favorable ones. Charles Darwin Problem Observation In the course of my seminars I often ask the participants to write down an area or problem to which they would like to apply lateral thinking. The response is always poor. These executives are trained to solve problems as they arise. They are not trained to pick out areas in which the generation of ideas could be useful. Edward De Bono Opportunities, 1978 Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 15 Problem Observation Problem-finding is just as important as problem-solving but much more difficult and much more rare. Edward De Bono Opportunities, l978 Problem Observation Like a new born baby a new idea must, at first, be nourished by care and indulgent attention.quot; Edward De Bono Opportunities, 1978 Problem Observation Look sharply after your thoughts. They come unlooked for, like a new bird seen on your trees, and, if you turn to your usual task, disappear. Ralph Waldo Emerson Problem Observation Some men go through a forest and see no firewood. English proverb Problem Observation While working with staphylococcus variants a number of culture plates were set aside on the laboratory bench and examined from time to time. In the examinations these plates were necessarily exposed to the air and they became contaminated with various microorganisms. It was noticed that around a large colony of contaminating mold the staphylococcus colonies became transparent and were obviously undergoing lysis. Alexander Fleming Problem Observation Never neglect any appearance or any happening which seems to be out of the ordinary: more often than not is a false alarm, but it may be an important truth. Alexander Fleming Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 16 Problem observation quot;... the great Appalachian mountains show in many places, near the highest parts of them, strata of sea-shell, in some places the marks of them are in solid rock. It is certainly the wreck of a world we live on!quot; --Benjamin Franklin (1755) Problem Observation I Look for what needs to be done.....After all, that's how the universe designs itself. R. Buckminster Fuller Christian Science Monitor November 3, l964 Problem Observation The ultimate solutions to problems are rational; the process of finding them is not. W. Gordon Problem Observation On two different kinds of inventions: One consists, a goal being given, in finding the means to reach it, so that the mind goes from the goal to the means, from the question to the solution. The other consists, on the contrary, in discovering a fact, then imagining what it could be useful for, so that, this time, mind goes from the means to the goal; the answer appears to us before the question. Now, paradoxical as it seems, that second kind of invention is the more general one and becomes more and more so as science advances.quot; Jacques Hadamard Problem Observation There is more to seeing than meets the eyeball. Norwood Russell Hanson Patterns of Discovery 1958 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 17 Problem Observation If you do not expect the unexpected, you will not find it; for it is hard to be sought out, and difficult. Heraclitus [of Ephesus] Problem Observation Incredibility escapes recognition. Heraclitus [of Ephesus] in C H Khan the art and Thought of Heraclitus 1979 Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Problem Observation There are some people who see a great deal and some who see very little in the same things. T. H. Huxley advise written to his grandson Problem Observation We live at a time when man believes himself fabulously capable of creation, but does not know what to create. Lord of all things, he is not lord of himself. - Jose Ortega y Gasset The Revolt of the Masses Problem Observation quot;...action creates surprises.quot; Charles F. Kettering great General Motors Inventor Problem Observation quot;Questions are the creative acts of intelligence.quot; Frank Kingdomy Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 18 Problem Observation ..most scientists spend their life articulating existing discoveries, invention, and theories. Kuhn Problem Observation ..all important shifts in theory begin with anomalies. .. Kuhn Problem Observation Langmuir emphasized the futility of making formal plans in an effort to obtain new ideas. He stressed the importance of developing a receptive mind which could accept a new idea engendered by a fortunate accident, an unexpected occurrence, or some other set of circumstances beyond the immediate control of the individual. Vincent J. Schafer in quot;Can We Do it Better?quot;, Bull. American Meteorological Soc., Feb. l968 Problem Observation Great is the human who has not lost his childlike heart. - Mencius (Meng-Tse), 4th century BCE Problem Observation It is only doubt that creates. H. L. Mencken Problem Observation I seem to have been only a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. Sir Isacc Newton (1642-1727) Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 19 Problem Observation Begin by conditioning yourself to be restless and uneasy about the status quo. Don't overlook the familiar just because you've seen it so often Jack Oliver Geophysicist Problem Observation To see what is in front of one's nose needs a constant struggle. - George Orwell Problem Observation Je ne cherche pas, je trouve. Picasso Problem Observation [Science] advances by leaps; and the impulse for each leap is either some new observational resource, or some novel way or reasoning about the observations. Such novel way of reasoning might, perhaps, be considered as a new observational means, since it draws attention to relations between facts which would previously have been passed by unperceived. Charles Santiago Sanders Pierce Problem Observation They who dream by day are cognizant of many things which escape those who dream only by night. ~Edgar Allan Poe, quot;Eleonoraquot; Problem Observation Those who dream by day are cognizant of many things which escape those who dream only by night. Edgar Allen Poe Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 20 Problem Observation Camille Jordan wrote of Henri Poincares's work: quot;It is beyond ordinary praise, and forcefully recalls what Jacobi wrote of Abel; that he solved problems which before him nobody would even dared to pose.quot; Rene Taton, historian of science, l957 Problem Observation Curiosity is idle only to those who fail to realize that it may be a very rare and indispensable thing. Even occasionally and fitfully idle curiosity leads to creative thought.quot; James Harvey Robinson Problem Observation People learn more from observation that they do from conversation. Will Rogers Problem Observation Aim to keep an open mind. Be on the alert to hunches, and whenever you find one hovering on the threshold of our consciousness, welcome it with open arms. doing these things won't transform you into a genius overnight. But they're guaranteed to help you locate the treasure chest of ideas which lies hidden in the back of you own brain. Doctor Suits General Electric Problem observation quot;Vision is the art of seeing the invisible.quot; -- Jonathon Swift Problem Observation Vision is the art of seeing the invisible. Jonathon Swift Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 21 Problem Observation Every now and then, something turns up in the course of exploration that's worth--as the quidebooks say about restaurants---a detour. I think that's when really important observation are made. Lewis Thomas Problem Observation quot;The artist's whole business is to make something out of nothing.quot; Paul Valéry c. 1930 The Creators, Boorstin Problem Observation Having retreated in 1666 to the countryside near Cambridge, one day he [Newton] was walking in the garden and saw the fruit falling from a tree and he indulged himself in deep mediation on gravity, about which philosophers have so long searched in vain, and in which the common people do not even suspect a mystery.... Voltaire[Francois Marie Arouet] [it is thus Voltaire who has preserved this story which he had from Newton's niece, Mrs Conduitt Lettres Philosophique Problem Observation Data from a discovery well, and from subsequent wells, should be evaluated by a geologist, not a petroleum engineer. Robert J. Weimer Professor of Geology Colorado School of Mines Problem Recognition As subsurface explorationists, we are always keying off someone's dry hole. It should not make the prospect any less attractive because it happens to be your own dry hole. Jack Elam Geologist Creativity in Oil Exploration Problem Recognition quot;How wonderful that we have met with paradox. Now we have some hope of making progress.quot; Niels Bohr quoted in Root-Bernstein's Discovering Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 22 Problem Recognition Emotion, conviction, intensity--all show that one cares about the business, not that one lacks team spirit. Teamwork doesn't mean compliant submission to harmonious, bureaucratic mediocrity. some of the most creatively productive meetings I've ever participated in gave birth to new ideas amidst raised voices, table pounding, and displays of naked emotion. We need not fight to progress, but we must avoid avoidance. Donald W. Blohowiak author of Mavericks! Problem Recognition When I want your opinion, Edith, I'll give it to you . Archie Bunker Problem Recognition It isn't that they can't see the solution. It is that they can't see the problem. Gilbert Keith Chesterton Problem Recognition No idea is so outlandish that it should not be considered with a searching but at the same time steady eye. Winston Churchill Problem Recognition quot;Behold the turtle, He makes progress only when his neck is out.quot; Motto on Office Wall during Dr. James Bryant Conant's tenure as President of Harvard University Problem Recognition To be conscious that you are ignorant of the facts is a great step to knowledge. Disraeli Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 23 Problem Recognition But they have only analyzed the parts and overlooked the whole, and, indeed, their blindness is marvellous. Dostoevski 1880 Problem Recognition The recognition and understanding of the need was the primary condition of the creative act. When people feel they had to express themselves for originality for its own sake, that tends not to be creativity. Only when you get into the problem and the problem becomes clear, can creativity take over. Charles Eames Problem Recognition quot;The formulation of a problem,quot; said Albert Einstein, quot;is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old questions from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science.quot; A. Einstein and L. Infeld The Evolution of Physics, l938 Problem Recognition A problem is a chance for you to do your best. Duke Ellington Problem Recognition A man should learn to detect and watch that gleam of light which flashes across this mind from within, more than the lustre of the firmament of bards and sages. Yet he dismisses without notice his thought, because it is his. In every work of genius we recognize our own rejected thoughts; they come back to us with a certain alienated majesty. Great works of art have no more affecting lesson for us than this. They teach us to abide by our spontaneous impression with good-humored inflexibility than most when the whole cry of voices is on the other side. Else tomorrow a stranger will say with masterly good sense precisely what we have thought and felt all the time, and we shall be forced to take with shame our opinion from another. Ralph Waldo Emerson Self-Reliance, l844 Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 24 Problem Recognition quot;What good is it.quot; a man asked Benjamin Franklin of one of his new ideas. quot;What good is a Baby? Franklin retorted. Benjamin Franklin Problem Recognition The problem of fostering science is of the greatest unsolved problems of our day. T. H. Huxley once remarked that the new truths of science begin as heresy, advance to orthodoxy, and end up as superstition. It is not science in its last two phases that we are interested in promoting: such kinds of science can take care of themselves only too well. It is young science, new science, science that is heretical that is our problem. How do we encourage that? Garrett Hardin, biologist and historian of science, Problem Recognition shut my eyes in order to see. - Paul Gauguin Problem Recognition Getzels pointed out that creativity is not just solving problems of the kind that already exist or that continually arise in human life. Creative individuals often actively search out and discover problems to solve that no one else has perceived. Jacob Getzels, in Drawing on the Artist Within by Betty Edwards Problem Recognition Science is the topography of ignorance. Oliver Wendel Holmes Problem Recognition quot;...any scientist of any age who wants to make important discoveries must study important problems. Dull or piffling problems yield dull or piffling answers. It is not enough that a problem be 'interesting'--almost any problem is interesting....quot; Peter Medawar Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 25 Problem Recognition Evaluation can stimulate rather than stifle creativity by asking the right questions. William Miller Problem Recognition Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as one can through pictures or sensations George Orwell Politics and the English Language Problem Recognition An ingenious method of memo-making is used by a New York lawyer. He always carries a pack of government postal cards, addressed to himself, Whenever an idea hits him--whether on the subway or in the bathroom--he jots it down on one of the cards and sticks it in the mail. Alex F. Osborn Problem Recognition Creative people always tackle impossibly big problems and then let their goal guide them through a process of filling in the gap between what they already know and what they need to know. My artist friend, Tom van Sant, calls this the quot;leap and fillquot; method. That's how these creative types push beyond the limits of the known. They have an amazing ability to handle the ambiguities involved. To most other people, however, they look crazy, because the initial leap is based on nothing more than stochastic aiming into the unknown guided by one or more themata. Some simply has to have faith in such people and give them a chance to succeed. Robert Scott Root-Bernstein's character: Ariana in Discovering. Problem Recognition The principle of problem choice: Think Big. Coined by Root-Bernstein's character: Imp in Discovering. From several scientists. Root-Bernstein Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 26 Problem Recognition Thoughts die the moment they are embodied by words. Schopenhauer Problem Recognition Creativity and innovation done democratically tends to sink to a very low common denominator. If you're going to get somewhere, it's because some wide-eyed radical jumps up and says, quot;I'm going to do that.quot; Mark Sebell Problem Recognition Few people think more than two or three times a year. I have made an international reputation for myself by thinking once or twice a week. George Bernard Shaw Problem Recognition The secret of science is to ask the right question, and it is the choice of problem more than anything else that marks the man of genius in the scientific world. C. P. Snow A postscript to Science and Government. Problem Recognition It is much more exciting not to catch a big fish than not to catch a little fish. Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Nobel Laureate in biochemistry Problem Recognition And the more important the idea or the observation to which you an find a paradox, contradiction, or anomaly, the greater your chance of having identified an important problem. The character Imp in Robert Scott Root-Bernstein's book quot;Discoveringquot; Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 27 Problem Recognition It's not what you look at that matters, it's what you see. ~Henry David Thoreau Problem Recognition It isn't answers that make a scientist it's questions. George Wald Problem Definition quot;A problem well stated is half solved.quot; John Dewey Problem Definition Any problem can be solved as long as it is stated properly . - Dr Edwin Land Problem Definition quot;Knowing what you are looking for helps you to recognize it when you see it. But in the case of innovation, how do you know what you are looking for? You don't unless you state your problem so broadly, so basically, so all-inclusively and generically, that you do not preclude even the remotest possibility--so that you do not pre-condition your mind to a narrow range of acceptable answers.quot; John Arnold Stanford Professor Problem Definition Every problem contains the seeds of its own solution. Stanley Arnold Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 28 Problem Definition Specify your problem consciously, coin it at the beginning into a perfectly definite question.quot; Brand Blanshard Yale Problem Definition 'Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here? quot;That depends a good deal on where you want to get to', said the Cat. quot; I don't much care where...', said Alice. 'Then it doesn't matter which way you go' said the Cat. 'So long as I get somewhere', Alice added as a explanation 'Oh, you're sure to do that', said the Cat, 'If you only walk long enough.' Lewis Carroll Alice's Adventures in Wonderland p.64. Problem Definition quot;always the beautiful answer who ask a more beautiful questionquot; e. e. cummings Problem Definition Creativity in geology is the ability to ask the right question ....geological mysteries are all around us but you have to recognize them to be creative. Jack Elam Geologist Problem Definition The beginning of an acquaintance whether with persons or things is to get a definite outline of our ignorance. George Elliot Problem Definition The more you think, the more time you have. - Henry Ford Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 29 Problem Definition quot;Take care of the means, and the end will take care of itself.quot; Gandhi Problem Definition He who seeks for methods without having a definite problem in mind seeks for the most part in vain. David Hilbert Problem Definition Science is the topography of ignorance. Oliver Wendell Holmes Problem Definition quot;It is of the highest importance in the art of detection to be able to recognize, out of a number of facts, which are incidental and which vital. Otherwise your energy and attention must be dissipated instead of concentrated.quot; Sherlock Holmes Problem Definition The process of research is to pull the problem apart into its different elements, a great many of which you already know about. When you get it pulled apart, you can work on the things you don't know about.quot; Charles F. Kettering great General Motors Inventor Problem Definition Any problem can be solved as long as it is stated properly. - Dr Edwin Land Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 30 Problem Definition The fundamental point is simple: language matters. Language is the means by which any perception, discovery, or hypothesis acquires a solid and communicable reality. What this means, in turn, is that technical knowledge and its advance are never wholly separable from the forms used to give them an existence. Scott L. Montgomery Geologist and Writer Problem Definition The fundamental point is simple: language matters. Language is the means by which any perception, discovery, or hypothesis acquires a solid and communicable reality. What this means, in turn, is that technical knowledge and its advance are never wholly separable from the forms used to give them an existence. Language and images can work upon the mind in many quiet, subtle ways—they can seem like part of the wallpaper, something we pass by every day without much notice, while actually comprising a crucial part of the architecture of our very ability to speak and conceive. Thus, becoming more conscious of this architecture, its strengths and weaknesses, can be one avenue to enhanced creativity. Taking hold of the images that dominate in certain areas of science and engineering is one possible way to help understand, perhaps even to discover, new directions for thought and research. by Scott L. Montgomery geologist Problem Definition ...quot;part of all research---must be directed at finding out whether the questions, are valid, and, if so, answering them in a useful way.quot; Root-Benrstein's character, Imp in Discovering. p. 53 Problem Definition The reasonable person adapts himself to the world: the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore, all progress depends upon the unreasonable man. George Bernard Shaw Problem Definition There are two parts to solving any problem: What you want to accomplish, and how you want to do it. Even the most creative people attack issues by leaping over what they want to do and going on to how they will do it. There are many 'hows' but only one 'what'.... You must always ask the question, 'What is?' before you ask the question, 'How to?' Richard Saul Wurman Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 31 Preparation In the field of observation, chance only favors those minds which have been prepared. Louis Pasteur Encyclopaedia Britannica 1911 edn, vol 20 Preparation quot;As a young, unknown man, I went to Washington to talk with Professor Henry, an authority on electricity, about an idea I had conceived for transmitting speech by wires. He told me he thought I had the germ of a great invention. I told him, however, that I had not the electrical knowledge necessary to bring it into existence. He replied. quot;Get it.quot; Alexander Graham Bell Preparation Disraeli's principle: Court serendipity by being eccentric. (Your probability of discovering or inventing something different increases as our experiences, hobbies, skills, knowledge, philosophy, and goals become increasingly unusual) Coined by Root-Bernstein's character Imp in Discovering by interpretation of Disraeli Preparation The beginning of an acquaintance whether with persons or things is to get a definite outline of our ignorance. George Elliot Preparation We know the value of water when the well runs dry. Benjamin Franklin Preparation The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest of navigators. Edward Gibbon The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 32 Preparation He who has imagination without learning has wings but no feet. - Joseph Joubert Preparation He who has imagination without learning has wings but no feet. - Joseph Joubert Preparation We are apt to think that our ideas are the creation of our own wisdom but the truth is that they are the result of the experience through outside contact. Konosuke Matsushita Preparation I never stop studying. There's always lots to learn. When you stop learning, that's about the end of you. John Morton-Finney Preparation quot;The object of planning for research must be to optimize the ability of the investigator to recognize and solve some problem, not to predetermine who will reach particular conclusions by specified methods.quot; Root-Bernstein character: Hunter in Discovering Preparation Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity. Darrell Royal Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 33 Preparation “Look at me, look at me, look at me now. It’s fun to have fun but you have to know how.” Dr. Suess The Cat in the Hat Preparation Young's principle: One can not possess a useless talent or skill. Coined from by Root-Bernstein's character Imp in Discovering, from quot; ..it is impossible to possess an qualification which one may not want, and capabilities are but light burdens.quot; Thomas Young Investigation Oil and gas are not found by flashes of genius but are a product of rigorous observations and tenacious, dogged, often dreary intensive work and study. B. W. Beebe Geologist Investigation The important thing is not to stop questioning. - Albert Einstein Investigation In those great two years he (Newton) had to the full two priceless gifts which no one enjoys today, full leisure and quiet. Leisure and quiet do not produce a newton, but without them even a Newton is unlikely to bring to ripeness the fruits of his genius. E. N. daC. Andrade, in Newton Tercentenary Celebrations, Royal Society of London (l947). Investigation quot;He who sees things grow from the beginning will have the best view of them.quot; --Aristotle. Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 34 Investigation ...quot;hunt for the next in the series, starting our train of thought from what is now present or from something else, and from something similar or contrary or contiguous to it.quot; Aristotle Investigation Originality is the essence of true scholarship. Creativity is the soul of the true scholar. Nnamdi Azikiwe Investigation Errors using inadequate data are much less than those using no data at all. -Charles Babbage Investigation Never any knowledge was delivered in the same order it was invented. Sir Francis Bacon [Lord Verulam] 1561-1626 Investigation Science advances, not by the accumulation of new facts, .... but by the continuous development of new concepts. James Bryant Conant Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 35 Investigation Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men without talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent. Calvin Coolidge Investigation The presence of a body of well-instructed men, who have not to labor for their daily bread, is important to a degree which cannot be overestimated; as all high intellectual work is carried on by them, and on such work material progress of all kinds mainly depends, not to mention other and higher advantages. Charles Robert Darwin The Descent of Man (l871) Investigation What moves men of genius, or rather what inspires their work, is not new ideas, but their obsession with the idea that what has already been said is still not enough. Eugene Delacroix Investigation quot;Patience is a necessary ingredient of geniusquot; -- Benjamin Disraeli Investigation Above all, innovation is work rather than genius. It requires knowledge. It often requires ingenuity. And it requires focus. There are clearly people who are more talented as innovators than others but their talents lie in well-defined areas. Indeed, innovators rarely work in more than one area. For all his systematic innovative accomplishments, Edison worked only in the electrical field. An innovator in financial areas, Citibank for example, is not likely to embark on innovations in health care. Peter F. Drucker The Discipline of Innovation, HBR Walter H. Pierce StartExp walterhpierce@startexp.com

http://startexp.com 36 Investigation I'll try anything--I'll even try Limburger cheese! Thomas Edison Investigation Many people think of inventions as coming on a man all in one piece. Things don't happen that way, much. The phonograph, for example, was a long time coming, and it came step by step. For my own part, it started way back in the days of the Civil War, when I was a young telegrapher in Indianapolis. Thomas Edison Investigation ...science as something existing and complete is the most objective thing known to man. But, science in the making, science as an end to be pursued is as subjective and psychologically conditioned as any branch of human endeavor. Einstein Investigation No great thing is created suddenly, any more than a bunch of grapes or a fig. If you tell me that you desire a fig, I answer you that there must be time. Let it first blossom, then bear fruit, then ripen. Epictetus, Discourses Book I, Chapter 2. Investigation To arrive at the simplest truth, as Newton knew and practiced, requires years of contemplation. Not activity. Not reasoning. Not calculating. Not busy behavior of any kind. Not reading. Not talking. Not making an effort. Not thinking. Simply bearing in mind what it is one needs to know. And yet those with the courage to tread this path to real discovery are not only offered practically

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