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Published on January 21, 2008

Author: Paolina

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Slide1:  Clean Energy Project Analysis Course © Minister of Natural Resources Canada 2001 – 2004. Photo Credit: NRCan Solar Water Heating Project Analysis Glazed Flat Plate Collectors, Ontario, Canada Objectives:  Objectives Review basics of Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems Illustrate key considerations for SWH project analysis Introduce RETScreen® SWH Project Model What do SWH systems provide?:  Domestic Hot Water Process Heat Swimming Pool Heating …but also… Increased hot water storage Extended swimming season (pool heating) What do SWH systems provide? Photo Credit: Vadim Belotserkovsky Conference Centre, Bethel, Lesotho Housing Development, Kungsbacka, Sweden Photo Credit: Alpo Winberg/ Solar Energy Association of Sweden Components of SWH Systems :  Components of SWH Systems Photo Credit: NRCan Unglazed Solar Collectors:  Unglazed Solar Collectors Low cost Low temperature Rugged Lightweight Seasonal pool heating Low pressure Poor performance in cold or windy weather Photo Credit: NRCan Glazed Flat Plate Solar Collectors:  Glazed Flat Plate Solar Collectors Moderate cost Higher temperature operation Can operate at mains water pressure Heavier and more fragile Photo Credit: NRCan Evacuated Tube Collectors:  Evacuated Tube Collectors Higher cost No convection losses High temperature Cold climates Fragile Installation can be more complicated Snow is less of a problem Photo Credit: NRCan Photo Credit: Nautilus Tube Developed and Manufactured in China Solar Water Heating in Various Climates:  Solar Water Heating in Various Climates For a domestic solar water heating system with 6 m2 of glazed collector, a demand of 300 L/day of hot water at 60ºC and 300 L of storage, the solar fraction is: Examples of SWH System Costs and Benefits:  Examples of SWH System Costs and Benefits Glazed year-round system (w/storage) La Paz, Bolivia 2.2 GJ/m2 $400/m2 Evacuated tube year-round system (w/storage) Copenhagen, Denmark 1.8 GJ/m2 $1,000/m2 Unglazed summer-only swimming pool Montreal, Canada 1.5 GJ/m2 $150/m2 Solar Water Heating Project Considerations:  Solar Water Heating Project Considerations Factors for successful projects: Large demand for hot water to reduce importance of fixed costs High energy costs (e.g. natural gas not available) No reliable conventional energy supply Strong environmental interest by building owner/operator Daytime hot water loads require less storage Lower cost, seasonal systems can be financially preferable to higher-cost year-round systems Maintenance similar to any plumbing system, but operator must be committed to timely maintenance and repairs Examples: Australia, Botswana and Sweden Domestic Hot Water Systems:  Examples: Australia, Botswana and Sweden Domestic Hot Water Systems On-grid, need a committed homeowner Can have long payback when energy prices are low Systems provide 20 to 80% of hot water Off-grid or where the energy supply is unreliable Photo Credit: Marie Andrén, Solar Energy Association of Sweden Photo Credit: Vadim Belotserkovsky Photo Credit: The Australian Greenhouse Office Thermosiphon System, Australia House for Medical Staff in Rural Area, Botswana Homes, Malmö, Sweden Examples: USA and Canada Swimming Pool Systems:  Examples: USA and Canada Swimming Pool Systems Low-cost unglazed collectors Summer pools in cold climates Extend the season in warm climates For summer use on a year-round pool in cold climates Can have 1 to 5-year paybacks Glazed collectors for heat year-round Filtration system serves as pump Photo Credit: NRCan Photo Credit: Aquatherm Industries/ NREL Pix Pool system, Canada Community Pool System, Ontario, Canada Examples: Greece and Canada Commercial/Industrial Hot Water Systems:  Examples: Greece and Canada Commercial/Industrial Hot Water Systems Hotels/motels, apartments and office buildings Health centres & hospitals Car washes, laundromats, restaurants Sport facilities, schools, shower facilities Aquaculture, other small industry Photo Credit: NRCan Photo Credit: Regional Energy Agency of Crete/ISES Hotel, Agio Nikolaos, Crete Aquaculture Operation, British Columbia, Canada RETScreen® Solar Water Heating Project Model:  RETScreen® Solar Water Heating Project Model World-wide analysis of energy production, life-cycle costs and greenhouse gas emissions reductions Glazed, unglazed, and evacuated tube Indoor and outdoor swimming pools (w/ or w/o cover) Service hot water systems (w/ and w/o storage) Only 12 points of data for RETScreen® vs. 8,760 for hourly simulation models Currently not covered: Changes in service hot water daily loads Stand-alone service hot water Systems w/o storage having high solar fractions Sun tracking, concentrator & integrated solar collectors Slide15:  See e-Textbook Clean Energy Project Analysis: RETScreen® Engineering and Cases Solar Water Heating Project Analysis Chapter RETScreen® SWH Energy Calculation Example Validation of the RETScreen® SWH Project Model:  Example Validation of the RETScreen® SWH Project Model RETScreen® compared to: WATSUN for domestic hot water system in Toronto, Canada: ENERPOOL for 48-m2 summer pool in Montreal, Canada Energy required to within 2% Monitored data from a 1,200 m2 summer pool in Möhringen, Germany Energy required to within 3% and solar energy production to within 14% RETScreen vs. monitored data from 10 domestic hot water systems in Guelph, Canada Conclusions:  Conclusions Unglazed, glazed and evacuated tube collectors provide hot water for many uses in any climate Significant hot water demand, high energy costs, and strong commitment on part of owner/operator are important factors in success RETScreen® calculates: Service hot water load and swimming pool load Performance of solar swimming pool and service hot water systems with or without storage RETScreen® is an annual analysis with monthly resource calculation that can achieve accuracy comparable to hourly simulation models RETScreen® can provide significant preliminary feasibility study cost savings Questions?:  Questions? Solar Water Heating Project Analysis Module RETScreen® International Clean Energy Project Analysis Course

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