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Corn-Based Ethanol and its Politics

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Information about Corn-Based Ethanol and its Politics
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Published on January 23, 2009

Author: rym87

Source: slideshare.net

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Of Bushels, Booze, and Bullocks: Currrent Event Briefing June 18,2008 Introduction to Environmental Policy Marci E. Fiedler, Colin FitzGerald, Jessica McHugh, Alejandro Gomez Palma, Carlos Rymer Corn to Ethanol Subsidies in the United States

Current Event Briefing Corn to Ethanol Subsidies in the United States Introduction Of Bushels: Corn Production, Ethanol and Price Impacts Of Booze: Energy Balance of Ethanol Conclusions Of Bullocks: The Politics of Current Subsidies

Corn to Ethanol Subsidies in the United States

Introduction

Of Bushels: Corn Production, Ethanol and Price Impacts

Of Booze: Energy Balance of Ethanol

Conclusions

Of Bullocks: The Politics of Current Subsidies

The Energy Independence and Security Act mandates the use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels, largely ethanol, by the year 2022. Federal and state tax credits subsidize ethanol production to the tune of $0.57 per gallon Introduction “ [T]he demands of America's ethanol programme alone account for over half the world's unmet need for cereals. Without that programme, food prices would not be rising anything like as quickly as they have been. ” The Economist Dec 6th 2007

The Energy Independence and Security Act mandates the use of 36 billion gallons of biofuels, largely ethanol, by the year 2022.

Federal and state tax credits subsidize ethanol production to the tune of $0.57 per gallon

56 pounds of shelled corn (after the husks and cobs are removed). Of Bushels: Corn Production , Ethanol and Price Impacts Corn Production 2007 (USDA): 13.1 Billion Bushels Up 24% from 2007. 93.6 million acres Highest level since 1944. $ 52,090,108,000 USD $ 4.00 usd/bushel 3.3 Billion Bushels ( 25 %)

56 pounds of shelled corn

(after the husks and cobs are removed).

Of Bushels: Corn Production, Ethanol and Price Impacts Gallons of ethanol 2006: 5 Billion Gallons 2006 Gasoline Consumption USA: 138 Billion Gallons Ethanol – Gasoline Equivalence: 4% of gasoline supply Wheat stocks are at their lowest level since 1980.

Of Bushels: Corn Production, Ethanol and Price Impacts “ The impact is around 3%...I invite you to do the homework… ” ''While we do have some role in higher corn prices, we're closer to a Little Bo Peep than an ax murderer…'' Vice President of USA Automotive Company President of the National Corn Growers Association “ The growing interest in ethanol fuel has other notable motives[…]: the need to diversify energy sources, the desire of many countries to meet their greenhouse gas abatement targets under the Kyoto Protocol, and the need to stabilize commodity prices and cut down on agricultural subsidies in line with WTO provisions.” Food Outlook , FAO (2006)

A Controversial Question: Does It Reduce Fossil Fuel Use? According to the US Department of Agriculture, corn-derived ethanol yields 67% more energy than is consumed during its production According to researchers at Cornell University and the University of California-Berkeley, corn-derived ethanol requires 29% more fossil energy than is produced Many other studies fall on either side of the debate

A Controversial Question: Does It Reduce Fossil Fuel Use?

According to the US Department of Agriculture, corn-derived ethanol yields 67% more energy than is consumed during its production

According to researchers at Cornell University and the University of California-Berkeley, corn-derived ethanol requires 29% more fossil energy than is produced

Many other studies fall on either side of the debate

Studies on Ethanol Energy Balance Credit : USDA

Production System Studied by Bruce Dale et al., 2002

Inputs According to Pimentel and Patzek, 2005 Energy Output Energy Input

The energy balance of corn-derived ethanol is still a very controversial topic With the high levels of inputs corn ethanol requires and current subsidies, the actual cost of ethanol is very high Ethanol derived from corn, like other biofuels derived from food crops, is a poor economic and environmental choice in general Bottom Line on Ethanol Energy Balance and Cost

The energy balance of corn-derived ethanol is still a very controversial topic

With the high levels of inputs corn ethanol requires and current subsidies, the actual cost of ethanol is very high

Ethanol derived from corn, like other biofuels derived from food crops, is a poor economic and environmental choice in general

Bullocks: The Politics of Current Subsidies $0.51-0.57 per gallon subsidy for ethanol blenders These subsidies were meant to stimulate the corn ethanol industry 7 Billion gallons in 2007 and quickly growing

$0.51-0.57 per gallon subsidy for ethanol blenders

These subsidies were meant to stimulate the corn ethanol industry

7 Billion gallons in 2007 and quickly growing

Bullocks: The Politics of Current Subsidies The subsidies are now helping drive up the cost of food as food and fuel compete for farmland 2007 Energy Bill called for a five-fold increase in ethanol production Less than half would come from corn Nevertheless, along with the subsidies, this pleases farmers and Midwestern politicians

The subsidies are now helping drive up the cost of food as food and fuel compete for farmland

2007 Energy Bill called for a five-fold increase in ethanol production

Less than half would come from corn

Nevertheless, along with the subsidies, this pleases farmers and Midwestern politicians

Bullocks: The Politics of Current Subsidies Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: These subsidies should be eliminated because they are driving up the cost of food worldwide In addition, natural landscapes are being lost to farmland

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: These subsidies should be eliminated because they are driving up the cost of food worldwide

In addition, natural landscapes are being lost to farmland

An increasing amount of domestic corn is being diverted to ethanol production as the industry grows quickly Even with the fast pace of growth, ethanol from corn will not be able to satisfy domestic transport fuel demands Ethanol production in the U.S. is having significant global impacts in food prices and greenhouse gas emissions The energy balance of ethanol derived from corn continues to be a controversial issue Politically, ethanol production is favored even if it costs the economy due to pressure from strong farm states Conclusions

An increasing amount of domestic corn is being diverted to ethanol production as the industry grows quickly

Even with the fast pace of growth, ethanol from corn will not be able to satisfy domestic transport fuel demands

Ethanol production in the U.S. is having significant global impacts in food prices and greenhouse gas emissions

The energy balance of ethanol derived from corn continues to be a controversial issue

Politically, ethanol production is favored even if it costs the economy due to pressure from strong farm states

References Martinelli, Jose Maria. 2002. Políticas públicas en el nuevo sexenio . Plaza y Valdés editores, México. Dale, E. Bruce and Kim, Seungdo. 2002. Allocation Procedure in Ethanol Production System from Corn Grain. International Journal of Life-Cycle Analysis. De Gorter, Harry and Just, David. 2008. Why new U.S. biofuel legislation is on track to waste billions of tax dollars, while subsidizing oil consumption . Cornell Chronicle: http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/May08/Perspective.deGorter.html Iowa Corn Association. “Frequently Asked Questions about Corn in Iowa “. Accessed June 17, 2008. http://www.iowacorn.org/cornuse/cornuse_20.html#harvest Pimentel, David and Patzek, Tad W. 2005. Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower. Natural Resources Research, Vol. 14, No. 1: 65-76. Shapouri, Hosein et. al. 2002. The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update . USDA. U.S. Department of Agriculture. National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). WASHINGTON, Jan. 11, 2008 http://www.nass.usda.gov/Newsroom/2008/01_11_2008.asp 1. Cover Slide: Generic photo of corn to be used for ethanol production 2. Cover Slide: 200-proof ethanol produced in a plant in Illinois, USA. https://www.eere-pmc.energy.gov/PMC_News/EERE_Program_News_3-08.aspx

Thank you. For more information, contact: Marci E. Fiedler Colin FitzGerald Jessica McHugh Alejandro Gomez Palma Carlos Rymer

For more information, contact:

Marci E. Fiedler

Colin FitzGerald

Jessica McHugh

Alejandro Gomez Palma

Carlos Rymer

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