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Published on December 5, 2007

Author: Barbara

Source: authorstream.com

Controlling Diesel Particulate Matter Exposures in Underground Mines :  Controlling Diesel Particulate Matter Exposures in Underground Mines William H. Pomroy George P. Saseen Mine Safety and Health Administration pomroy.william@dol.gov 218-720-5448 saseen.george@dol.gov 304-547-2072 Available Control Strategies:  Available Control Strategies Ventilation Environmental Cabs Administrative Controls Diesel Engines Fuels Maintenance Biodiesel Fuel DPM Exhaust Filters Emission Reduction Exposure Controls Ventilation, Cabs and Administrative Controls:  Ventilation, Cabs and Administrative Controls DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE OF U/G MNM Miners Summary of Control Technologies VENTILATION :  VENTILATION Widely used method for DPM control DPM reduction proportional to air flow Double air flow = 50% DPM reduction Ventilation can be costly Major upgrades: 16’ dia shaft = $1000/ft Electricity: 250K cfm @ 1” WG = 40 HP 40 HP x 100 hrs/wk @ 10¢/kw-hr = $15K/yr 2x airflow = 8x HP = 8x electricity cost Q: How much air is enough? A: Depends on DPM control strategy How Much Air Is Enough? :  How Much Air Is Enough? PI = Particulate Index = Airflow quantity required to dilute DPM emissions to 1,000 µg/m3 2x PI ► 500DPM µg/m3 = 400TC µg/m3 = 308EC µg/m3 PI’s for MSHA Approved engines listed on internet (link to MSHA DPM Single Source Page) Examples: Cat 3306 PCTA 215 HP PI = 31,000 cfm Cat 3176 ATAAC 270 HP PI = 7500 cfm Boosting air flow a good start, but also need to direct air where needed Eliminate short circuits and recirculation paths Ensure coverage in all working areas and faces Series Ventilation - Room-and-Pillar:  Series Ventilation - Room-and-Pillar Intake Return Face Line Face Line Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag:  Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag Airflow Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag:  Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag Airflow Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag:  Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag Airflow Auxiliary Ventilation Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag:  Dead Ends - Fan and Vent Bag Airflow Auxiliary Ventilation Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan:  Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan Airflow Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan:  Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan Airflow Auxiliary Ventilation Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan:  Dead Ends - Free Standing Fan Airflow Auxiliary Ventilation Natural Ventilation:  Natural Ventilation NVP= 0.03”wg per 100 feet per 10oF For 100’ Shaft and 40o change (15º to 95º) NVP = 0.03 x 100/100 x 40/10 = 0.12” WG 0.12” WG ► 20K to 50K cfm (typical) 0.12” WG maximum value - - usually less! Not sufficient for DPM dilution Reverses from summer to winter Very low (sometimes zero) spring and fall Ventilation:  Ventilation Ensure sufficient air volume based on Equipment emissions – PI’s Other DPM controls Natural ventilation insufficient - need fans Distribute air where needed Brattice, long pillars, rock/waste filled CX Need to advance and maintain ventilation controls May need boosters/auxiliary fans May need to consult with mine ventilation specialist Environmental Cabs:  Environmental Cabs Environmental Cabs Can: Reduce DPM exposure and EC levels Reduce noise exposure Reduce silica dust exposure Cabs Should Be: Tight - seal openings, repair broken windows Pressurized with filtered breathing air (follow regular filter change-out schedule - 250 hr) Operated with doors/windows closed (may need air conditioning) Maintained in good condition Enclosed Cabs:  Enclosed Cabs Cab Pressurization Monitoring:  Cab Pressurization Monitoring Magnehelic gage with rubber hose extending into cab Magnehelic gage should register + 0.20“ WG or more Cab Pressurization Monitoring:  Magnehelic gage should register at least 0.20” WG. If not, check: Outside air vs. recirculate control setting. Should be set on outside air. Fan capacity vs. cab volume. Goal should be 1 air change per minute. 100 cubic foot cab requires 100 cfm pressurizer - - 300 cubic foot cab requires 300 cfm pressurizer. Openings into cab. Close and seal openings. Air filter. Replace if dirty/clogged. Intake duct. Remove obstructions, repair and seal holes/damage Cab Pressurization Monitoring Environmental Cabs:  Environmental Cabs Hoses entering cab Gap in window seal Cab air filter and pressurizing fan Administrative Controls:  Administrative Controls Control DPM exposures through operating procedures, work practices, etc. Job rotation prohibited as DPM administrative control [§57.5060(e)] Job rotation means assigning a job to more than one worker so that each worker does the assigned job for only part of a shift Job rotation spreads exposure to more workers In accordance with good industrial hygiene practice, job rotation not acceptable for control of exposure to carcinogens Examples of Work Practices:  Examples of Work Practices Work Practices Can Affect Emissions And DPM Concentrations Minimize engine idling Avoid lugging engines (low RPM - high load) Keep fuel and lube oil clean Traffic control Route traffic away from areas where miners work outside cabs Route haul trucks in return air, especially when ascending ramps loaded Limit HP in work area based on available CFM’s Schedule blasters on non-production shifts § 57.5067 (a) Engines:  § 57.5067 (a) Engines Any Diesel Engine Introduced Underground (a)(1) Have Affixed A Plate Evidencing Approval Under Subpart E of Part 7, Or Under Part 36 (a)(2) Meet Or Exceed The Applicable PM Emission Requirements Of The U.S. EPA Listed In Table 57.5067-1 MSHA Approval No.s :  MSHA Approval No.s Permissible Engines: 7E-A001 or 07-EPA030001 Non-permissible Engines 7E-B001 or 07-ENA030001 Internet Listing of MSHA Approved engines https://lakegovprod1.msha.gov/ReportView.aspx?ReportCategory=EngineAppNumbers Slide26:  MSHA Approved Diesel Engines EPA DPM Limits MSHA Table 57.5067-1:  EPA DPM Limits MSHA Table 57.5067-1 Hp < 11 0.75 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY2000 11≤ HP<25 0.60 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY2000 25≤ HP<50 0.60 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY1999 50 ≤ HP < 100 0.30 g/bhp-hr Tier 2 MY2004 100 ≤ HP < 175 0.22 g/bhp-hr Tier 2 MY2003 175 ≤ HP < 750 0.40 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY1996 Hp ≥ 750 0.40 g/bhp-hr Tier 1 MY2000 Engine Combustion Design:  Engine Combustion Design Pre 1993 Direct Injection Engines 0.5 – 1.0 gm/hp-hr. Indirect Injection (Pre Chamber) Engines 0.3 – 0.5 gm/hp-hr. Post 1993 Direct Injection Engines High Pressure Fuel Direct Injection Turbocharged Computerized Electronic Fuel Injection 0.05 – 0.2 gm/hp-hr for the higher horsepower engines 2001 - EPA Tier 2 for all horsepowers range from 0.15 g/bhp-hr to 0.60 g/bhp-hr Engine Out Emissions:  Engine Out Emissions Total Emissions = Hp specific emissions x Horsepower x Hours of use. Total Engine Out Emissions:  Total Engine Out Emissions Emissions x Horsepower x Hours = DPM Loader: 0.1 x 275 x 8 = 220 grams Drill: 0.5 x 150 x 4 = 300 grams Three Strikes and It’s Out:  Three Strikes and It’s Out Strikes: High horsepower (greater than 150), High emissions (greater than 0.3 gm/hp-hr), High use (greater than 6 hours per shift). Target Equipment: Production Loaders and Trucks (primary), Drills and Scalers (secondary) PC engines (specialty mining equipment). One bad engine can spoil the entire fleet. Clean Engines vs. Ventilation :  Clean Engines vs. Ventilation Clean engines reduce emissions by 80 to 90%. Fuel savings pay for engine in 2 to 3 years. Estimate that 80% of engines are currently Tier 1 or better. Ventilation remains important, must be able to remove DPM and other exhaust gases EPA Tier 3:  EPA Tier 3 50 ≤ HP < 100 Tier 3 MY2008 100 ≤ HP < 175 Tier 3 MY2007 175 ≤ HP < 750 Tier 3 MY2006 NOX reductions only, no change in DPM EPA Tier 4:  EPA Tier 4 Hp < 25 Tier 4 MY2008 25≤HP<75 Tier 4 MY2008 & 2013 75≤HP<175 Tier 4 MY2012 - 2014 175≤HP<750 Tier 4 MY2011 - 2014 Hp ≥ 750 Tier 4 MY2011 - 2015 Substantial DPM reductions above 25 hp Substantial NOX reductions above 75 hp Diesel Fuel:  Diesel Fuel MSHA §57.5065 requires diesel fuel with a sulfur content of less than 0.05 percent (500 ppm) EPA requirement for on-highway diesel fuel to be at 0.0015 percent (15 ppm) sulfur by mid – 2006 EPA requirement for non-road diesel fuel to be at 0.0015 percent (15 ppm) sulfur by 2010 Fuel Additives and Fuel Catalyst:  Fuel Additives and Fuel Catalyst Combustion Enhancers Cetane booster Lubricity Increasers Fuel Catalyst Devices: Rentar ECONET - Magnet technology Alternative Fuel Testing:  Alternative Fuel Testing D1 / Jet A / Kerosene – 10 to 20 % reduction Bio-Diesel Blends – 15 to 50+ % reduction Water Emulsions – 50 – 75 % reductions Synthetic Fuels – Synpar 200 and S2 – 30% reductions Synthetic Fuels:  Synthetic Fuels MSHA Laboratory Tested 2 Types SYNPAR 200 – Solvent Based S-2 – Derived from Methane Approximate 31% reduction in EC Associated 4 – 6% loss in horsepower at sea level (1000 feet) Similar Results at High Altitude, 7500 feet (simulated) Slide39:  PuriNOx™ A diesel emissions control technology A means of reducing NOx and PM from diesel engine exhaust An emulsified diesel fuel (EDF) Contains up to 20% emulsified water Stable emulsion Skim milk in appearance and consistency When dyed for off-road, looks like “Pepto Bismal” Engine Maintenance:  Engine Maintenance Cleaning: Engine, Radiators, Air/Oil Coolers Intake Systems: Air Filters, Turbo Boost Pressures, Leaks Exhaust Systems: Backpressure, Leaks Cooling Systems Fuel Systems: Proper Settings, Altitude Electronic Controlled Systems Emission Tests Exhaust Leaks:  Exhaust Leaks No holes upstream No loose joints No evidence of leaks, ie: black streaks on pipes or near exhaust outlets Check flanges on Catalytic Converters and DPM Filters Make sure Disposable Filters are Properly Sealed when installed Check backpressure gauge:  Check backpressure gauge Backpressure is an indication that the filter is loading up with dpm Each engine has maximum allowable backpressure specification. Engine specification is listed by engine manufacturer and filter manufacturer Backpressure is a good indicator for changing or cleaning the filter. If backpressure exceeds limit, then engine and filter can be damaged. Slide43:  Procedure to determine exhaust backpressure A Magnehelic gauge is normally used to measure the backpressure. Install backpressure gauge prior to the filter or other control device. Run engine at high idle and loaded engine condition Verify that backpressure is below allowable limit Slide44:  Engine Ceramic Filter Total Backpressure BP1 BP measured at BP1 can increase to the maximum allowable backpressure before the filter needs cleaned Deutz BF4M2011 - 30 inches H2O Detroit Diesel OM904LA - 44 inches H2O Catalytic Converter Slide45:  Gaseous Emission Check Torque stall the machine to achieve maximum load on the engine Use a gas analyzer that has a sample probe that can be placed directly in the exhaust gas stream, normally before any control devices The concentration or changes in concentration of CO above baseline will indicate a change in engine performance. Some mines are using a doubling of the baseline as an action level. Biodiesel:  Biodiesel DIESEL PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE OF U/G MNM Miners Summary of Control Technologies Biodiesel - What is it?:  Biodiesel - What is it? EPA registered diesel fuel Designated alternative fuel per DOT, DOE 100% biodiesel, neat biodiesel, B100 Biodiesel blend - biodiesel mixed with petrodiesel, called Bxx where xx is the volume % of biodiesel in the blend B20 – 20% biodiesel, B2 – 2% biodiesel Biodiesel is “drop-in” replacement for standard diesel. Any diesel engine will run on biodiesel. Biodiesel – Where does it come from?:  Biodiesel – Where does it come from? (Catalyst) 100 pounds + 10 pounds 10 pounds + 100 pounds Triglyceride Alcohol Glycerine Mono-Alkyl Esters Ingredients: Triglycerides………..Soy oil, corn oil, canola oil, beef tallow pork lard, used cooking oil Alcohol………………Methanol, ethanol Catalyst:………………Sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide Product: Mono-Alkyl Esters….Biodiesel Raw Vegetable Oil is NOT Biodiesel ! ! ! Biodiesel must meet ASTM D 6751-06 Biodiesel Properties:  Biodiesel Properties High Cetane number Ultra Low Sulfur (averages ~ 2 ppm) High Lubricity, even in blends as low as B1 and B2. Can blend with ULS diesel Reduces emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of sulfur, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and total hydrocarbons High flash point Solvent and cleaning properties Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Biodiesel and DPM Emissions NIOSH PRL isolated zone study, Stillwater mine at Nye, MT Simulated load-haul-dump mining cycle Cat Elphinstone R1300, 3.7 yd3 Cat 3306 DITA de-rated to 165 hp w/OCC Constant ventilation, intake in fresh air #2 diesel compared to B20 and B50 soy biodiesel fuel B20 produced 26% EC reduction B50 produced 48% EC reduction Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Biodiesel and DPM Emissions MSHA Tech Support compliance assistance at Carmeuse Lime and Stone – area samples EC reductions (compared to D2) Maysville Mine B20 (recycled vegetable oil) 35% B50 (recycled vegetable oil) 71% B50 (virgin soy oil) 49% Black River Mine B35 (recycled vegetable oil) 33% B35 (virgin soy oil) 16% Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Biodiesel and DPM Emissions Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3 500 400 300 200 100 0 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Standard D2 100% Biodiesel Detroit Salt Company, MSHA compliance samples, EC Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Biodiesel and DPM Emissions Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3 500 400 300 200 100 0 Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 Standard D2 100% Biodiesel Durham Mine, MSHA compliance samples, EC Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Biodiesel and DPM Emissions Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3 500 400 300 200 100 0 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Standard D2 99% Biodiesel Ft. Dodge Mine, MSHA compliance samples, EC Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Biodiesel and DPM Emissions Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3 500 400 300 200 100 0 Year 2003 2004 2005 2006 Standard D2 100% Biodiesel Weeping Water Mine, MSHA compliance samples, EC Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Biodiesel and DPM Emissions Elemental Carbon, EC, µg/m3 500 400 300 200 100 0 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Standard D2 100% Biodiesel Hutchinson Salt Co., MSHA compliance samples, EC Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP) study at INCO Creighton Mine, Sudbury, ON Univ. of MN, MI Tech Univ., INCO, NIOSH, CANMET, ORTECH Isolated zone, simulated L-H-D cycle Wagner ST-8, Deutz F12L413W, 275 hp, OCC Week 1: #2 diesel Week 2: B50 soy biodiesel EC reduced by 28.6% with B50 No statistically significant changes in NO or NO2 levels Biodiesel and DPM Emissions Biodiesel and DPM Emissions:  Former US Bureau of Mines research Laboratory testing Deutz/MWM 6.3 liter NA, EPA 8-mode testing DPM reduced 50% with B100 vs. #2 diesel Field testing, Homestake mine, Lead, SD Wagner 3.5 yd3 LHD, Cat 3306 PCNA, 134 hp, OCC, 6 week test DPM reduced 72-80% with B100 vs. #2 diesel Higher DPM reduction vs. lab testing attributed to heavier duty cycles in mine Miners commented on lower smoke levels Biodiesel and DPM Emissions Biodiesel DPM & Gaseous Emissions:  Biodiesel DPM & Gaseous Emissions U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) per Clean Air Act Section 211(b) B100 B20 Diesel Particulate Matter - 47% - 12% Carbon Monoxide - 48% - 12% NOX (NO + NO2) + 10% + 2% Total Hydrocarbons - 67% - 20% PAH - 80% - 13% Sulfates - 100% - 20% Biodiesel and Gaseous Emissions:  Biodiesel and Gaseous Emissions NIOSH PRL isolated zone study, Stillwater mine at Nye, MT B20 w/OCC vs. #2 diesel w/OCC CO no change (both were zero) CO2 no change NO - 5.8% NO2 - 5.5% B50 w/OCC vs. #2 diesel w/OCC CO no change (both were zero) CO2 no change NO + 4.4% NO2 + 5.5% Biodiesel Costs:  Biodiesel Costs Historically, B100 costs about $1.00 per gallon more than standard #2 diesel Blender’s federal excise tax credit amounts to 1¢ per gallon per % biodiesel (virgin feedstock), thus: B99.9 (virgin feedstock) receives federal excise tax credit of about $1.00 per gallon B50 (virgin feedstock) receives federal excise tax credit of 50¢ per gallon When diesel prices spiked in late summer 2005 and spring 2006, B100 was cheaper than #2 diesel in some areas, after tax credit applied Biodiesel Costs:  Biodiesel Costs Diesel prices, selected US cities, 06-09-2006 (fuel prices do not include taxes, tax credits or subsidies) Source: Alternative Fuels Index, EMI B100 #2 diesel ∆ w/o credit ∆ w/credit Albany, NY $3.17 $2.24 + $0.93 - $0.07 Billings, MT $3.41 $2.44 + $0.97 - $0.03 Charleston, WV $3.41 $2.30 + $1.11 + $0.11 Chicago, IL $3.31 $2.27 + $1.04 + $0.04 Indianapolis, IN $3.34 $2.26 + $1.08 + $0.08 Louisville, KY $3.37 $2.29 + $1.08 + $0.08 Pittsburgh, PA $3.40 $2.23 + $1.17 + $0.17 Seattle, WA $3.37 $2.32 + $1.05 + $0.05 US Average $3.37 $2.29 + $1.08 + $0.08 Biodiesel Availability:  Biodiesel Availability Available in all states except Alaska 8 BQ-9000 accredited producers Over 1400 commercial distributors Over 750 retail filling stations National Biodiesel Board on-line guide to buying biodiesel: http://www.nbb.org/buyingbiodiesel/guide/default.shtm Purchasers should specify fuel meeting ASTM D6751-06 requirements Slide65:  Current Biodiesel Plants 2004 Production: 25,000,000 Gallons 2005 Production: 75,000,000 Gallons Current Production Capacity: 395,000,000 Gallons Slide66:  Future Biodiesel Plants 58 Plants under construction/expansions: 714M gal 36 Plants in pre-construction phase: 755M gal Slide67:  Biodiesel Commercial Distributors Slide68:  Biodiesel Retail Filling Stations Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20):  Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20) Cold weather Below cloud point, need heated storage tanks, indoor storage, fuel line heaters, etc. Solvent/cleaning properties Biodiesel can soften and degrade certain elastomers. Need to replace natural rubber, butyl rubber, nitrile, etc. with Teflon® or Viton® Biodiesel dissolves and removes sediments from fuel tanks and lines Need to clean out tanks and lines and/or be prepared to replace filters frequently until systems fully cleaned Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20):  Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20) Long term storage stability Recommend use within 6 months of manufacture If stored longer than 6 months, should test for acid number Engine oil change intervals Due to higher viscosity, more biodiesel may pass over piston rings and into oil pan Biodiesel may polymerize and cause engine sludge problems May need to change oil more often Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20):  Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20) Energy content Biodiesel has 8-10% lower energy content than #2 diesel resulting in lower peak power output delivered by engine Generally not noticeable with B2 to B20 May be evident with high biodiesel blends when engine operates under heavy load Effect usually not significant due to mixed duty cycle (idle, low, medium, high loads) Better cleaning, lubricity may compensate Fuel usage usually higher than #2 diesel Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20):  Biodiesel Use Issues (>B20) Engine warranties Engines are warranted against defects in materials and workmanship. Engine warranties do not cover fuel, either biodiesel or standard petroleum diesel. Many manufacturers have issued “position statements” on the use of biodiesel fuel Example from Cummins on-line “fact sheet”: “Cummins neither approves or disapproves of the use of biodiesel fuel. …The use of biodiesel fuel does not affect Cummins Material and Workmanship warranty. Failures caused by the use of biodiesel fuels or other fuel additives are NOT defects of workmanship and/or materials as supplied by Cummins Inc. and CANNOT be compensated under the Cummins’ warranty.” Biodiesel and DPM Filters:  Biodiesel can produce significant DPM reductions in engines that would not be good candidates for DPM filters due to very high rates of DPM generation. Some MSHA Approved engines and older “grandfathered” engines still in use at mines may produce 0.5-1.0 g/bhp-hr of DPM Some evidence suggests that DPM passive filters regenerate at a lower temperature (≈ 20-30º C) when engines are run on biodiesel compared to standard petroleum diesel. More research data needed to verify. Biodiesel and DPM Filters Biodiesel Resources:  Biodiesel Resources National Biodiesel Board is the national trade association representing the biodiesel industry and the coordinating body for research and development in the United States. Their internet web address is: www.biodiesel.org “Biodiesel Handling and Use Guidelines” US Dept. of Energy, publication # DOE-GO-102006-2288, 2nd edition, March 2006 DieselNet, an on-line information service for clean diesel engines and diesel emissions: www.dieselnet.com Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF):  Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) Filters filter. 80 to 99% efficient. Operational issues. Control Technologies: http://www.msha.gov/01-995/Coal/DPM-FilterEfflist.pdf Haul Truck with Muffler:  Haul Truck with Muffler Haul Truck with Ceramic DPF:  Haul Truck with Ceramic DPF Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter Dirty Exhaust In Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter DPM Trapped On Substrate Through Ceramic Gases Pass Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter:  Ceramic Wall Flow DPM Filter Gases Out Effectiveness of DPM Filters:  Effectiveness of DPM Filters DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side:  DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side Substrate DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side:  DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side Substrate DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side:  DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side Substrate DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side:  DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side Substrate DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side:  DPM Builds Up On In-Take Side Substrate Back Pressure, Heavy Duty Cycle Causes Engine To Work Harder, Increasing Exhaust Temperature:  Back Pressure, Heavy Duty Cycle Causes Engine To Work Harder, Increasing Exhaust Temperature Substrate Substrate Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate :  Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate Substrate Substrate CO2 CO2 Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate:  Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate Substrate CO2 CO2 Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate:  Substrate CO2 CO2 Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate:  Substrate CO2 CO2 Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate:  Substrate CO2 CO2 Hotter Exhaust Ignites DPM DPM “Burns Off” Of Substrate CO2 Passes Through Substrate DPM Layer Removed Process Referred to as “Regeneration” :  DPM Layer Removed Process Referred to as “Regeneration” Substrate Slide99:  Regeneration of Ceramic Filters Passive - Ceramic Filters are regenerated on board the machine. Exhaust gas temperature is used to generate the heat needed to burn off the dpm Active - Ceramic Filters are regenerated either on board or off board the machine. An external heat source is needed to burn off the dpm May be combination of both passive and active If the correct regeneration method is not used, the filter will clog with dpm Choosing a Ceramic DPF :  Choosing a Ceramic DPF NIOSH and MSHA developed a DPF Selection Guide http://www.msha.gov/nioshmnmfilterselectionguide/dpmfilterguide.htm Provides information for choosing the correct DPF, Do’s and Don'ts Exhaust Temperature Profiles/Traces How to apply the information Guidelines for Passive Regeneration DPF:  Guidelines for Passive Regeneration DPF Based on temperature profile of engine exhaust, if: T30% >550oC, Uncatalyzed “bare” trap, T30% >420oC, Base-metal catalyzed trap, T30% >365oC, Heavily Pt-catalyzed trap, T30% >330oC, Lightly Pt-catalyzed trap plus fuel borne catalyst. Bolter, Caterpillar 3306 DITA 39% @ 370oC:  Bolter, Caterpillar 3306 DITA 39% @ 370oC 972 Loader, Caterpillar 3306 B 34% @ 470oC:  972 Loader, Caterpillar 3306 B 34% @ 470oC Cannon Drill, Caterpillar 3306 PC 51% @ 390oC:  Cannon Drill, Caterpillar 3306 PC 51% @ 390oC Cannon Drill, Caterpillar 3304 PC 30% @ 480oC :  Cannon Drill, Caterpillar 3304 PC 30% @ 480oC Cannon Drill, Caterpillar 3306 DITA 51% @ 350oC :  Cannon Drill, Caterpillar 3306 DITA 51% @ 350oC Slide107:  Filter Section Guide Matches Exhaust Temperature Data to Available DPF Technology Example Slide108:  Active Systems Off – Board Regeneration Keep DPM filter small enough for one person to handle Locate for easy access Gas-tight, quick connects Develop exchange logistics: When, Where, How to Transport Active Systems On Board Regeneration:  Active Systems On Board Regeneration Located anywhere in exhaust, not depend on temperature Requires off-duty time or between shifts Controller subject to shock and vibration High Temperature “Synthetic” Filter Media:  High Temperature “Synthetic” Filter Media 80-99% Efficient Operating Time Will Vary Between Replacement Temperature Limit – 650 F May require a heat exchanger prior to media Filter Location Disposable Diesel Particulate Reactor TM:  Diesel Particulate Reactor TM Substrate is a catalytic emissions reduction system Woven stainless steel alloy fabric cartridge that is brazed to solidify the unit. Designed to bridge gap between DOC and ceramic/synthetic based media Rypos:  Rypos • Sintered metal fibers can be designed to achieve any filter efficiency by changing fiber sizes, porosity, and thickness of filter medium. •Active Regeneration DPF where the Filter element is the Heating element Automatic regeneration cycles Pressure and temperature sensing can be used to initiate regeneration cycles Terex TR-70 Haul Truck 700 hp engine:  Terex TR-70 Haul Truck 700 hp engine Fleetguard Longview Lean NOX Catalyst Filter:  Fleetguard Longview Lean NOX Catalyst Filter Ceramic – Silicon Carbide Catalyzed Filter Media Injects fuel prior to the filter to reduce NOX emissions using a NOX reducing catalyst Passive Regeneration - Requires exhaust gas temperature of 500o F (260o C) at least 25% of the operating time. Must temperature profile machine DPM Exposure Estimator:  DPM Exposure Estimator Conduct simulation to assist in developing control strategy. Need to measure exposures. Need to assess engines and use. Need to determine air flows. Area Sampling Locations:  Area Sampling Locations Mine Intake Mine Exhaust Section Exhaust Blaster Loader Outside Loader DPM Estimator:  DPM Estimator Equipment Engine Horsepower Emissions Hours of Use Disclaimer:  Disclaimer The Department of Labor has developed this presentation to assist the mining industry in complying with the DPM final rule. This is a process that is continually under development. While we try to keep the information timely and accurate, we make no guarantees. We will make an effort to correct errors brought to our attention.

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