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Cooperative learning

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Information about Cooperative learning

Published on March 10, 2014

Author: fernbyfernyfloor

Source: slideshare.net

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COOPERATIVE LEARNING

DEFINITION What it IS  What it IS NOT  Based on theory and work of Johnson and Johnson 

COOPERATIVE LEARNING IS…  Applied Social Psychology  Intentional structuring of learning goals  to promote Positive Interdependence  Intentional structuring of learning goals so that students are encouraged to engage in Promotive Interaction  Promotive Interaction is more likely to occur when there are 5 key elements intentionally structured and monitored throughout the lesson.

LEARNING GOALS CAN BE STRUCTURED 3 DIFFERENT WAYS:  Cooperatively  Competitively  Individualistically

COMPETITIVE LEARNING GOALS One person can obtain her goal if and only if the other fail to obtain theirs  Negative Correlation Among Goal Attainments  Negative Interdependence  “If I swim, you sink; If you swim I sink.”  Individual Goals  Comparative (Norm referenced) evaluation  Winners are rewarded 

INDIVIDUALISTIC LEARNING GOALS        Each person’s goal attainment is unrelated to the goal attainments of others No correlation among goal attainments No Interdependence “We are each in this alone.” Individual Goals Evaluation is criterion referenced and may be limiting. Rewarded for own product.

COOPERATIVE LEARNING        When one person achieves his goal, ALL others achieve their goals Positive correlation among goal attainments Positive Interdependence “We sink or swim together.” Group Goal Evaluation is criterion referenced and encouraging. Rewarded for group product.

INTERACTION PATTERNS PROMOTIVE: Encouraging and facilitating each other’s efforts to achieve OPPOSITIONAL: Discouraging and obstructing each other’s efforts to achieve. NO INTERACTION.

RESEARCH FINDINGS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Achievement and retention Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning Differentiated views of others Accurate understanding of others’ perspectives Liking for classmates

RESEARCH FINDINGS, CONT. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Liking for teacher Positive expectations toward future interactions Liking for subject areas Social Skills Psychological health Self-esteem

5 KEY ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE COOPERATIVE LEARNING GROUPS Positive Interdependence  Individual Accountability  Face-To-Face Interaction  Direct Instruction of Social Skills  Processing 

POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE     Message from teacher Fates are tied together In your interest to help / be helped Encourages helping each other One set of answers from the group  One worksheet  Jigsaw materials (information)  One set of materials / tools to share  Bonus points  Same grade for everyone  Different colored pens  Without Positive Interdependence there may be no motivation to cooperate.

INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY The message the teacher gives to the students that tells them: 1. You must do your fair share of the work. 2. You must master the material being learned. 3. You will be held accountable for your share of the work and mastering the learning.  Using signatures  Individual Tests  Different Colored Pens  Spot Checking as Students Work  Randomly Calling on Students 

FACE-TO-FACE INTERACTION The message that students:  have a group,  need to work with their group,  need to stay with their group,  Work synchronously  Sit at round tables so they can easily see and hear one another.  Designated areas on the floor (islands)  Space between the groups so the teacher can move between groups.  “Stay with your group.” 

DIRECT INSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL SKILLS Intentionally teaching social skills like any other skill.  Structure regular opportunities for students to learn, practice and be evaluated on social skills until they become automatic.  Establishing a need for the social skill  Positively framing rules as skills  Include Social Skills in each lesson      T-chart (looks like / sounds like) Role Play what “listening” is and is not. Discuss how it feels to be listened to / ignored. Ask students to think of a time when they were listened to. How did it feel?

PROCESSING Thumbs up or Thumbs down  Rate yourself  Intentionally structured  What did someone in your time group do / say that let you  Reflect on how well we know you were being listened to? worked together / used  Observer gives data our social skills (social skills) (feedback); Discuss  Reflect on how well we  Write an goal for improving / completed our work maintaining the high quality (academic) of listening for tomorrow’s  Review data, work.  Make a goal for next time  Name 3 things your group did well in working together.  Name 1 thing your group could do even better next time. 

COOPERATIVE LEARNING LESSON PLAN COMPONENTS Lesson Objective  Group Size  Seating Arrangement (face-to-face)  Assignment of Roles  Materials  Social Skills (directly taught)  Statement of Task (positive interdependence)  Evaluation (individual accountability; include social skills)  Processing (reflection, how well we worked together, how well we mastered learning) 

FORMULATING OBJECTIVES & MAKING DECISIONS Specify Instructional Objectives  Decide on Size of Group  Assign Students to Groups  Arrange the Room  Plan Instructional Materials to Promote Interdependence  Assign Roles to Ensure Interdependence / Support Learning Social Skills 

STRUCTURING TASK & INTERDEPENDENCE Explain the Academic Task  Structure Positive Goal Interdependence  Structure Individual Accountability  Structure Inter-group Cooperation  Explain Criteria for Success  Specify Desired Behaviors 

MONITORING & PROCESSING Monitor Students’ Behavior  Provide Task Assistance  Intervene to Teach Collaborative Skills  Provide Closure to Lesson  Evaluate Quality and Quantity of Student’s Learning  Assess How Well The Group Functioned  Set Goals 

WHAT CHILDREN CAN DO TOGETHER TODAY, THEY CAN DO ALONE TOMORROW. Vygotsky, 1965

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