Published on February 25, 2014
UN CORSO DI APPRENDIMENTO BLENDED COME CONTESTO A SUPPORTO DELL’ESPRESSIONE DEMOCRATICA DI SÉ F. Feldia Loperfido Università degli Studi di Bari E-mail: email@example.com
Theoretical perspective (1) • A whole-person approach concerning identity, motivation and higher mental functions is needed to educate for sustainability (Podger, Mustakova-Possardt and Reid, 2000); • Sustainability is about cultural identities, equity, respect, society-nature relationships, development, justice, peace, conflicts, and human rights (Wals, Jicklin, 2002);
Theoretical perspective (2) – Dialogism (Bakhtin, 1930/1981, 1941/1965, trans. 1986) as a lens to understand the dynamic and intersubjective structure of the Self; – Concepts of polyphony (simultaneous association of voices) and chronotope (the inseparable connection between space and time, always colored by values and emotions); – Magistral, Socratic and Menippean dialogue (Bakhtin, 1961/1986) representing the power relations among the first, the second and the third voice;
Theoretical perspective (3) – Magistral dialogue asimmetry of interlocutors due to the asimmetry of power, discourse toward a correct meaning; – Socratic dialogue questionning and challenging of voices; – Menippean dialogue the third voice is completely mocked and rejected by the second one. – The Dialogical Self. The multiple, dynamic, and polyphonic presence of several I-positions and the unity of the Self (Hermans, 2002; Hermans, Kempen, 1993);
Aim • To investigate how the three forms of dialogue feature the Self over a blended learning experience
The context • Two blended learning courses held at the University of Bari (IT) (2008-09 and 2009-10 academic year) involving 52 burgeoning psychologists (2008-09 academic year: four males, 12 females, average age 23 years; 2009-10 academic year: 10 males, 30 females, average age 27 years) • Each course was based on the Blended Collaborative and Constructive Participation (BCCP) model (Ligorio & Cucchiara, 2011)
The BCCP model
Data collection • Eight focus group discussions about learning and identity – First course: one discussion held at the beginning (N=10) and another at the end (N= 5); – Second course: three discussions conducted at the beginning (N = 36) and three at the end (because of the higher number of students) (N = 34). All of the discussions have been audio-recorded and transcribed by using the Jefferson notation system.
Data analysis • Dialogical discourse analysis (DDA) (Wortham, 2001) looking at both narrated (what people say)and storytelling (what people act when they narrate) events; • Two steps: • 1) reading the whole data corpus to have a global view of the utterances context and to detect indexical clues (references and predication, metapragmatic descriptors, quotations, evaluative indexicals, and epistemic modalization) • 2) re-reading the data looking for interpretative inferences taking into account the context of the discourse • Two researchers first performed the two steps of analysis independently, later they compared and discussed the analysis involving a third researcher in case of divergence (about 15%).
Overview of the results Beginning End Narrated event - Actual positions: passive, not practical, traditional – other learning contexts; Potential positions: critique, collaborative, active learners – the blended context; - The first voice requires how and what the second voice has to learn and to behave; -The second voice recognizes the third voice as a system to be criticized - Actual positions: Individual, independent and traditional learners – traditional learning chronotopes; collaborative, active and critical learners – the blended course; -The first voice decides how and what the second voice has to learn. The teacher of the blended course allows the group positions and a critique approach to learning; Contradiction between learning chronotopes, similarity between blended and job chronotopes Storytelling event - Power relations researcher/students defined by the researcher When students talk about the university system they enact a collective actor against the system (a “Menippean-WePosition) Individual positions; When students talk about the blended learning strategies they enact supportive and collective voices
Beginning of the course 2008 – 09, narrated event; The second voice against the first and the third one
End of the course 2009 – 10, narrated event; A collaborative second voice against the individualism
End of the course 2009 – 10, storytelling event; A collective voice in the learning course
Conclusions • The Magistral dialogue is associated to the previous learning • • • • • experiences; System of the Self constituted by the first voice (teachers), the second one (students) and the third one (the university system); The Menippean dialogue is related to the blended course and allows students to position themselves as more collaborative, active, and able to self-defined their own learning activities; The first voice of the teacher of the blended course is perceived as opposite to the third voice; Both narrated and storytelling events change over the course as, at the end, students refer to a new structure of voices and enact at the interactional level those collaborative, critique, and active positions related to the blended course; The participation in the course based on the BCCP model sustained the formation of more democratic relationships and the distribution of power among the three voices
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