Published on October 9, 2014
1. Fig. Control unit organization
2. In the hardwired organization control unit is designed as a combinational circuit. The control unit is applied by gates, flip-flops, decoder and other digital circuits. Hardwired control units can be optimised for fast operations. Block diagram of control unit is displayed in Figure below. Major inputs to circuit are instruction register, clock, and flags. Control unit uses the opcode of instruction stored in IR register to perform various actions for various instructions.
3. The Control unit logic has unique logic input for every opcode. It simplifies the control logic. This control line selection can be executed by a decoder. A decoder will have n binary inputs and 2n binary outputs. Every one of these 2n different input patterns will trigger a single unique output line. Clock part of the control unit issues a repetitive sequence of pulses of single state duration for each micro-operation(s).
4. The required control signals are determined by 1) content of control step counter or time generation 2) content of instruction register 3)Content of condition code flags
5. Fig. A control unit and its input-output
6. The four groups of control signals distinguished in fig. have following functions Cin’ – to indicate occurrences of unusual conditions such as errors. Cin’’ , Cout’’– these signals received from other control units eg. Supervisory controller. Both are primarily used to synchronize the control unit with the operation of other units.
7. State table method Delay element method Sequence counter method
8. The Behavior of control unit is designed in the form of state table as shown in fig..
9. The different parts of a flowchart are handled as follows: 1) Between two successive steps simply a D Flip-Flop is inserted.
10. A simple delay element for synchronous control circuits
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