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Published on August 13, 2012

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Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e: Presentation Package for Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Section V: Concept 16: Nutrition General Nutrition Concepts: 2 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e General Nutrition Concepts Influences of Nutrition Health Appearance Behavior Mood Role of Nutrients in Diet Growth and development Provide energy Regulate metabolism See “On the Web” 16-1 for info on general nutrition guidelines AND links to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Classes of Nutrients: 3 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates Proteins Fats Vitamins Minerals Water Subsequent slides will provide basic information about each nutrient Types of Carbohydrates (2 types): 4 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Types of Carbohydrates (2 types) Simple pop, candy, sweets, fruit individual glucose or fructose molecules Complex pasta, rice, breads, potatoes Chains of glucose molecules Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption: 5 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Trends in Carbohydrate Consumption 0 20 40 60 80 100 C A R B O H Y D R A T E S SIMPLE COMPLEX 1910 1950 1980 P E R C E N T 65% 35% 50% 50% 45% 55% See “On the Web” 16-5 for distinctions between complex and simple Low Carb Mania (What is the basis?): 6 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Low Carb Mania (What is the basis?) Proponents of low carb diets blame carbohydrates on the obesity epidemic but this is not well supported by research. The quality of carbohydrates is the real issue and it is still wise to consume quality whole grains with adequate fiber. Click icon for info on fiber Types of Protein: 7 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Types of Protein Sources of Protein Animal (complete) meats, dairy Vegetable (incomplete) beans, nuts, legumes, grains Types of Amino Acids Nonessential (14) – can be made by body Essential (8) – must be made by body Amino acids linked together Protein Requirements : 8 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Protein Requirements RDA average = .8 g/kg/day RDA athlete = 1.2-1.6 g/kg/day High levels of protein intake above 2 g/kg/day can be harmful to the body Types of Fats: 9 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Types of Fats Saturated Animal sources Solid at room temperature Unsaturated (poly- or mono-) Vegetable sources Liquid at room temperature Click icon for info on hydrogenation process H H H H H H H H H H H H H O HC-C-C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C=C-C-C-C-C-C-OH H H H H H H H H H H Click icon for info on fat content of oils See “On the Web” 16-6,7 Recommendations for Fat Consumption: 10 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Recommendations for Fat Consumption Dietary Fat Recommendations Less than 30% of calories in diet from fat Less than 1/3 of dietary fat should be saturated Ways to Decrease Intake of Fat Minimize "fast" foods Minimize processed foods Use better cuts of meats Use low fat alternatives Decrease use of condiments Eat lower fat snacks Choose foods with “artificial fats” Dietary Recommendations (2 different sets): 11 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Dietary Recommendations (2 different sets) CHO CHO (55-60%) FAT FAT (30%) PRO PRO (10-15%) Lab 16a U.S.D.A. CHO CHO (45-65%) FAT FAT (20-35%) PRO PRO (10-35%) Institute of Medicine Questions: 1. Why do the guidelines differ? 2. What is a “healthy diet”? 3. How do you calculate these percentages? calorie calculations Vitamins: 12 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Vitamins Organic substances that regulate numerous and diverse physiological processes in the body Do not contain calories Two types Fat soluble Water soluble Vitamin Guidelines: 13 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Vitamin Guidelines A balanced diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may be beneficial Extra consumption of citrus and other fruits may be beneficial Click for info on “anti-oxidants” Vitamin Supplementation?: 14 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Vitamin Supplementation? Not necessary if diet is healthy Multivitamins are safe (100% RDA) Not all vitamins are “pure” Can be toxic at high doses Minerals: 15 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Minerals Inorganic elements found in food that are essential to life processes About 25 are essential Classified as major or trace minerals RDA’s have only been determined for 7 minerals Mineral Guidelines: 16 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Mineral Guidelines A diet containing recommended servings of carbohydrates, fats and proteins will meet the RDA standards Extra servings of green and yellow vegetables may be beneficial Dietary supplementation of Calcium is beneficial for post-menopausal women Salt should be limited in the diet Click for more info on minerals Populations Who May Benefit from Supplementation: 17 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Populations Who May Benefit from Supplementation Pregnant/lactating women Alcoholics Elderly Women with severe menstrual losses Individuals on VLCD’s Strict vegetarians Individuals taking medications or with diseases which inhibit nutrient absorption Water: 18 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Water Vital to life Drink at least 8 glasses a day Click for more info on water Guidelines for Healthy Eating: 19 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Guidelines for Healthy Eating Eat regular meals (including breakfast) Eat foods from all food groups and according to the food pyramid Limit processed foods Get adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals Drink plenty of water and limit alcohol and caffeine Click icon for info on Lab 16b Follow principles in the Food Guide Pyramid PowerPoint Presentation: Does the Healthy Eating Pyramid more effectively capture the elements of a healthy diet? See the Harvard Nutrition Source website Web Resources: 21 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Web Resources “On the Web” pages for Concept Online Learning Center Supplemental Graphics: Supplemental Graphics Lab Information Additional Details on Nutrition Lab 16a Information Nutrition Analysis : 23 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Lab 16a Information Nutrition Analysis Purpose: Compare quality of “favorite diet” with your ideal “healthy diet” Procedure: Select foods from food list (Appendix D or other diet tables) and calculate calories from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Lab 16a Information Nutrition Analysis - cont.: 24 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Lab 16a Information Nutrition Analysis - cont. Protein 350 Fat 800 Carbohydrate 1400 Totals 2550 Calories % of Total Calories 13.7 31.4 54.9 100.0 Divide the calories by the total to get the percentage Return to presentation Making calorie calculations Lab 16b Information Selecting Nutritious Foods: 25 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Lab 16b Information Selecting Nutritious Foods Purpose: Evaluate the nutritional quality of your diet Procedure: Record foods consumed for two days on the Daily Diet Record. Calculate calorie intake from list in Appendix C Implications: Rate the quality of the diet according to the Rating Scale. Click icon to see other food tables Return to presentation Fiber: 26 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Fiber Soluble - decreases cholesterol levels found in oat bran, fruits and veggies Insoluble - reduces risk of colon cancer found in wheat bran and grains Recommendation: 25-40g per day Are you getting enough? Ways to Get More Fiber: 27 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Ways to Get More Fiber Eat more fruits and vegetables Eat whole grain foods A Grain of Wheat: 28 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e A Grain of Wheat BRAN - B vitamins - minerals - dietary fiber ENDOSPERM - starch - protein - some iron and B vitamins GERM - essential fats - minerals - vitamins (B's , E and folacin) Return to presentation Composition of Oils (%): 29 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Composition of Oils (%) Type Sat Poly Mono safflower 9 75 16 sunflower 10 66 24 corn 13 59 28 soybean 14 58 28 sesame 14 42 44 peanut 17 32 51 palm 49 9 42 olive 14 8 78 canola 7 35 58 Return to presentation Hydrogenation Process: 30 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Hydrogenation Process Return to presentation Fat Soluble Vitamins: 31 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Fat Soluble Vitamins Consist of Vitamins A, D, E, and K Absorbed at the small intestine in the presence of bile (a fatty substance) Overdoses can be toxic (A and D) Water Soluble Vitamins: 32 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Water Soluble Vitamins Consist of B complex and vitamin C Excesses will be excreted in the urine, however, B-6 and Niacin can be toxic when ingested in unusually large amounts Water Soluble Vitamins: 33 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Water Soluble Vitamins B-1 (thiamine) B-2 (riboflavin) B-6 (pyridoxine) B-12 (cobalamin) Niacin (nicotinic acid) Pantothenic Acid Folic Acid (folacin) Biotin C Return to presentation Antioxidant All-Stars: 34 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Antioxidant All-Stars Broccoli Cantaloupe Carrot Kale Mango Pumpkin Red Pepper Spinach Strawberries Sweet potato Minerals with established RDA guidelines: 35 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Minerals with established RDA guidelines Calcium Phosphorus Iodine Iron Magnesium Zinc Selenium Return to presentation Calcium: 36 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Calcium Important for preventing osteoporosis RDA = 800-1000 mg/day Found in dairy products and vegetables High protein diets leach calcium from bones and promote osteoporosis Return to mineral guidelines Iron: 37 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Iron Important component of hemoglobin Iron deficiency is known as anemia (Symptoms: shortness of breath, fatigue) Return to mineral guidelines Functions of Water: 38 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Functions of Water Comprises about 60% of body weight Chief component of blood plasma Aids in temperature regulation Lubricates joints Shock absorber in eyes, spinal cord, and amniotic sac (during pregnancy) Active participant in many chemical reactions Return to presentation Caloric Content of Foods: 39 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Caloric Content of Foods Carbohydrates 4 cal/g Protein 4 cal/g Fats 9 cal/g Alcohol 7 cal/g Calorie Calculation (Example): 40 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Calorie Calculation (Example) Heather consumes 2000 calories per day and wishes to obtain 20% of her calories from fat: 2000 calories x 20% = 400 calories from fat per day 400 calories from fat = 44 grams of fat/day What is Baloney?: 41 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e What is Baloney? 80% "fat free” 52 calories / slice 4 grams fat / slice Calories from fat = 4 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 36 calories Percent of calories from fat = 36 cal / 52 cal total = 69% What about Sliced Turkey?: 42 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e What about Sliced Turkey? 98% "fat free” 30 calories / slice 1 gram fat / slice Calories from fat = 1 g/slice X 9 cal/g = 9 calories Percent of calories from fat = 9 cal / 30 cal total = 30% Return to presentation Fat Substitutes: 43 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 6e Fat Substitutes Olestra Simplesse What are the dietary implications of these new food products? Return to presentation The Food Pyramid: The Food Pyramid

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