Counseling to prevent CHD 2004

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Information about Counseling to prevent CHD 2004
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Published on January 14, 2009

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Nutrition and Physical Activity Counseling : Nutrition and Physical Activity Counseling ICM2 November 23, 2004 Gary Wheeler, M.D. Arlo Kahn, M.D. Pediatrics Family and Preventive Medicine UAMS Nutrition Curriculum : UAMS Nutrition Curriculum Freshman year Supermarket Tour (ICM1) Paired Nutrition Assessment: Introduction to Preventive Nutrition (ICM1) Preventive Nutrition Clinical Correlations: Hyperlipidemia, Diabetes, Folate (Biochem) UAMS Nutrition Curriculum : UAMS Nutrition Curriculum Sophomore year The Obesity Epidemic (ICM 2) Introduction to Counseling (ICM 2) UAMS Nutrition Curriculum : UAMS Nutrition Curriculum Junior year Cardiovascular Disease and Nutrition (Family Practice Clerkship) Pediatric Nutrition Skills (Pediatric Clerkship) UAMS Nutrition Curriculum : UAMS Nutrition Curriculum Senior year Nutrition and prevention updates (Block 10) Objective : Objective Learn how to counsel a patient to improve diet and physical activity in a manner that is effective, minimizes frustration, shows respect for the patient and maintains good communication Virginia Winston : Virginia Winston Ms Winston is a 51 year old nurse who came in 3 weeks ago and saw a doctor for her sinus infection. That doctor was not her PCP and referred her to her PCP, Dr. DeMentaux for a health maintenance visit and follow-up of her sinus infection. He also had her come in last week for a fasting lipid profile and blood glucose. Slide 8: Lab: Total Cholesterol 270 LDL “ 175 HDL “ 30 Fasting Glucose 125 Today’s vital signs: Weight 195# Height 5’4” Blood Pressure 150/95 BMI 33.54 And now Dr. DeMentaux will demonstrate how to counsel Ms. Winston to improve her lifestyle and reduce her reduce CHD risk! : And now Dr. DeMentaux will demonstrate how to counsel Ms. Winston to improve her lifestyle and reduce her reduce CHD risk! Slide 10: Is Dr. DeMentaux’s advice likely to help Ms. Winston? By the end of the counseling session, Dr. Dementaux should have : By the end of the counseling session, Dr. Dementaux should have known Ms. Winston’s diet and habits known whether she is interested in changing any aspect of her lifestyle known whether she is ready to implement a weight loss plan in the next month appropriately counseled her regarding her risks, diet, and lifestyle A Quick Guide to Lifestyle Counseling:The 5A Technique : A Quick Guide to Lifestyle Counseling:The 5A Technique The 5-A Technique : The 5-A Technique ASK ADVISE ASSESS ASSIST ARRANGE ASK : ASK Would the patient would benefit from changes in nutrition or physical activity? ASK : ASK Would the patient would benefit from changes in nutrition or physical activity? If yes, perform diet, habit, and nutrition assessments Slide 17: Diet and Habit Assessment A F F E C T S The 5-A Technique : The 5-A Technique ASK ADVISE ASSESS ASSIST ARRANGE ADVISE : ADVISE Advise patient to change the behavior Make it personally relevant Make it brief “I’d advise you to change this behavior because. . .” the risks of behavior benefits of changing behavior Slide 20: Advice Example: Physical Activity “ you should get 30 minutes of physical activity most days because you have several risks for CHD and physical activity can lower all of these risks (Obesity, High LDL Cholesterol, Low HDL Cholesterol, Diabetes, Hypertension, risk of MI)” Possible Dietary Advice : Possible Dietary Advice Calories to maintain ideal body weight Less than 30% of calories from fat Low saturated and trans fat (as low as possible below 10% of calories) 20-35 grams of fiber/day At least 5 fruits and vegetables/day < 2.5 grams sodium (6 grams salt)/day 0.4 mg of folate and 1200 mg of calcium/day Less than 2 alcohol drinks/d (1 for women) The 5-A Technique : The 5-A Technique ASK ADVISE ASSESS ASSIST ARRANGE Assess : Assess Patient’s Readiness to Change: Pre-contemplation (not interested) Contemplation (within 6 months) Preparation (within a month) Action (working on it) Maintenance The 5-A Technique : The 5-A Technique ASK ADVISE ASSESS ASSIST ARRANGE Assist : Assist How to assist depends upon readiness to change and barriers to change Pre-contemplation (not interested) : Pre-contemplation (not interested) ASSISTANCE: Offer educational material Invite future inquires Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance : Contemplation, Preparation, Action, Maintenance ASSISTANCE: 1. Identify barriers to change 2. Address barriers: Provide educational materials Inform of programs available in the community Offer referral as needed for intensive counseling Barriers to Change : Barriers to Change Typical barriers might include: Hunger or withdrawal symptoms Fear of failure Lack of support (family, friends, co-workers) Depression Unrealistic goals Environmental barriers Financial concerns Barriers to Change : Barriers to Change Solutions might include: Problem solving Support groups Psychotherapy Medication Educational Materials : Educational Materials Support Programs : Support Programs Referral : Referral Psychotherapist Personal trainer Group program Health educator Dietician Counseling Services that can be Provided by Dieticians : Counseling Services that can be Provided by Dieticians Detailed diet assessment, including readiness to change and barriers to change In depth dietary counseling (counting calories, choosing healthier foods, shopping, motivational tools, food models, etc.) Frequent follow-up The 5-A Technique : The 5-A Technique ASK ADVISE ASSESS ASSIST ARRANGE ARRANGE FOLLOW-UP : ARRANGE FOLLOW-UP During current visit: schedule follow up (generally within 2 weeks) At the follow-up visit: find out how patient is doing recycle patients who have restarted unhealthy behavior or are having problems Counseling to modify lifestyle:The 5A’s : Counseling to modify lifestyle:The 5A’s Ask: assess risks Advise: give brief advice to change (all patients!) Assess: determine stage of readiness to change Assist: provide materials; identify and address barriers and/or make referrals if ready Arrange: follow-up to improve compliance And now Dr. PreVentaux will demonstrate how to counsel Ms. Winston to improve her lifestyle : And now Dr. PreVentaux will demonstrate how to counsel Ms. Winston to improve her lifestyle What are this patient’s diet and lifestyle habits? : What are this patient’s diet and lifestyle habits? Slide 41: Diet and Habit Assessment What is Ms. Winston’s stage of readiness to change her diet? : What is Ms. Winston’s stage of readiness to change her diet? 1. Pre-contemplation 2. Contemplation 3. Preparation 4. Action 5. Maintenance What is Ms. Winston’s stage of readiness to increase physical activity? : What is Ms. Winston’s stage of readiness to increase physical activity? 1. Pre-contemplation 2. Contemplation 3. Preparation 4. Action 5. Maintenance What is Ms. Winston’s stage of readiness to quit smoking? : What is Ms. Winston’s stage of readiness to quit smoking? 1. Pre-contemplation 2. Contemplation 3. Preparation 4. Action 5. Maintenance Is Dr. PreVentaux’s advice likely to help Ms. Winston lose weight? : Is Dr. PreVentaux’s advice likely to help Ms. Winston lose weight? Treating Obesity Without Frustration : Treating Obesity Without Frustration Define “success” generously Use a systematic approach: 5A’s Assess readiness to change Assess barriers to change Use appropriate tools to assess motivation Address obstacles creatively Determine whether referral is appropriate and to whom patient should be referred Frequent follow-up for patients in preparation, action, or maintenance Counseling Overweight Children : Counseling Overweight Children Step 1: Calculate BMI Step 2: Determine BMI Percentile Step 3: Interpret the Risk Step 4: Choose a course of action ARKANSAS CLINICIAN’S GUIDE TO WEIGHT PROBLEMS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS Slide 49: http://www.bcm.tmc.edu/cnrc/bodycomp/bmiz2.html Slide 50: At Risk of Overweight: Patients with a personal or family history of co-morbidities need full evaluation for overweight If no history of co-morbidities, encourage healthy lifestyle and follow up in 1 year to recheck BMI Slide 51: Overweight: Needs full evaluation and treatment for overweight Assess Overweight : Assess Overweight Age first noted Perceived causes by child and parent Prior weight loss attempts Time in sedentary activities (TV, video games, computer) Time in physical activity (sports, walking, outdoor play) Body image, family stress and any depressive symptoms Assess Co-Morbidities : Assess Co-Morbidities Family History: obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, HTN, MI, stroke PMH: chronic diseases ROS: sleep apnea, worsening asthma, exercise intolerance, reflux, limb pain, emotional difficulties, menstrual irregularities Assess Diet : Assess Diet Milk/dairy (should be 3-5 servings a day of skim or 1%) Fruits and vegetables (should be 5-9 servings a day) Intake of soft drinks and fruit and sugar drinks Fast food consumption Food behavior (large portions, skipping meals, eating while watching TV, high calorie snacking, binge eating) Slide 55: Physical Examination Body habitus, BP (age appropriate), chest, extremities, acanthosis nigricans, thyromegaly, striae Labs Cholesterol panel Consider fasting glucose if FHx of type 2 diabetes or signs of insulin resistance Other lab based on individual findings Clinical Pearls : Clinical Pearls First goal is no further weight gain. Children may "grow into" their weight as their height increases. Increase fruits and vegetables, use skim or 1% milk. Decrease sugared drinks, candy, junk and fast foods. Turn off the TV while eating. Remove unhealthy snacks from view. Put out fruits and vegetables. Regular meal times including breakfast. Child’s fist-size portions only. Limit snacking to healthy foods. Slide 57: Encourage anything that increases breathing and heart rate (brisk walking, bicycling, dancing, other sports). Work up to one hour a day. Set limits on TV, video, and computer time (2 hrs/day total). Self-monitoring is one of the most helpful tools. Have them record physical activity and diet, weigh every 2-4 weeks. Review records when patient comes back and give praise and/or problem solve. Slide 58: Parents should act as role models, play with children, and eat meals together at the table at home. If child continues to have inappropriate weight gain, reassess for compliance or the presence of emotional problems. Consider referral for problems beyond your scope of management such as co-morbidities, possible abuse or severe psychopathology Counseling Practice Session : Counseling Practice Session Objectives Determine the patient’s stage of readiness to change Provide brief, personalized advice explaining the behavior that should be changed and why Assist the patient in a manner that is appropriate for the stage of readiness to change Counseling Practice Session: : Counseling Practice Session: Logistics 4 cases For each case, one student role plays patient (script available) Two students role play physician (may tag team and or use time in-time out) Educational handouts will be available on physical activity, diet, and smoking Clinician’s guide is available for content on the pediatric case

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