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Cpiq upstream hydrocarbon industry final

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Information about Cpiq upstream hydrocarbon industry final
Education

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: consejoingenieriaquimica

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Memorias - Webinar Petroleum & Gas Industry
Fecha: 26 de febrero de 2014
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Upstream Sector

Introduction Agradecimientos. CPIQ “El Consejo Profesional de Ingeniería Química de Colombia es una entidad creada por la Ley 18 de 1976 y su Decreto Reglamentario 371 de 1982, encargada de otorgar las matrículas y expedir las tarjetas profesionales, realizar seguimiento y control del adecuado ejercicio de la profesión, colaborar con las autoridades universitarias y profesionales y apoyar las actividades de las asociaciones gremiales, científicas y profesionales de la Ingeniería Química.” Source Internet: CPIQ Web Page

Hydrocarbon Industry Sectors Upperstream Midstream Downstream Exploration and production (E&P) Transportation (Crude or Refined) Source Internet Boletin SAO . Association of American Railroads, Bloomber, Ecopetrol Refinig of Petroleum

Petroleum or Crude Oil Petroleum comes from Greek Petra-Rock and elaoin-Oil or Latin Oleum-Oil) also Crude Oil, sometimes called Black Gold. Petroleum is a Hydrocarbon Natural Mixture. Source Internet Various

Natural Gas Natural gas is a hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly includes varying amounts of alkanes and butanes and even a lesser percentage of carbon oxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide (sour gas).[ Source Internet Various

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Crude Oil (Oil) has Natural Gas. Oil is non renewable resources because they cannot be replenished on human time frame. They also called fossil fuel because they is thought where formed from dinosaurs. Source Internet Various

Crude Oil and Natural Gas Biotic theory: Petroleum is the remains of organic material that was deposited, usually in marine environments, millions of years ago. Abiotic theory: Deep in the crust or in the mantel of the earth, bacteria may make oil abiotically, that is from sources that were never alive. Hydrogen plus carbon dioxide with the help of archaea yield methane plus water. archaea Source Theories for The Origen of Oil by Mike Westlund

Crude Oil Resources Reserve Salt Mine OPEC´s ASB 2013 2012 world reserves Emerald Vein

Crude Oil Resources Source: Internet

Crude Oil Resources – Native Fluids Single Anticlinal Reservoir Rock Reservoir Rock Complex Faulted • • • • Source: Internet Copyright © 2010-2014 - San Joaquin Valley Geology Porosity Permeability Saturation Grain size

Crude Oil Resources Exploratory well Source: SPE PRM 2011 Exploratory And Appraisal Wells

Crude Oil Resources Assessment of Reserves Source: SPE PRM 2011

Crude Oil Resources Recoverable Reserves Recoverable reserves is also often called proved reserves. A term used in natural resource industries to describe the amount of resources identified in a reserve that is technologically or economically feasible to extract. A new reserve can be discovered, but if the resource cannot be extracted by any known technological methods, then it would not be considered part of recoverable reserves. Source: SPE PRM 2011

Crude Oil Resources - Production

Crude Oil Resources – Year over Year Balance Produced (-) New Proved 2011 Year End Balance ± Discovery (+) $$$ = 2012 Year End Balance $$$$ EOR (+)

OPEC Share of World Crude Oil Reserves 2012

OPEC Members´ 2012 Midyear Population Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Algeria 34,591 35,268 35,978 36,717 37,800 Angola 16,368 16,889 17,430 17,992 18,577 Ecuador 13,805 14,005 14,307 14,483 15,500 IR Iran 72,584 73,651 74,733 75,150 76,520 Iraq 30,578 31,664 32,490 33,339 34,207 Kuwait 3,442 3,485 3,582 3,697 3,824 Libya 6,150 6,263 6,378 6,295 6,411 Nigeria 151,212 154,727 158,057 162,799 167,683 Qatar 1,447 1,639 1,715 1,733 1,774 Saudí Arabia 27,787 26,661 27,563 28,376 29,196 United Arab Emirates 8,074 8,200 8,264 8,328 8,394 Venezuela 27,732 28,181 28,629 29,072 29,517 Total OPEC Members 391,769 400,634 409,127 417,982 429,402 Source OPEC´s ASB 2013

Oil and Gas Reserves – Per Capita Source OPEC´s ASB 2013

New World Energy Map - Reserves Conventional Reserves Thousands of Millions of BBL Shale Gas Billions of SCF

New World Energy Map Source EIA and ARI

Natural Gas Proved Reserves LAR ( Billions of Cubic Meters) Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 1 Venezuela 4,983 5,065 5,525 5,528 5,563 2 Brasil 380 365 358 417 434 3 México 359 359 339 349 360 4 Perú 415 415 345 353 359 5 Argentina 428 399 379 359 333 6 Bolivia 750 750 695 281 281 7 Colombia 114 124 134 153 155 8 Chile 46 46 45 43 41 Source OPEP´s : Desarrollo Peruano

Proved Reserves Thousands Millions of Bbl. Country 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 1 Venezuela 99 99 211 211 298(*) 2 Saudi Arabia 267 262 263 267 268 3 Canada 178 175 175 174 173 4 Iran 136 138 137 151 155 5 Iraq 115 115 115 143 141 6 Kuwait 104 104 104 104 104 7 United Arab Emirates 98 98 98 98 98 8 Russia 60 60 60 60 80 9 Libya 44 44 46 47 48 10 Nigeria 36 37 37 37 37 11 Kazakhstan 30 30 30 30 30 12 China 16 20 20 20 26 13 Qatar 15 25 25 25 25

Oil Demand Thousands of Barrels per Day (k b/d) Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 1 United States 19,498 18,771 19,180 19,949 18,555 2 China 7,468 8,540 9,330 8,924 9,324 3 Japan 4,788 4,406 4,465 4,480 4,720 4 India 2,864 3,113 3,255 3,426 3,441 5 Saudi Arabia 1,980 2,195 2,371 2,986 3224 6 Brazil 2,205 2,481 2,622 2,793 2,933 7 Russia 2,906 2,950 2,992 2,725 2,725 8 Germany 2,545 2,453 2,470 2,400 2,338 9 Canada 2,232 2,153 2,258 2,289 2,327 10 Korea,South 2,142 2,188 2,268 2,230 2,268 11 Mexico 2,161 2,071 2,080 2,133 2,147 12 Iran 1,742 1,766 1,726 2,028 2,088 13 France 1,945 1,868 1,881 1,792 1,738 Source US Energy Information Administration

World Oil Demand NAR and LAR (1000 b/d) Source OPEC´s ASB 2013

World Proven Crude Oil Reserves NAR and LAR (millions barrels) Source OPEC´s ASB 2013 Lasting time = ଶǡ ଶ଴଴ ௜ ௟ ௢௡ ௕௔௥௥௘௟ ௠ ௟ ௜ ௢௙ ௦ ್ೌೝೝ೐೗ ೏ೌ೤ ଵ ௠ ௜௟ ௟ ௢௡௦ ∗ଷ଺ହ ( ೏ೌ೤ೞ ) ೤೐ೌೝ = 6 years

How much is there? World reserves stood at 1,478,211 (*) millions of barrels. Word demand is about 76 millions of barrel per day. At this rate, the oil will last about 53 years. Lasting time Lasting time Source OPEC´s ASB 2013 ଵǡ ସ଻଼ǡ ଶଵଵ ௜ ௟ ௢௡ ௕௔௥௥௘௟ ௠ ௟ ௜ ௢௙ ௦ ್ೌೝೝ೐೗ ೏ೌ೤ ଻଺ ௜ ௟ ௠ ௟ ௢௡௦ ೏ೌ೤ೞ ) ೤೐ೌೝ ‫כ‬ଷ଺ହ ሺ ଶǡ ଶ଴଴ ௜ ௟ ௢௡ ௕௔௥௥௘௟ ௠ ௟ ௜ ௢௙ ௦ ଵ ௜ ௟ ௠ ௟ ௢௡ ್ೌೝೝ೐೗ ೏ೌ೤ ೏ೌ೤ೞ ) ೤೐ೌೝ ‫כ‬ଷ଺ହ ሺ = 53 years = 6 years

World Crude Oil Production Millions of Barrels Per Day (m b/d) (m b/d)

USA Crude Oil Production Source OPEC´s ASB 2013

World Crude Natural Gas Production (Billions Standard Cubic Meters per Day) (b scm/d) Source OPEC´s ASB 2013

Crude Oil WTI is a light crude oil, with an API gravity of around 39.6 and specific gravity of about 0.827, which is lighter than Brent crude. It contains about 0.24% sulfur thus is rated as a sweet crude oil (having less than 0.5% sulfur), sweeter than Brent which has 0.37% sulfur. Source. Bloomber Source :Association of American Railroads, Bloomber

Oil Production LAR 2012 Thousands of Barrels per Day (1000 b/d) Country 2011 2012 1 Venezuela 2,881 2,804 2 México 2,552 2,548 3 Brazil 2,105 2,061 4 Colombia 914 914 5 Argentina 560 535 6 Ecuador 500 504 7 Peru 70 67 8 Bolivia 44 51 9 Guatemala 11 11 10 Chile 4 4

Crude Oil How much is there? World reserves stood at 1,478,211 (*) millions of barrels. Word demand is about 76 millions of barrel per day. At this rate, the oil will last about 53 years. Lasting time Lasting time OPEC´s ASB 2013 2012 world reserves ್ೌೝೝ೐೗ ೏ೌ೤ ್ೌೝೝ೐೗ ೏ೌ೤ ೏ೌ೤ೞ ೤೐ೌೝ ೏ೌ೤ೞ ೤೐ೌೝ = 53 years = 6 years

Crude Oil API Classification Oil API gravity is one way of expressing density. It is related to the specific gravity (SG) of the fluid as follows: Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at a reference temperature and pressure (25°C, 101 kPa). Is used to a general classification of crudes as extra heavy oil, heavy oil, medium oil and light oil The density of a crude of 10 API is equal to the density of fresh water at Standard Conditions

Crude Oil Heavy Oil Denominations Because there is a range variation in viscosity for similar API grades and confusing denomination for Heavy Oils, Bitumen and Tar Sands there a need for a simple classification based on viscosities Class Description Viscosity Condition (1) API range Example A Medium Heavy Oil >10 to <100 Mobile >25 to <18 Llanos Field B Extra Heavy Oil >100 to <10000 Mobile >20 to < 7 Orinoco & Castilla C Tar Sands and Bitumen >10000 Non mobile >12 to > 7 D Oil Shale (2) Non mobile (2) (1) At cold conditions (2)Rock of oil shale is not permeable Athabasca Sand

Crude Oil API Classification

Crude Oil Petroleum or crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other chemicals. The composition varies widely depending where and how the petroleum was formed. In fact, a chemical analysis can be used to fingerprint the source of the petroleum. However, raw petroleum or crude oil has characteristic properties and composition. Elemental Composition 1.Carbon 2.Hydrogen 3.Nitrogen 4.Oxygen 5.Sulfur 6.Metals 83 to 87% 10 to 14% 0.1 to 2% 0.05 to 1.5% 0.05 to 6.0% < 0.1%

Unconventional Resources Orinoco Heavy Oil Sandstone

Unconventional Gas Shale Gas A depiction of how methane hydrate found in ice burns. Resource triangle for natural gas (Holditch 2006). Source: JPT 2010 BHI/CONNEXUS MAGAZINE The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory estimates that the global methane hydrate resource is 700,000 Tcf (20 000 Tcm). Connexus Baker Hughes Inc.

Unconventional Gas Vs. Conventional Gas Unconventional Source: EIA 2010

Unconventional Gas

Unconventional Gas Frac Job Source: EIA / Wikipedia Shale Gas Frac Job

Unconventional Gas - Frac Job Water is by far the largest component of fracking fluids. A Hydraulic fracturing job consume from 6,000 to 600,000 US gallons of fracking fluids, but over its lifetime an average well may require up to an additional 5 million gallons of water for full operation and possible restimulation frac jobs. Source: source watch organization

Portfolio of Electricity Generation USA

Colombia - Overview VIM VSM Llanos Preliminary studies suggest significant undiscovered heavy oil potential at shallow depths of less than 2,000 feet of between 1 billion and 2 billion barrels of oil in place could exist … with 100 million to 300 million barrels of recoverable reserves. - Hart

Unconventional - Insight “Unconventionals” is a very trendy word indeed. But what is so unconventional about unconventional oil and gas resources? Heavy-oil exploitation is widely commercialized; whether by mining of the oil sands and oil shales or by in-situ steaming or combusting processes that bring extra-heavy oil to the surface. Yet we say that such oil is unconventional. Research and pilot operations continue in an effort to increase recovery and decrease costs. When “cheap and easy oil” becomes scarce, should we then refer to these recovery techniques as “advanced,” “complex,” or “difficult” recovery rather than the exploitation of “unconventional” oil? The same could be said for shale gas. A few years ago, such gas was said to be unconventional. However, continued research and recent exploitation with multifracs from horizontal wells have led us to think differently. Already, shale gas appears to be more conventional than coalbed methane. With the ever-increasing need for natural gas as a clean fuel, the importance of producing more gas is growing. Not all “unconventional” gas is equal: Each type is at a different stage of exploitation. While waiting to find out about the effect of renewable energies on our society, gas remains the leading fuel of choice, whether it is natural or a product of gasification of coal or biomass. So, where do we look next? Previous centuries all favored a particular source of energy: The 19th century focused on coal because it had no other alternative, and the 20th century was mainly oil-centered. In the 21st century, we must turn wisely to the resources we have. There is no doubt that we will have to use a diversity of energy sources adapted to our needs: oil, gas, nuclear, and renewable energies will all find their share.” Marcel Polikar Source: JPT • JULY 2010 Marcel Polikar, SPE, is a Senior Reservoir Engineer with Shell International E&P in Rijswijk, The Netherlands, in the Thermal and Unconventional Enhanced-Oil-Recovery R&D group.

Operation and Services

Real Time Remote Services The Future Belongs to Digital Professionals • • • • • • • • Digital USA Summit: Baker Hughes Inc. Digital Oil Field/Engineer Real Time/Remote Control Advanced Control System Data Base Management Real Time Decision Globalized Teamwork's Production Enhancement Reservoir Optimization

Exploration Source Internet Various Seismic Operations

Exploration – Prospection Seismic Operations Seismic lab Crew Vibroseis Source Internet Various

Exploration and Development- Rig Types Source Internet Various

Rig Systems – Main Components 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 13. 16. 18. 19. 21. 22. 23. Crown Drill Line Monkey board Traveling Block Top Drive Derick Drill Pipe Dog House Blow Out Preventer Generators Mud Pumps Mud Pits Reservoir Pit Shale Shaker Choke Manifold Pipe Ramp Roughneck Jobs Toolpusher: Driller Derrickhand Motorman Boilerman

Rig Systems - Hoisting Source Internet Various

Rig Systems - Rotating Source Internet Various

Rig Systems - Pipes Drill String Subs & Stabilizers Drill Collars HWDP Bits

Rig Systems - BITS Cones Reamer Core Bit Eccentric Inserts PDC Source: Baker Hughes Inc and others Hybrid Jets

Rig Systems – Rotating

Rig Systems – Circulation

Rig Systems – Safety

Drilling a well Drilling and connections. The Drillstring is run into the hole with a Bit. The drillstring is rotated and the bit drills the hole. Pipe is run into the hole as Joints (30’) or Stands (90’), a stand being three joints of pipe. After a joint or stand has been drilled down, a Connection is made to add another joint or stand to the string and drilling continues.

Drilling a well Drilling and tripping. When a bit is worn out, or the planned hole section has been finished the drillstring will be pulled or tripped. Stands of pipe are pulled and racked in the derrick. The bit will be changed and the pipe tripped back into the hole. Trips must be monitored to assure the correct fluid is being returned to the hole. Source Internet Various

Drilling a well – Drilling Fluids (Muds)

Drilling a well Directional drilling • To avoid collision with other wells. • To allow intersection by a relief well in the event of a blow-out. • To hit the geological target areas • To provide a better definition of geological and reservoir data. • For equity determination. • To fulfil local and government regulations.

Completing a well TYPICAL DEPTHS CONDUCTOR (26” – 20”) SUPERFICIE (20” – 13-3/8”) 40-1500 FT 100-3000 FT TIE-BACK LINER (9-5/8” – 5”) INTERMEDIO (13-3/8” – 7”) CASING Casing is steel pipe that protects the hole from collapse and the formation from damage. Casing is run from the wellhead, each casing being run inside the other. Surface Casing – (30” & 20”) 4000-16000 FT LINER (9-5/8” – 5”) GREATER THAN 20000 FT Intermediate Casing – (13 3/8” & 9 5/8”) Liner (7” & 5”)Hung inside the previously run casing

Cementing a well Once casing is run, it will be cemented into place. Cementing helps: • • • • • Bond the casing to the formation Protect any producing formations In the control of blowouts Seal off troublesome zones Provide support for the casing

Well Logging and Testing

Well Logging and Testing Orinoco Extra heavy Oíl Can be produced on cold? Source Internet Various,Also Baker Hughes Inc.

Well Logging and Testing Separators Skid Unit Pay Zone Flares X masstree Shaped Charges • How much fluids • Gas • Oíl • Water • What quality • What pressure Well Head

Fluid Sampling Analysis Phase Diagram Chromatographic

Reservoir Characterization • • • • • Geophysicist Geologist Geochemist Reservoir Engineer Production Engineer Source Internet • • • • • • Static Model Dynamic Model Volumetric OIP Well Planning Updated Reserves Production Optimization

Completion and Production

Environmental Management  Fluid Environmental Services  Control  Limpieza de Tanques de Control Sólidos Control of solids in Mud Centrifuge Selective Flocculation de Control de Sólidos Mud dehydration Procesamiento Sólidos Cortes de Procesamiento de Líquidos Central de Procesamiento Disposición de Desechos Re-inyección de cortes y Transporte Decantation Flocculation Chemical mixing Centrifugation Dilution Solids disposal Liquid Treatment Mud Dehydration Water treatment Chemical mixing Fluids Transfer Disposal

Problems while drilling

CPF – Central Processing Facilities In the Oil and Gas industry, CPF belongs to the Upstream activity to described the production unit performing the first transformation of the crude oil or raw natural gas after the production wells. • Collect the production of the different well pads in a centralized facility • Condition raw oil crude and and natural gas to be sent to the refineries • Condition production water to be environmentally under specifications 2.4 million BWPD 65,000 bpd (250,000 bopd) 320,000 bpd 500,000 bpd 1.2 million bpd 320 million scfd Industry Standards • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • API ANSI ASME BS GOST IEEE ISO MIL MSS NFP NTC OSHAS UL Ecopetrol Exxon

Deep Water Horizon– Safety Deepwater Horizon explosion and blowout An explosion on the drilling rig Deepwater Horizon occurred on April 20, 2010, killing 11 workers. The Deepwater Horizon sank on April 22, 2010, in water approximately 5,000 feet (1,500 m) deep, and was located resting on the seafloor approximately 1,300 feet (400 m) (about a quarter of a mile) northwest of the well. Source Internet Various

Rig Systems – Safety - Piper Alpha Piper Alpha was a North Sea oil production platform . The platform began production in 1976, first as an oil platform and then later converted to gas production. An explosion and the resulting oil and gas fires destroyed it on 6 July 1988, killing 167 men, with only 61 survivors. Source Internet Various

Chemical Industry – Safety -Bhopal 1984 El desastre de Bhopal, ocurrido en 1984 en la región de Bhopal (India), se originó al producirse una fuga de isocianato de metilo en una fábrica de pesticidas. Se estima que entre 6.000 y 8.000 personas murieron en la primera semana tras el escape tóxico y al menos otras 12.000 fallecieron posteriormente como consecuencia directa de la catástrofe, que afectó a más de 600.000 personas, 150.000 de las cuales sufrieron graves secuelas.. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

Colombia - Overview

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